ASU History and Theory-Lecture 8-Ancient Egyptian b 23-12-2017

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ASU – Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering Department of Architectural Engineering ARC 122: History Theory of Architecture Fall 2017 Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Lecture 8 - Ancient Egyptian b Graphic History of Architecture

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Second Intermediate Period

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Location of Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

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The New kingdom The era of Temples

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples • It was characterized by powerful rulers who brought Egypt to a powerful cultural and political position in the world. • The kingdom was mainly characterized by separating the tomb from the temple. This means that they concealed the Pharaohs body in the cliffs away from the Luxury temples.

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples • The designed a separate royal necropolis away from the temple. • This necropolis was located behind the Deir el Bahary temple in the Valley of the Kings and Queens. – Separate Temples – Separate Necropolis for kings and queens

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples • The most important temple is the Dair El Bahary built by Hatshepsut the daughter of Thohotmus II. The architect Senmut was responsible for building her magnificent temple. • She was buried as per the tradition of the new kingdom away from her temple that was dedicated to Ammon Ra the God Sun. • The temple design is based on two ramps and three terraces. Each terrace acts as a retaining wall for the following one. The design echoes Menhotep terraced temple beside it.

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples • The columns in the terraces reflects the finishing levels of the structure. As we raises the levels of ornamentations and finishes raises also. It starts by plain columns in the first terrace followed by fluted columns as a reflection of the proto Doric columns in the following terraces. This is a clear evidence of the Egyptian influence of the Greek architecture yet to come. The terraces were planted with aromatic trees and palms to create a garden of Ammon. They were irrigated by buried pipes supplying water to these plantation to sustain their growth. These terraces echoed the hanging garden of Babylonia.

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples • This temple reflected new design concepts and criteria: – Axiality – Symmetry – Soft and hard scape – The art of detailing. – Elaborate design and high quality design – Grandeur and wealth

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples • The Karnack temple is another example of wealth and grandeur. It was enriched by Obelisks. It reflected new design concepts and ideas: – Axiality – Symmetry – Scale – Telescopic section – Art of detailing – The concept of body and building – Columns open and closed Lotus – Screens as a new design concept – Using water as a design feature – Sense of mystery

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples Ideas that were echoed in Future Architecture 1 The hypostyle hall designed by Ramses II is the main feature of the temple with its strong sense of axiality and symmetry with its two column typologies open and closed lotus column capitals. The closely spaced columns created a dim interior that was overcome by clear story windows between the columns. This flittered light created a sense of mystery in the interior. This new sense was echoed lately in the design of Laurencin library by Michel Angelo.

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples Ideas that were echoed in Future Architecture 2 The concept of the sacred lake in the temple was a purification place. This concept was echoed as a design principle in El- Hambra Palace in Spain with its reflection of the Quran. 3 Screens as a new design concept was presented in the form of pylons. These pylons marked the procession of the Pharaoh and directed to the sanctuary where the Pharaoh statue rests. the sun rays 4 The telescopic section of the roof and the wall as a new sense of directionality in architectural design.

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples 5 The transformation of the whole society to a mono atheistic society. The society worshipped the sun as the new God. 6 The new capital of Thebes was transformed to the new capital of Tal El Amarna. Memphis -------- Thebes -------- Tal El Amarna 7 Monumentality 8 Light as a design principle 9 Body and Building design concept: columns are in the form of body.

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Ramses II • He was considered the greatest most celebrated and the powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. • Ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC • The early part of his reign was focused on building cities temples and monuments. • Ramses erected monuments up and down the Nile river in tribute to his victory over the Sumerians.

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Abu Simbel

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The New kingdom: The era of Temples • After Ramses II Egypt started to decline and began long trip towards decadence and ceased to be an influential city in both art and culture. • The Greek culture as anew culture in opposite side of the Mediterranean Sea

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Middle and New Kingdom: Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples • Mortuary Complex of Mentuhotep II – Located at the base of the cliff at Dier el Bahari – The first monumental structure against the Nile Valley cliffs in Egyptian architecture – Huge complex developed some 500 years after the decline of the pyramids

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Middle and New Kingdom: Middle Kingdom Mortuary Temples • Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut – Dedicated to the sun god Amon-Ra – Located next to the Mortuary Complex of Mentuhotep II • Built some 500 years later – Considered the “least Egyptian” of the Egyptian monuments • Closest Egyptians ever came to the architecture of Classical Greece

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Dier el Bahary

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Dier el Bahary

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The Middle Kingdom. The Era of Life and Death. The Synthesis Between Temples and Tombs • The middle kingdom was terminated by the arrival of the Hoksos. They invaded and ruled Egypt for100 years. It was characterized by: – Introduction of metal – The wheel as a means of transportation – New gods and new deities – New weapons Bow and Arrow.

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Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples • Thebes – Originally built in two locations on the East bank of the Nile River – Known today as Karnak and Luxor – Connected by great avenues of Sphinxes

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Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples

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Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples • Thebes – Temple of Khons • Erected around 1100 B.C. • Original temple that other structures would be modeled after in the construction of Thebes Photo: Sullivan

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Middle and New Kingdom: New Kingdom Mortuary Temples • Thebes – Temple of Amun • Features two giant obelisks that were created for visual accent to the structure – Obelisks tested Egyptian builders to the full » Great complexity detail and sheer size – Created from two giant stones

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Egyptian Architectural Characteristics • Egyptians commonly imitated nature in their architecture – In a historical sense nature is a key element in architecture no matter the culture – Only recently has this process been neglected

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Ancient Egyptian architecture revival Examples

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Constitutional Court in Egypt - Mito Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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Higher Court Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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Higher Court Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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Mausoleum of Saad Zaghloul Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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Giza Railway Station Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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Giza Railway Station Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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Medical College of Virginia 1845 Thomas Stewart Richmond VA Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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The Luxor Hotel Las Vegas USA Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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Krasnoyarsk regional museum. Krasnoyarsk Russia 1913–29 Ancient Egyptian architecture revival

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National Museum of Beirut 1930–37 Beirut

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Thank You.

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Temple of Horus at Edfu is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture.