coal and petroleum,yogita bisht

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SCIENCE PROJECT :

SCIENCE PROJECT CHAPTER-5 COAL AND PETROLEUM

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION We use various materials for our basic needs. Some of them are found in nature and some have been made by human efforts. Since all these are obtained from nature, they are called natural resources .

These resources can be broadly classified into two kinds: Classification of Natural Resources :

These resources can be broadly classified into two kinds: Classification of Natural Resources Inexhaustible Natural Resources Exhaustible Natural Resources

Inexhaustible Natural Resources :

Inexhaustible Natural Resources These resources are present in unlimited quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. Examples are: sunlight, air.

Exhaustible Natural Resources :

Exhaustible Natural Resources The amount of these resources in nature is limited. They can be exhausted by human activities . Examples of these resources are forests, wildlife, minerals ,coal , petroleum , natural gas etc. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are exhaustible natural resources. These were formed from the dead remains of living organisms (fossils). So, these are all known as fossil fuels.

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Some exhaustible natural resources like coal, petroleum and natural gas were formed from the dead remains of living organisms(fossils). So, these are all known as fossils fuels.

COAL:

COAL It is as hard as stone and is black in color. Coal is one of the fuels used to cook food. Earlier, it was used in railway engines to produce steam to run the engine. It is also used in thermal power plants to produce electricity. Coal is also used as a fuel in various industries. When heated in air, coal burns and produces mainly carbon dioxide gas.

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As coal contains mainly carbon, the slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization. Coal is processed in industry to get some useful products such as coke, coal tar and coal gas.

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Story of co al About 300 years ago the earth had dense forests in low lying wetland areas . Due to natural process like flooding , these forests got buried under the soil . As more soil deposited over them , the were compressed . The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper .under high pressure and high temperature , dead plants got slowly converted to coal . Since it was formed from the remains of vegetation , coal is also called as a fossil fuel .

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Coal mine

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A). Coke It is a tough, porous and black substance. It is almost pure form of carbon. Coke is used in the manufacture of steel and in the extraction of many metals. B). Coal tar It is a black, thick liquid with unpleasant smell. It is a mixture of about 200 substances. Products obtained from coal tar are used as starting materials for manufacturing various substances used in everyday life and in industry, like synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, paints, photographic materials, roofing materials, etc.

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C). Coal gas Coal gas is obtained during the processing of coal to get coke. It is used as a fuel in many industries situated near the coal processing plants.

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Coal tar coke coal

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Petrol is used as a fuel in light automobiles such as motor cycles/ scooters and cars. Heavy motor vehicles like trucks and tractors run on diesel. Petrol and diesel are obtained from a natural resource called petroleum. Petroleum was formed from organisms living in the sea. As these organisms died, their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea and got covered with layers of sand and clay. Petroleum Continued in next page

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Over millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas. Natural gas is formed above this petroleum oil. Petroleum jelly Petroleum sodium-petroleum- sulfonate

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The world’s first oil well was drilled ii Pennsylvania , USA , in 1859 . Eight years later , in 1867 , oil was struck at Makum in Assam . In India oil is found in Assam , Gujarat , Mumbai high and in the river basins of Godavari and Krishna . Refining of Petroleum Petroleum is a dark oily liquid. It has an unpleasant odor. It is a mixture of various constituents such as petroleum gas, petrol, diesel, lubricating oil, paraffin wax, etc. The process of separating the various constituents/ fractions of petroleum is known as refining. It is carried out in a petroleum refinery.

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Petroleum refinery

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Petroleum and natural gas deposits

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Various constituents of petroleum and their uses. S .no. CONSTITUENTS OF PETROLEUM USES 1. Petroleum Gas in liquid form (LPG ) F uel for home and industry 2. Petrol Motor fuel, aviation fuel, solvent for dry cleaning 3. Kerosene Fuel for stoves, lamps and for jet aircrafts

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4. D iesel Fuel for heavy motor vehicles, electric generators 5. Lubricating oil Lubrication 6. Pa raffin wax Ointments , candles, Vaseline etc. 7. Bitumen Paints , road surfacing

Natural Gas:

Natural Gas Natural gas is a very important fossil Fuel. Natural gas is stored under high pressure as compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG is used for power generation. It is now being used as a fuel for transport vehicles because it is less polluting. It is a cleaner fuel. The great advantage of CNG is that it can be used directly for burning in homes and factories where it can be supplied through pipes. Natural gas is also used as a starting material for the manufacture of a number of chemicals and fertilizers.

Some Natural Resources are Limited:

Some Natural Resources are Limited Some natural resources are exhaustible like fossil fuels, forests, minerals etc. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels. It required the dead organisms millions of years to get converted into these fuels. On the other hand, the known reserves of these will last almost a few hundred years. Moreover, burning of these fuels is a major cause of air pollution. Their use is also linked to global warming. It is therefore necessary that we use these fuels only when absolutely necessary. This will result in better environment, smaller risk of global warming and their availability for a longer period of time.

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In India, the Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) advises people how to save petrol/diesel while driving. Their tips are: · Drive at a constant and moderate speed as far as possible, · Switch off the engine at traffic lights or at a place where you have to wait, · Ensure correct tyre pressure, and · Ensure regular maintenance of vehicle.

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THANKYOU BY YOGITA BISHT VIII B