GUC ARCT 702 Legislations - Lecture 9 - Building Codes 1 15-11-2018

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GUC – German University in Cairo Architecture and Urban Design ARCH 702 Legislation, Professional Practice and Contracts Fall 2018 Instructor: Dr. Yasser Mahgoub:

GUC – German University in Cairo Architecture and Urban Design ARCH 702 Legislation, Professional Practice and Contracts Fall 2018 Instructor : Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Lecture 9 Building Codes and Regulations 1 1


Introduction Building Codes & Regulations and: Public welfare Important for design Compliance with them is essential Violation of them cause: injury to building users legal liability revocation of license ………. Jail !!!

Building Code History - World:

Building Code History - World 1700 or 1800 B.C. Code of Hammurabi : "builders responsible for a structural collapse resulting in loss of life would loose their lives." Ancient Athens officials could condemn unsafe buildings 27 AD Rome : Amphitheater collapse results in laws about public buildings

Building Code History - World:

Building Code History - World 1189 London : The Court of Buildings enacted Required firewalls 3 ’ (90 cm) thick and 16’ (480 cm) tall 1630 Boston : “no man shall build his chimney with wood nor cover his roof with thatch.”

The Modern Building Code:

The Modern Building Code Complex document Protecting : building occupants, firefighters and emergency personnel, the building itself, and the community From : fire structural collapse health and safety hazards

The Purpose of Building Codes:

The Purpose of Building Codes Provide minimum standards To safeguard life , limb, health, property and public welfare By regulating the: design , construction, quality of materials, use and occupancy, location and maintenance of all buildings within this jurisdiction .


Coverage Specific design and construction requirements, based on the occupancy , building height , floor area , availability of fire-fighting capacity , and other factors Required fire resistance of structural elements , floor, ceilings, and fire and party walls


Coverage Restrictions on building height Requirements for compartmentation (fire areas) Fire protection systems Flame-spread ratings for finishes


Coverage Egress requirements , such as stairs, corridors, and doors Access and egress requirements for disabled persons Light, ventilation, and other indoor environment requirements


Coverage Requirements for energy conservation Structural requirements for building components Materials performance and specifications Requirements for building services systems


Approaches Code provisions may be written in one of two ways : Prescriptive requirements Performance requirements


Approaches Prescriptive requirements : M ethods and materials that must be used in the building (ex. Wall thickness) … Preferred by building officials …Easier to administer and enforce .


Approaches 2. Performance requirements : Desired results (ex. Wall that withstand a certain amount of wind load) … Preferred by architects … Flexible

Standards :

Standards Standards by reference. Manufacturing and Performance guidelines developed by committees of those involved with materials. Provide consistent approaches to products and processes .


Even if there is no code , architects are expected to use reasonable care in protecting health and welfare .


Enforcement Done by Central agency Building Department Activities Review drawings Issue building permits Periodically inspect the project for conformance Maintain public records

Multiple permits:

Multiple permits A project may require several permits as it proceeds. Building permit : to begin construction Other permits : to close in a structure or to begin using plumbing or electricity Certificate of Occupancy : Before building may be occupied

Other Building Regulations:

Other Building Regulations Fire prevention codes and ordinances Housing codes and ordinances Health codes and ordinances (e.g. for restaurants and social clubs) Licensing requirements (e.g. for hospitals, nursing homes, dry cleaners, and day care centers)

Variances and Appeals:

Variances and Appeals Administrative (non judicial process) --- community boards Seeking relief from requirements through variances , exceptions , and other mechanisms. Variance applies only to the situation at hand; it does not create a precedent for subsequent projects .

Codes in Design Practice:

Codes in Design Practice The Architect's duty An architect failing to design in compliance with the code or regulation may be subject to an allegation of negligence .

Judicial Relief:

Judicial Relief Through courts Once administrative appeals are exhausted, judicial relief can be sought. Penalties Stop construction for noncompliance Civil liabilities Revocation of the license to practice architecture Fine Jail sentence !!!

Codes in Design Practice:

Codes in Design Practice Using building codes in practice The architect is challenged to fulfill the code's requirements while considering the best interests of the client's economic and functional needs .

Codes in Design Practice:

Codes in Design Practice Code search: To identify applicable codes, regulations, and standards for the project. Code provision should be perceived as " ingredients" and not an "optional" layer of information for design . Normally they allow multiple solutions

Codes in Design Practice:

Codes in Design Practice Schematic design Codes provide fundamental design parameters : site placement building size height , and interior layout) as well as design and construction details.

Codes in Design Practice:

Codes in Design Practice Construction documents It is essential that all code requirements be checked and incorporated into the project as the project progresses through design development into construction documents .






What is an architect's primary duty ?  To provide clients with solutions that meet their goals  To create aesthetically appealing, economically responsible, and sustainably conscious buildings  Protect the public's health, safety, and welfare  Grow and develop the profession of architecture


In a design-bid-build project, what advantages may be observed, compared to other methods of delivery?  Select two that apply .   The contractor and client have a strong, harmonious relationship  Extensions and changes can be made to the design without affecting budget  Linear and simple process from inception to completion of the project  Coordination between client , architect and contractor is relatively straightforward  Relatively lower risk of disputes between the contractor and client


Which activities may an architect engage in?   Select the three that apply .  Advertise, as long as no misleading or false statements are made  Replace another architect on a project  Accept projects beyond their professional capacity  Offer free design services for the purpose of securing a commission, as long as the prospective client is not deceived or misled  Accept payment to influence public judgment


As the principal architect of a firm, which of the following should be avoided to ensure prompt payment by clients?  Select the three that apply .  Design changes  Late submission of invoices  Not following up on late invoices  Including a breakdown of time spent on particular projects  Incomplete invoices


For a particular client, the cost of construction is the most crucial factor in selecting the delivery method for a high rise project. The client decides to go for the design-bid-build method of delivery. What statements about this type of project delivery is true?  Select the two that apply .   The bid documents need to be drawn and detailed well for accurate bids  Delivery method with lowest risk  Chances of the contractor underestimating to give competitive bid are high  Puts the contractor , and the architect on friendly terms for profit


A young architect receives his/her license and decides to start their own practice.  In order to build a client base, the architect uses a portfolio of compromised of work completed at their previous firm.  What is true about the situation ?  The architect is not permitted to use the work in their portfolio as it is copywritten by their previous firm  The architect is permitted to use the work in their portfolio without restriction  The architect is not permitted to use the work in their portfolio unless their previous firm agrees to it  The architect is permitted to use the work in their portfolio but must disclose the scope of his/her responsibility for each project



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