Causes of WW1

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Objective: To analyze the causes of World War I.

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Causes of World War I - M A N I A ilitarism – policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war lliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another ationalism – pride in or devotion to one’s country mperialism – when one country takes over another country economically and politically ssassination – murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand MANIA

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Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. Militarism 1. Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies

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By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances. The alliances made it more likely that a war would start. Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread. Alliances

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Imperialism All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory. The British feared Germany in Africa. The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans

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Nationalism This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence. In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule.

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Imperialism: European conquest of Africa

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One of the major reasons for bad relations amongst the nations of Europe in the years before 1914 was that they were engaged in a struggle to obtain overseas colonies. Although this happened in several areas of the world, the most dramatic changes took place in Africa. Many nations took part in what became known as the “Scramble for Africa”. The following map shows the territory gained by each nation, and explains why the race to gain colonies played a part in the build-up of international tensions which eventually resulted in World War One.

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BRITISH COLONIES Britain had managed to get some of the most valuable land in Africa. The most important gain was Egypt because of the Suez Canal. This provided a much quicker and safer route to India – the “Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire. EGYPT SUDAN BRITISHEAST AFRICA NIGERIA RHODESIA BECHUANALAND SOUTH AFRICA

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FRENCH COLONIES France had also built up a large colonial empire, mostly in the north west of Africa. This had caused problems and there had been serious arguments over colonies such as Morocco and Tunis. Arguments over colonies caused bad feeling between Britain and France.

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GERMAN COLONIES Germany did not enter the race for colonies until very late and, as a result, much of the land gained was not very valuable. Despite this, Kaiser William II was determined that Germany should have a major empire. KAMERUN GERMANEAST AFRICA GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA

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ITALIAN COLONIES Italy did gain a few colonies but also had its failures. It tried to take over Tunis but was beaten to it by France. It tried to take over Abyssinia but failed.

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BELGIAN COLONIES Even tiny Belgium had an African colony – the Belgian Congo. This was one of the reasons that Kaiser William II of Germany decided that his country must also have colonies.

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This crisis passed, but these disputes simply made international relations worse. The bad feeling they created (combined with other factors) made the possibility of war more likely.

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Triple Entente: Triple Alliance: Causes of WWI - Alliances Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Great Britain France Russia

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Causes of WWI - Nationalism Pan-Germanism  - movement to unify the people of all German speaking countries Austria * Belgium Denmark Iceland Germany * Liechtenstein * Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland * United Kingdom * = German speaking country Germanic Countries

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Causes of WWI - Nationalism Pan-Slavism  - movement to unify all of the Slavic people

Imperial, territorial, and economic rivalries led to the “Great War” between the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey) and the Allies (U.S., Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Montenegro, Portugal, Italy, and Japan). About 10 million combatants killed, 20 million wounded. : 

Imperial, territorial, and economic rivalries led to the “Great War” between the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey) and the Allies (U.S., Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Montenegro, Portugal, Italy, and Japan). About 10 million combatants killed, 20 million wounded.

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The “Spark”

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Causes of WWI - Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28th, 1914.

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Causes of WWI - Assassination Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia.

The War BeginsAustrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip (June 28). Austria declares war on Serbia (July 28). Germany declares war on Russia (Aug. 1), on France (Aug. 3), invades Belgium (Aug. 4). Britain declares war on Germany (Aug. 4). Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg on Eastern Front (Aug.). First Battle of the Marne (Sept.). German drive stopped 25 miles from Paris. By end of year, war on the Western Front is “positional” in the trenches. : 

The War BeginsAustrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip (June 28). Austria declares war on Serbia (July 28). Germany declares war on Russia (Aug. 1), on France (Aug. 3), invades Belgium (Aug. 4). Britain declares war on Germany (Aug. 4). Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg on Eastern Front (Aug.). First Battle of the Marne (Sept.). German drive stopped 25 miles from Paris. By end of year, war on the Western Front is “positional” in the trenches.

