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1. Identify the style and the century.(2)2. Give two characteristics of the style. (2) : 

1. Identify the style and the century.(2)2. Give two characteristics of the style. (2)

3. Name three ways in which the appearance reflects the functional requirements.(6) : 

3. Name three ways in which the appearance reflects the functional requirements.(6)

Where was the decoration of Romanesque churches located and why?(3)5. Name three countries in which Romanesque churches were located.(3) : 

Where was the decoration of Romanesque churches located and why?(3)5. Name three countries in which Romanesque churches were located.(3)

Changes from Romanesque to Gothic? : 

Changes from Romanesque to Gothic? Unified Taller More light More glass Pointed arches

Gothic Advances : 

Gothic Advances Space and verticality Flying buttresses lead to thinner and less massive walls More windows; use of stained glass

Romanesque vs. Gothic1050-1200 1100-1500 : 

Romanesque vs. Gothic1050-1200 1100-1500 Religion: Christ is the judge People live in fear The last judgment common subject Crusades Pilgrimages Economics Feudalism-little economic freedom New trade routes Rural society- Monasteries Architecture Churches solid and grounded Destination of pilgrimage route Religion God is less vengeful Virgin Mary is the queen of heaven-intervener Triumph of the papacy Society Emphasis on education and philosophy Importance of women Courtly love Chivalry Economics and politics Trade Craft guilds and unions Emerging Kingdoms Urbanization Urban churches vertical thin and light

Gothic Europe: Time of Turmoil and change info card #1 : 

Gothic Europe: Time of Turmoil and change info card #1 Great prosperity Hundred year war began:1337 Black Plague: 14th century Power shift from rural monastery to city cathedral Paris becomes the intellectual center of Europe

Gothic Chronology info card #1 : 

Gothic Chronology info card #1 Early Gothic:1140-1194 High Gothic:1194-1300 Late Gothic:1300-

Women Assume Prominent role info card #1 : 

Women Assume Prominent role info card #1 Cult of the Virgin Mary: high status Eleanor of Aquitane (1st French Queen) supports literature that emphasizes courtly love and chivalry

Early Gothic 1140-1194 Late Medieval Period : 

Early Gothic 1140-1194 Late Medieval Period Originated in N. France Distortion & destruction of classicism? Or... Images of the city of God?

Saint Denis 735,1137-1281 art card #2 : 

Saint Denis 735,1137-1281 art card #2 Saint Dionysis(3rd c) :an Apostle who brought Christianity to Gaul, and died a martyr. St. Denis:originated as a Carolingian basilica(735) France’s royal church and a symbol of the monarchy. burial place of St.Denis and French Kings too small & in disrepair Remodeled to become the key monument of Early Gothic art

Abbot Suger (soo-gaythe rebuilding of Saint Denis 1081-1151 art card #2 : 

Abbot Suger (soo-gaythe rebuilding of Saint Denis 1081-1151 art card #2 Goals: increase prestige of Saint Denis and of the monarchy. Rebuilt France’s royal church Birthplace of French Gothic architecture Shine with light A way station on the road to paradise

Saint Denis: vaults. Saint Denis, France1140-1144art card #2 : 

Saint Denis: vaults. Saint Denis, France1140-1144art card #2 Lightweight vaults spring from slender columns. Walls between chapels are eliminated and outer walls filled with stained glass Thrust of arches is directed to buttresses Plan View Crypt

Advantages of a pointed arch : 

Advantages of a pointed arch Pointed arch: crown of arches can all be the same level regardless of span channel the thrust down instead of out Look taller than round arch Flexibility: vaulting of compartments of varying shapes Less buttressing and larger windows

Anagogical window, St. Denis : 

Anagogical window, St. Denis lux nova “new light” Metaphysical properties Divine light: can be seen and felt, not touched Metaphor for God

Ideal Gothic cathedral : 

Ideal Gothic cathedral

Flying Buttresses : 

Flying Buttresses

France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral (of Notre Dame) South View slide38 built 1134, burned 1194, rebuilt in high Gothic style 1194-1220 : 

France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral (of Notre Dame) South View slide38 built 1134, burned 1194, rebuilt in high Gothic style 1194-1220 South tower: 1194 transition from Romanesque to Gothic North Tower 1507: Late Gothic

Chartres Cathedral West façade Chartres France : 

