Myanmar SST Creative

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The Pawner of Gaurav Mehta's very badly designed PPT for SST Creative


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Myanmar SST Creative history/civics

About Myanmar:

About Myanmar In 2010 , Myanmar held its first national and local elections in 20 years , against a backdrop of political repression and unresolved armed conflicts. The country’s record on human rights is extremely poor. Myanmar’s 50 million people continue to suffer from poverty and public health challenges, wrought largely by the government’s longstanding economic mismanagement. Widespread and systematic attacks on civilians in eastern Myanmar have been carried out with virtual impunity. Despite pressure from its neighbours in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), renewed communication with the main political opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and various foreign critics (chief among them the United States ), and another round of United Nations (UN) visits and resolutions, the government has not substantively improved the country’s human rights situation.

basic Facts:

basic Facts Capital: Naypyidaw (founded in November of 2005). Major Cities: Former capital Yangon (Rangoon), population 6 million, Mandalay, population 925,000. Government: Myanmar, (formerly known as "Burma"), is ruled by a military dictatorship led by Senior General Than Shwe . This ruling junta keeps strict control over the Burmese people, suppressing all free press, limiting access to the internet, and using tactics such as disappearances, torture, systematic rape, and extrajudicial execution to deal with dissidents. The outlawed opposition party, the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma, is led by Aung San Suu Kyi , who won an abortive democratic presidential election in December of 1990. Since that time, she has been kept under house arrest by the junta. Official Language: The official language of Myanmar is Burmese, a Sino-Tibetan language. Population: Myanmar probably has about 55.5 million people, although census figures are considered unreliable. Myanmar is an exporter of both migrant workers (with several million in Thailand alone), and of refugees. Burmese refugees total more than 300,000 people in neighboring Thailand, India, Bangladesh, and Malaysia.

History of myanmar:

History of myanmar Myanmar has a long and complex history. Many peoples have lived in the region and the history began. The first identifiable civilization is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 300 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi , was founded around the port of Thaton in about 300 BC. The Pyu arrived in Myanmar in the 7th century and established city kingdoms at Binnaka , Mongamo , Sri Ksetra , and Halingyi . During this period, Myanmar was part of an overland trade route from China to India. By 849, the Burmans had founded a powerful kingdom centered on the city of Bagan and filled the void left by the Pyu . The kingdom grew in relative isolation until the reign of Anawrahta (1044 - 77) who successfully unified all of Myanmar by defeating the Mon city of Thaton in 1057. After the collapse of Bagan authority, Myanmar was divided once again. The Burmans had restablished themselves at the city of Ava by 1364, where Bagan culture was revived and a great age of Burmese literature ensued. The kingdom lacked easily defendable borders, however, and was overrun by the Shan in 1527. Surviors of the destruction of Inwa eventually established a new kingdom centered on Taungoo in 1531 led by Tabinshwehti (reigned 1531-50), who once again unified most of Myanmar. A popular Burmese leader named Alaungpaya drove the Bago forces out of northern Myanmar by 1753, and by 1759 he had once again conquered Pegu and southern Myanmar while also regaining control of Manipur. He established his capital at Rangoon, now known as Yangon. Myanmar was known to the West ever since western explorers had heard of it. Marko Polo was the earliest known westerner who discovered Myanmar and introduced to the West.

Pre - history:

Pre - history The earliest archaeological evidence suggests that cultures existed in Burma's early as 11,000 BCE. Most indications of early settlement have been found in the central dry zone, where scattered sites appear in close proximity to the Irrawaddy River. The Anything , Burma's Stone Age, existed at a time thought to parallel the lower and middle Paleolithic in Europe. The Neolithic or New Stone Age, when plants and animals were first domesticated and polished stone tools appeared, is evidenced in Burma by three caves located near Taunggyi at the edge of the Shan plateau that are dated to 10000 to 6000 BC. About 1500 BCE, people in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice, and domesticating chickens and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so. By 500 BCE, iron-working settlements emerged in an area south of present- dayMandalay . Bronze-decorated coffins and burial sites filled with earthenware remains have been excavated. Archaeological evidence at Samon Valley south of Mandalay suggests rice growing settlements that traded with China between 500 BC and 200 CE.

Pagan empire:

Pagan empire Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, unifying for the first time the regions that would later constitute the modern-day Burma. Anawrahta successors by the late 12th century had extended their influence farther south into the upper Malay peninsula, at least to the Salween river in the east, below the current China border in the farther north, and to the west, northern Arakan and the Chin Hills. The Burmese Chronicles claim Pagan's suzerainty over the entire Chao Phraya river valley, and the Siamese chronicles include the lower Malay peninsula down to the Straits of Malacca to Pagan's realm. By the early 12th century, Pagan had emerged as a major power alongside the Khmer Empire in Southeast Asia, recognized by the Chinese Song Dynasty, and Indian Chola dynasty. Well into the mid-13th century, most of mainland Southeast Asia was under some degree of control of either the Pagan Empire or the Khmer Empire.

Toungoo dynasty:

Toungoo dynasty Toungoo , led by its ambitious king Tabinshwehti and his deputy Gen. Bayinnaung , would go on to reunify the petty kingdoms that had existed since the fall of the Pagan Empire, and found the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. First, the upstart kingdom defeated a more powerful Hanthawaddy in the Toungoo – Hanthawaddy War (1535–1541). Tabinshwehti moved the capital to newly captured Pegu in 1539. Toungoo expanded its authority up to Pagan in 1544 but failed to conquer Arakan in 1546–1547 and Siam in 1548. Tabinshwehti's successor Bayinnaung continued the policy of expansion, conquering Ava in 1555, nearer Shan states (1557), Lan Na (1558), Manipur (1560), Farther/Trans-Salween Shan states (1562–1563), Siam (1564, 1569), and Lan Xang (1574), and bringing much of western and central mainland Southeast Asia under his rule.

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