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Causes of WWI - Assassination Gavrilo Princip after his assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

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The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia. Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary.· example of Pan-German nationalism Russia pledged their support for Serbia.· example of Pan-Slavic nationalism

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The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.

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World War I Allied Powers: Central Powers: Great Britain France Russia Italy Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire

May 7, 1915May 7, 1915 brought the United States into World War I. A German submarine sank the British ocean liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. More than 1,000 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. The people of the United States were shocked! Wilson did not declare war, but instead asked Germany for an apology, for damages to be paid, and for a promise not to attack any more passenger ships. Italy then entered the war for the Allies and attacked Austria-Hungary from the south. : 

May 7, 1915May 7, 1915 brought the United States into World War I. A German submarine sank the British ocean liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. More than 1,000 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. The people of the United States were shocked! Wilson did not declare war, but instead asked Germany for an apology, for damages to be paid, and for a promise not to attack any more passenger ships. Italy then entered the war for the Allies and attacked Austria-Hungary from the south.

Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 In February, 1915, the German government announced an unrestricted warfare campaign. This meant that any ship taking goods to Allied countries was in danger of being attacked. This broke international agreements that stated commanders who suspected that a non-military vessel was carrying war materials, had to stop and search it, rather than do anything that would endanger the lives of the occupants. : 

Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 In February, 1915, the German government announced an unrestricted warfare campaign. This meant that any ship taking goods to Allied countries was in danger of being attacked. This broke international agreements that stated commanders who suspected that a non-military vessel was carrying war materials, had to stop and search it, rather than do anything that would endanger the lives of the occupants.

Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 The Lusitania, was at 32,000 tons, the largest passenger vessel on transatlantic service, left New York harbour for Liverpool on 1st May, 1915. It was 750ft long, weighed 32,500 tons and was capable of 26 knots. On this journey the ship carried 1,257 passengers and 650 crew. : 

Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 The Lusitania, was at 32,000 tons, the largest passenger vessel on transatlantic service, left New York harbour for Liverpool on 1st May, 1915. It was 750ft long, weighed 32,500 tons and was capable of 26 knots. On this journey the ship carried 1,257 passengers and 650 crew.

Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 At 1.20pm on 7th May 1915, the U-20, only ten miles from the coast of Ireland, surfaced to recharge her batteries. Soon afterwards Captain Schwieger, the commander of the German U-Boat, observed the Lusitania in the distance. Schwieger gave the order to advance on the liner. The U20 had been at sea for seven days and had already sunk two liners and only had two torpedoes left. He fired the first one from a distance of 700 metres. : 

Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 At 1.20pm on 7th May 1915, the U-20, only ten miles from the coast of Ireland, surfaced to recharge her batteries. Soon afterwards Captain Schwieger, the commander of the German U-Boat, observed the Lusitania in the distance. Schwieger gave the order to advance on the liner. The U20 had been at sea for seven days and had already sunk two liners and only had two torpedoes left. He fired the first one from a distance of 700 metres.

Watching through his periscope it soon became clear that the Lusitania was going down and so he decided against using his second torpedo. After a second, larger explosion, the Lusitania rolled over and sank in eighteen minutes. A total of 1,198 people died (785 passengers and 413 crew). Those killed included 128 US citizens. : 

Watching through his periscope it soon became clear that the Lusitania was going down and so he decided against using his second torpedo. After a second, larger explosion, the Lusitania rolled over and sank in eighteen minutes. A total of 1,198 people died (785 passengers and 413 crew). Those killed included 128 US citizens.

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Americans were infuriated with the destruction of the Lusitania.

Important Strategies of World War I AlliancesTwo powerful groups called alliances were created. The Central Powers were led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. Many Americans who had come from Germany favored the Central Powers. The Allied Powers were led by Great Britain, France and Russia. Those who had come from Great Britain rooted for the Allies. : 

Important Strategies of World War I AlliancesTwo powerful groups called alliances were created. The Central Powers were led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. Many Americans who had come from Germany favored the Central Powers. The Allied Powers were led by Great Britain, France and Russia. Those who had come from Great Britain rooted for the Allies.