Chartres Cathedral West façade Chartres France Tripartite organization Lancet window above portals Rose window above lancet

Iconography of Chartres : 

Iconography of Chartres St. Augustine: summa: summary of law, philosophy and theology The Bible in stone and glass Nature: plant and animal forms Instruction: teaching of the seven liberal arts History: from Adam and Eve to the last judgement Morality: virtue and vice; wise and foolish, saved and damned

Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 art card #3 : 

Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 art card #3 Copied the “Royal” portals of Saint Denis Statues of kings and Queens flank the doorways Sculpture proclaims majesty and power of Christ Mary is prominent (Cult of the virgin Mary) Figures integrated with the architecture and stand as individuals

Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 left portal slide art card #3 : 

Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 left portal slide art card #3 Left Portal Tympanum: Close of Christ’s days on earth and his ascension Archivolts: signs of the zodiac, labors of the months (symbols of cosmic and earthly worlds

Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 : 

Royal Portal, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 Center Portal: Christ in mandorla, signs of 4 evangelists Tympanum: second coming of Christ (the last Judgment) Lintel:, 24 elders of the Apocalypse, 12 Apostles art card #3

Right Portal, Christ in Mary’s lap art card #3 : 

Right Portal, Christ in Mary’s lap art card #3 Archivolts: 7 female liberal arts and male champions Tympanum: Christ’s early life

Right Portal Archivolts, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 : 

Right Portal Archivolts, west façade Chartres Cathedral 1145-1155 Outer archivolt Ptolemy: invented calendar and clock Grammar Donatus (Anc. Roman grammarian) Inner Archivolt: Music (striking bells of perfect intervals) Pythagoras

Chartres Cathedral central Jamb Statues art card #4 : 

Chartres Cathedral central Jamb Statues art card #4 Columns of Kings and Queens of the old testament flank 3 doors ancestors of Christ Jamb statues destroyed during French revolution, why? How are they different than classical caryatids? Attached to columns Different from Romanesque? New naturalism 3D personalities More naturalistic although still elongated Stand out from the wall-3D no dangling feet Kindly human faces

Laon Cathedral 1160-1200Early Gothic : 

Laon Cathedral 1160-1200Early Gothic What makes it Gothic? Pointed arches Rose window deep porches open structure of towers

Laon Cathedral Laon, France 1190Early Gothic : 

Laon Cathedral Laon, France 1190Early Gothic Romanesque features: nave bays w/ 6 part rib vaults 2 groin vaulted squares in each aisle

Laon 1190 : 

Laon 1190 Early Gothic Features Pointed Gothic rib vault w/ pointed arch triforium

Laon : 

Laon 4 story Early Gothic Elevation: nave arcade, vaulted gallery, triforium, clerestory with lancets more unified space, not compartmentalized Romanesque: alternate support system(above nave piers), vaulted gallery

Notre Dame of Paris 1163-1250 : 

Notre Dame of Paris 1163-1250 Louis VI moves his official residence to Paris Building activity and commercial growth New Cathedral built

Paris, Notre Dame 1163-1250 south façade slide 45 : 

Paris, Notre Dame 1163-1250 south façade slide 45 Elevation stained glass oculi instead of triforium over gallery More windows reduction of masonry flying buttresses and rib vaults with the pointed arch: quintessential gothic

High Gothic 1194-1300:standard is height and luminosity : 

High Gothic 1194-1300:standard is height and luminosity Chartres completed 1220 118’ Reims: 1211-1290 Nave 125’ tall Amiens: begun 1220, nave= 144 ft Ration of height to width continues to increase

France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Plan Rebuilt 1194-122 slide 11 : 

France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Plan Rebuilt 1194-122 slide 11 1194 fire destroys parts of Chartres Cathedral New plan: the first high Gothic building: planned from the beginning with flying buttresses Interior: Rectangular nave bays replace square bays

France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame sectional 1194-122 slide 46 : 

France, Chartres, Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame sectional 1194-122 slide 46

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Plan Rebuilt 1194-122 : 

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Plan Rebuilt 1194-122 Smaller, 4 part rib vaults

High Gothic: Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame, Chartres, France, Nave 1194-1222 slide 48 : 

High Gothic: Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame, Chartres, France, Nave 1194-1222 slide 48 No alternate support system Unified interior: Vast continuous space flowing quality Tripartite Elevation: arcade, triforium and clerestory(emphasized; double lancet with oculus) Gallery( which acted as a buttress) eliminated in favor of triforium

