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Module 1.1: Operating-System Structures : 

K. Salah Module 1.1: Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines System Design and Implementation System Generation

Common System Components : 

K. Salah Common System Components Process Management Main Memory Management Secondary-Storage Management Caching I/O System Management File Management Protection System Command-Interpreter System

Process Management : 

K. Salah Process Management A process is a program in execution. A process needs certain resources, including CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices, to accomplish its task. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management. Process creation and deletion. process suspension and resumption. Provision of mechanisms for: process synchronization process communication

Main-Memory Management : 

K. Salah Main-Memory Management Memory is a large array of words or bytes, each with its own address. It is a repository of quickly accessible data shared by the CPU and I/O devices. Main memory is a volatile storage device. It loses its contents in the case of system failure. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connections with memory management: Keep track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom. Decide which processes to load when memory space becomes available. Allocate and deallocate memory space as needed.

Secondary-Storage Management : 

K. Salah Secondary-Storage Management Since main memory (primary storage) is volatile and too small to accommodate all data and programs permanently, the computer system must provide secondary storage to back up main memory. Most modern computer systems use disks as the principle on-line storage medium, for both programs and data. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with disk management: Free space management Storage allocation Disk scheduling

Caching : 

K. Salah Caching Important principle, performed at many levels in a computer (in hardware, operating system, software) Information in use copied from slower to faster storage temporarily Faster storage (cache) checked first to determine if information is there If it is, information used directly from the cache (fast) If not, data copied to cache and used there Cache smaller than storage being cached Cache management important design problem Cache size and replacement policy

I/O System Management : 

K. Salah I/O System Management The I/O system consists of: A buffer-caching system A general device-driver interface Drivers for specific hardware devices

File Management : 

K. Salah File Management A file is a collection of related information defined by its creator. Commonly, files represent programs (both source and object forms) and data. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connections with file management: File creation and deletion. Directory creation and deletion. Support of primitives for manipulating files and directories. Mapping files onto secondary storage. File backup on stable (nonvolatile) storage media.

Protection System : 

K. Salah Protection System Protection refers to a mechanism for controlling access by programs, processes, or users to both system and user resources. The protection mechanism must: distinguish between authorized and unauthorized usage. specify the controls to be imposed. provide a means of enforcement.

User-OS Interface - CLI : 

K. Salah User-OS Interface - CLI Many commands are given to the operating system by control statements which deal with: process creation and management I/O handling secondary-storage management main-memory management file-system access protection Networking The program that reads and interprets control statements is called variously: command-line interpreter shell (in UNIX) Its function is to get and execute the next command statement.

User-OS Interface - GUI : 

K. Salah User-OS Interface - GUI User-friendly desktop metaphor interface Usually mouse, keyboard, and monitor Icons represent files, programs, actions, etc Various mouse buttons over objects in the interface cause various actions (provide information, options, execute function, open directory (known as a folder) Invented at Xerox PARC Many systems now include both CLI and GUI interfaces Microsoft Windows is GUI with CLI “command” shell Apple Mac OS X as “Aqua” GUI interface with UNIX kernel underneath and shells available Solaris is CLI with optional GUI interfaces (Openview, Java Desktop, KDE)

Operating System Services : 

K. Salah Operating System Services Program execution – system capability to load a program into memory and to run it. I/O operations – since user programs cannot execute I/O operations directly, the operating system must provide some means to perform I/O. File-system manipulation – program capability to read, write, create, and delete files. Communications – exchange of information between processes executing either on the same computer or on different systems tied together by a network. Implemented via shared memory or message passing. Error detection – ensure correct computing by detecting errors in the CPU and memory hardware, in I/O devices, or in user programs.

Additional Operating System Functions : 

K. Salah Additional Operating System Functions Additional functions exist not for helping the user, but rather for ensuring efficient system operations. Resource allocation – allocating resources to multiple users or multiple jobs running at the same time. Accounting – keep track of and record which users use how much and what kinds of computer resources for account billing or for accumulating usage statistics. Protection – ensuring that all access to system resources is controlled.

Communication Models : 

K. Salah Communication Models Msg Passing Shared Memory

System Programs : 

K. Salah System Programs System programs provide a convenient environment for program development and execution. The can be divided into: File manipulation Status information File modification Programming language support (Arabic, English, French). Program loading and execution Communications Most users’ view of the operating system is defined by system programs, not the actual system calls.