Neutrality Neutrality was the stance taken by the majority of Americans towards the war. They felt that Europe was too far away and that its conflicts were not trustworthy. President Wilson also believed that all Americans needed to "act and speak in a spirit of neutrality." : 

Neutrality Neutrality was the stance taken by the majority of Americans towards the war. They felt that Europe was too far away and that its conflicts were not trustworthy. President Wilson also believed that all Americans needed to "act and speak in a spirit of neutrality."

Trench Warfare The two armies dug trenches to protect themselves from bullets and bombs. Then they put up mazes of barbed wire around the trenches. The area between the trenches was called "no man's land." Soldiers ate and slept in the trenches. First one side, and then the other would try to break through at some point along the line. It was very difficult for either side to win a battle this way, and trench warfare claimed many lives. : 

Trench Warfare The two armies dug trenches to protect themselves from bullets and bombs. Then they put up mazes of barbed wire around the trenches. The area between the trenches was called "no man's land." Soldiers ate and slept in the trenches. First one side, and then the other would try to break through at some point along the line. It was very difficult for either side to win a battle this way, and trench warfare claimed many lives.

The Big Four Leaders of World War I The Big Four Leaders gathered at Versailles in January 1919 to write a formal treaty for peace. : 

The Big Four Leaders of World War I The Big Four Leaders gathered at Versailles in January 1919 to write a formal treaty for peace.

Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson, the President of the United States at the time of war, represented the United States in Versailles himself. He had a difficult time convincing the other three leaders to accept his idea of peace without victory. Wilson was forced to agree that Germany had caused the war. : 

Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson, the President of the United States at the time of war, represented the United States in Versailles himself. He had a difficult time convincing the other three leaders to accept his idea of peace without victory. Wilson was forced to agree that Germany had caused the war.

David Lloyd George David Lloyd George was the British Prime Minister who represented the United Kingdom. During their talks, George put the needs of his own nation first. : 

David Lloyd George David Lloyd George was the British Prime Minister who represented the United Kingdom. During their talks, George put the needs of his own nation first.

Vittorio   Orlando Vittorio Orlando, the Italian Prime Minister, also put the needs of his nation first during talks. : 

Vittorio   Orlando Vittorio Orlando, the Italian Prime Minister, also put the needs of his nation first during talks.

Georges Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau, the French Premier, wanted to make Germany pay for the entire cost of the war since most of the fighting took place on French soil. : 

Georges Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau, the French Premier, wanted to make Germany pay for the entire cost of the war since most of the fighting took place on French soil.

Peace Treaty Signed at Versailles, 1919 The Parisians had a parade after the signing of the Treaty at Versailles marking the end of World War I. Notice the sign at the top of this photograph that reads: "Vive Wilson." : 

Peace Treaty Signed at Versailles, 1919 The Parisians had a parade after the signing of the Treaty at Versailles marking the end of World War I. Notice the sign at the top of this photograph that reads: "Vive Wilson."

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EVENTS AND CAUSES OF WORLD WAR ONE 1871 - UNIFICATION OF GERMANY . DEFEAT OF FRANCE. FRENCH DESIRE FOR REVENGE – RECOVER ALSACE AND LORRAINE MILITARY ‘ARMS RACE’ BEGINS BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY. ARMIES INCREASE IN SIZE. 1888 - WILHELM II BECOMES KAISER. HIS AMBITIONS FOR GERMANY RAISE TENSIONS BETWEEN THE GREAT POWERS. 1879-1907: FORMATION OF THE ALLIANCE SYSTEMS: TRIPLE ALLIANCE: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. TRIPLE ENTENTE: France, Russia, Great Britain. NAVAL RACE 1906-1914; WILHELM’S AMBITIONS FOR EMPIRE THREATENS BRITAIN’S SECURITY 1908-1914 - RIVALRY IN THE BALKANS BETWEEN SERBIA AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY JULY 1914 - ASSASSINATION AT SARAJEVO

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