Compare contrast Paris, Notre Dame(early) with Chartres(High) : 

Compare contrast Paris, Notre Dame(early) with Chartres(High) 5 aisled structure-Romanesque short transept vaulting covers 2 squares Rectangular bay system transept equal to nave Chevet: choir, ambulatory, and radiating new vault:1 square area more glass

St. Sernin 1010, St. Etienne1067, Chartres 1194(E. Romanesque) (L. Romanesque) : 

St. Sernin 1010, St. Etienne1067, Chartres 1194(E. Romanesque) (L. Romanesque)

Nave elevationsLaon, Paris, Chartres, Reims, Amiens : 

Nave elevationsLaon, Paris, Chartres, Reims, Amiens

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Rose Window and lancets, n. transept 1194-122 : 

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Rose Window and lancets, n. transept 1194-122 Stone bar tracery Narrative Scene Center of Rose : Virgin Mary Lancets: St. Anne and 4 Old testament prophets

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Stained Glass Virgin and Child and Angels;Chartres France 12-13 c. : 

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Stained Glass Virgin and Child and Angels;Chartres France 12-13 c. Mary is beautiful young, worldly queen of heaven Traditional frontal composition

Hagia Sophia mosaic Gothic Stained glassLight reflecting light transmitting severe young and worldy : 

Hagia Sophia mosaic Gothic Stained glassLight reflecting light transmitting severe young and worldy Virgin and child Chartres cathedral

Chartres, Rose window and lancets1220 : 

Chartres, Rose window and lancets1220 armature of bar tracery no superfluous material

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Transept Portals Saints Martin, Jerome, Gregory and ? 1220-1230 : 

Chartres Cathedral of Notre Dame Transept Portals Saints Martin, Jerome, Gregory and ? 1220-1230 Classical revolution Forceful projection from architecture Indiv. personalities Not vertical, turned Soft , not stiff drapery

Saint Theodore, Jamb Statues Chartres 1230 : 

Saint Theodore, Jamb Statues Chartres 1230 Ideal Christian Knight Gothic crusader costume Pronounced movement in body

Romanesque TympanumGislebertus 1120 : 

Romanesque TympanumGislebertus 1120

Saint Pierre Trumeau Chartres Jamb 1115 1220 : 

Saint Pierre Trumeau Chartres Jamb 1115 1220

Amiens Cathedral begun 1220 slide 49, 50 Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, Renaud de Cormont : 

Amiens Cathedral begun 1220 slide 49, 50 Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, Renaud de Cormont High Gothic Formula: Self sustaining skeletal architecture Rectangular bay system, 4 part rib vault, dissolution of heavy walls (excellent buttressing)

Amiens Cathedral nave slide 51 : 

Amiens Cathedral nave slide 51 Self sustaining skeletal architecture: perfect expression of Gothic spirituality vault 144’ Nave arcade, triforium, clerestory Buttressing that eliminated mass What would be its Byzantine counterpart?

Christ (Beau Dieu), trumeau statue of central doorway, west façade, Amiens Cathedral, France, ca. 1220-1235. : 

Christ (Beau Dieu), trumeau statue of central doorway, west façade, Amiens Cathedral, France, ca. 1220-1235. Free Standing Classical drapery EC: youthful Byzantine: stern Romanesque: intense and emotional Gothic: Benevolent

Slide 55: 

Early Christian benevolent Byzantine: pantocrater- ruler of heaven and earth

Reims CathedralReims France 1225-1290 : 

Reims CathedralReims France 1225-1290 Kings gallery above Rose window Openings taller, narrower, more intricate Dematerialize the building

West façade Reims, 1225-1290 : 

West façade Reims, 1225-1290 Glass replaces stone in tympanums

Chartres 1194 Amiens 1220 Reims 1225 : 

Chartres 1194 Amiens 1220 Reims 1225

West façade Reims,-Visitation jamb statues : 

West façade Reims,-Visitation jamb statues Classical naturalistic style, conversing! Detached from background

Compare Annunciation to Visitation : 

Compare Annunciation to Visitation

Compare the four heads : 

Compare the four heads

The Rayonnant Style “Radiant” 1250-1300 : 