MS-DOS Layer Structure : 

K. Salah MS-DOS Layer Structure

System Structure – Simple Approach (Cont.) : 

K. Salah System Structure – Simple Approach (Cont.) UNIX – the original UNIX operating system had limited structuring. The UNIX OS consists of two separable parts. Systems programs The kernel Consists of everything below the system-call interface and above the physical hardware Provides the file system, CPU scheduling, memory management, and other operating-system functions; a large number of functions for one level.

UNIX System Structure : 

K. Salah UNIX System Structure

System Structure – Layered Approach : 

K. Salah System Structure – Layered Approach The operating system is divided into a number of layers (levels), each built on top of lower layers. The bottom layer (layer 0), is the hardware; the highest (layer N) is the user interface. With modularity, layers are selected such that each uses functions (operations) and services of only lower-level layers. Why layering? explicit structure allows identification, relationship of complex system’s pieces modularization eases maintenance, develop, updating of system change of implementation of layer’s service transparent to rest of system e.g., change in gate procedure doesn’t affect rest of system layering considered harmful?

Layered Structure of the THE OS : 

K. Salah Layered Structure of the THE OS A layered design was first used in THE operating system. Its six layers are as follows:

OS/2 Layer Structure : 

K. Salah OS/2 Layer Structure

Microkernels : 

K. Salah Microkernels Small operating system core Started at Carnegie Mellon – Mach OS Contains only essential operating systems functions Many services traditionally included in the operating system are now external subsystems device drivers file systems virtual memory manager windowing system security services Advantages: Extensibility, Reliability, Portability, Flexibility. Performance? Microkernel must include functions that depend on the HW and functions needed to support the servers and applications operating in user mode. Low-level memory management Inter-process communication I/O and interrupt management

Virtual Machines : 

K. Salah Virtual Machines A virtual machine provides multiprogramming only by providing exact virtual copies of the bare hardware . A virtual machine provides an interface identical to the underlying bare hardware. The operating system creates the illusion of multiple processes, each executing on its own processor with its own (virtual) memory. Virtual Machine: A machine implemented in software, not actual hardware. Also known as a machine emulator, not as OS simulator. Each virtual machine can run any OS on top of it You can run different OSs, each best suited for some task, on the same physical machine Similar to Java approach. Virtual PC for Windows allows you to create separate “virtual machines” on top of your Windows desktop, where you can install virtually any PC-based operating system including OS/2, Linux, Solaris, NetWare or other versions of Windows. Each virtual machine emulates a complete hardware system – from processor to network card – in a self-contained, isolated software environment, enabling the simultaneous operation of otherwise incompatible systems.

Virtual Machines (Cont.) : 

K. Salah Virtual Machines (Cont.) The resources of the physical computer are shared to create the virtual machines. CPU scheduling can create the appearance that users have their own processor. Spooling and a file system can provide virtual card readers and virtual line printers. A normal user time-sharing terminal serves as the virtual machine operator’s console. Benefits of VM OS A big plus for SW development – can run and test SW simultaneously on multiple OS on a single machine, without rebooting. Testing can take place with different system configuration, like memory, disk space, etc. IT professionals can safely migrate and deploy new operating systems – while continuing to run and support older or custom legacy applications. Internet VPS Cloud Computing – Amazon Elastic CC (or EC2) Sandboxing – play and test in a protected environment w/o risking damage to other kernels running. Any drawbacks?

System Models : 

K. Salah System Models Non-virtual Machine Virtual Machine VmWare (from Vmware Inc.) Virtual PC (Connectix, now Mircorsoft) Xen (freeware) Vbox from Sun Inc. Possible that it can span over multiple CPUs or GPUs (even in a distributed fashion)

VMware architecture : 

K. Salah VMware architecture

System Design Goals : 

K. Salah System Design Goals User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast. System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient.

System Implementation : 

K. Salah System Implementation Traditionally written in assembly language, operating systems can now be written in higher-level languages. Code written in a high-level language: can be written faster. is more compact. is easier to understand and debug. An operating system is far easier to port (move to some other hardware) if it is written in a high-level language.

System Generation (SYSGEN) : 

K. Salah System Generation (SYSGEN) Operating systems are designed to run on any of a class of machines; the system must be configured for each specific computer site. SYSGEN program obtains information concerning the specific configuration of the hardware system. Bootstrapping – code stored in ROM that is able to locate the kernel, load it into memory, and start its execution. Sector 0 is the boot sector identifies the active partition Booting – the start of the actual execution of the OS

Further Reading : 

K. Salah Further Reading What are those contemporary OSes that took advantage of Microkernel structure? Solaris loadable modules What is Darwin?

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