The Rayonnant Style “Radiant” 1250-1300 From the Royal Paris court Wealthy, powerful, prestigious Bar tracery and light turns architecture into radiant light

Sainte- Chapelle Paris France 1243-1248 slide 52 : 

Sainte- Chapelle Paris France 1243-1248 slide 52 Louis IX “The Saintly king” Glass replaces whole building(6,450 sq ft of glass) A Carved Reliquary for Christ’s crown of thorns

6’ reliquary 1190 relics of 3 magi Cologne Germany : 

6’ reliquary 1190 relics of 3 magi Cologne Germany

Sainte Chapelle interior 1243-1248 : 

Sainte Chapelle interior 1243-1248 Slender architectural forms linearity Rayonnant Style

Sainte-Chapelle, interior slide 53 : 

Sainte-Chapelle, interior slide 53

Virgin of Paris Notre Dame, Paris early14 c. : 

Virgin of Paris Notre Dame, Paris early14 c. Worldly queen and son Humanization artificial “S” curve, body is lost

Hermes and infant Dionysis high classical Greece : 

Hermes and infant Dionysis high classical Greece

Late Gothic Period : 

Late Gothic Period Difficult time for French Monarchy 100 years war

Gothic Flamboyant StyleSaint Maclou, Rouen France 1500-1514 slide 54 : 

Gothic Flamboyant StyleSaint Maclou, Rouen France 1500-1514 slide 54 Flame like tracery 5 portals bend out in an arc

Book illumination and Luxury Arts : 

Book illumination and Luxury Arts Paris intellectual center Fine books produced not by clergy but by urban factories Dante: The Divine Comedy 1320

Villard de Honnecourt1220-1235Ink on Vellum : 

Villard de Honnecourt1220-1235Ink on Vellum Personal sketchbook All sketches based on geometric forms

God as architect of the world, folio 1 verso of a moralized Bible, from Paris, ca. 1220-1230. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 13 1/2" X 8 1/4". ÷sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vie : 

God as architect of the world, folio 1 verso of a moralized Bible, from Paris, ca. 1220-1230. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 13 1/2" X 8 1/4". ÷sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vie Circle: eternity –one God Sun , moon and matter Using tools-industrious mortal

Blanche of Castile-Louis IX and two monks1226-1234 : 

Blanche of Castile-Louis IX and two monks1226-1234 Triple lobed arch-like architectural canopys Page in bottom right quadrant similar to a stained glass window

Abraham and the Three Angels, Psalter of Saint Louis, PARIS 1253-1270 : 

Abraham and the Three Angels, Psalter of Saint Louis, PARIS 1253-1270 Same artists who made stained glass for St. Chapelle. Architectural setting Prefiguration of trinity Parisian court style Elegant proportion Swaying pose Facial expression Theatrical gestures

Master HonoreBreviary of Phillippe le Bel, Paris France 1296 : 

Master HonoreBreviary of Phillippe le Bel, Paris France 1296 Pioneer of naturalism Figures modeled But lacking background Court Style

Jean Pucelle, David before Saul, Belleville Breviary 1325 : 

Jean Pucelle, David before Saul, Belleville Breviary 1325 3d realistic spatial setting Animals are very detailed-show observation of the natural world Text dominates Pucelles and assistants names appear at the end of the book

Madonna of Jeanne D’Evreux Silver gilt with enamel 27” : 

Madonna of Jeanne D’Evreux Silver gilt with enamel 27” Fleur de Lis symbol of Royalty S curve “hipshot” position small head Gothic mannerism heavy drapery sophisticated and elegant

Gothic Outside France : 

Gothic Outside France 2nd half of 13th cent. Gothic becomes international style (in Europe). Modified to fit local preferences

The Castle of Love and Knights Jousting: 1330-1350 Paris : 

The Castle of Love and Knights Jousting: 1330-1350 Paris

Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England (View from NW)1220-1258 slide 55 : 

Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England (View from NW)1220-1258 slide 55 Different from French? Emphasis on length, not height Crossing tower dominates, not W. facade Similar? Lancet windows, blind arcades Superficial Gothic attributes, not structural logic or emphasis on height

Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England (View from NW)1220-1258 : 

Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England (View from NW)1220-1258 Façade wider than interior, does not correspond to interior aisles

Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England : 

Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England Double transept Flat eastern end (no apse)

Interior Salisbury Cathedralslide 56 : 

Interior Salisbury Cathedralslide 56 How does it depart from French gothic Style? Pier colonnettes stop at spring line Vault ribs rise from triforium Two tone color Horizontality

Compare to Early Gothic Laon Cathedral 1190 : 

Compare to Early Gothic Laon Cathedral 1190

English Gothic 14th Cent. The Decorated Style : 

English Gothic 14th Cent. The Decorated Style Structural logic is secondary to decoration Pier, vault, and wall elements complex and decorative Tracery

English Gothic 14th Cent. The Perpendicular Style : 

English Gothic 14th Cent. The Perpendicular Style Choir of Glousester Cathedral Verticality of decorative details

Gloucester Cathedral fan Vault : 

Gloucester Cathedral fan Vault

Chapel of Henry VII Westminster Abbey, London 1503-1519 : 

Chapel of Henry VII Westminster Abbey, London 1503-1519 Perpendicular style disguises structure Fan vault hanging pendants

Chapel of Henry VII Westminster Abbey, London 1503-1519 : 

Chapel of Henry VII Westminster Abbey, London 1503-1519 Freestanding tombs of Henry VII & Elizabeth Part of the furniture Reminder of human mortality

Chapel of Henry VII : 

Chapel of Henry VII Decorative replaces structure intricate tracery -lace kings tomb

Germany : 

Germany Architecture remained conservatively Romanesque until 13th Cent German art is passionate and emotional

Slide 94: 

Gerhard of Cologne, Cologne Cathedral, begun 1248 Germany nave, towers, façade 1880

Slide 95: 

Choir from Nave Cologne Cathedral Similar to Amiens

Interior of Saint Elizabeth (view facing west), Marburg, Germany, 1235-1283. : 

Interior of Saint Elizabeth (view facing west), Marburg, Germany, 1235-1283. German Gothic hall Church Nave and aisles the same height

Death of the Virgin, Tympanum1230, Strasbourg Cathedral : 

Death of the Virgin, Tympanum1230, Strasbourg Cathedral 12 apostles gather around a “gothic “ Mary Christ holds Mother’s soul Classical characteristics? Organization Natural drapery Gothic Art Humanized and natural German Gothic Passionate drama Medieval or non-classicizing characteristics? No space for bodies Unnatural movement

Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany 1249-1255 6’2” : 

Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral, Germany 1249-1255 6’2” Portrait of donors of Naumberg cathedral(secular) Inside the church French Gothic Attached to columns, below canopies Period costumes Live model? Drapery is accurate

Equestrian portrait Bamberg RiderBamberg Cathedral, 1235-1240Germany 7’9” : 

Equestrian portrait Bamberg RiderBamberg Cathedral, 1235-1240Germany 7’9” Precursors? Charlemagne? Aurelius? German Emperor Frederick II(1220-1250) Holy Roman Emperor Benefactor of Bamburg cathedral Unity of church and state Proportionally Correct

Virgin with Dead Christ, Germany 1300-1325 : 

Virgin with Dead Christ, Germany 1300-1325 Humanization of religious themes Troubles of the 14th century War, plague, famine, social strife Christ and Mary share human woes Christ: Stunted and distorted , evokes feeling and compassion

Discuss how the two works represent the work of sculptors working in two different media, in two different cultural contexts and with different religious purposes in mind. : 

Discuss how the two works represent the work of sculptors working in two different media, in two different cultural contexts and with different religious purposes in mind.

Italy : 

Italy Gothic and Non Gothic

Lorenzo Maitani, Orvieto Cathedral,Orvieto Italy 1310 : 

Lorenzo Maitani, Orvieto Cathedral,Orvieto Italy 1310 Regional Diversity Façade over E. Christian church What is Gothic? Pointed gables Rose window 4 pinnacles

Orvieto, 1310; Miniato al Monte1062; Pisa cathedral 1063 : 

Orvieto, 1310; Miniato al Monte1062; Pisa cathedral 1063

Doge’s Palace, Venice, Italy 1345; remod. 1424 : 

Doge’s Palace, Venice, Italy 1345; remod. 1424 Seat of government(Dukes) Light and airy to match Venice

Piazza San Marco : 

Piazza San Marco

Milan Cathedral, Milan Italy 1386Waning of the Gothic style : 

Milan Cathedral, Milan Italy 1386Waning of the Gothic style Built by committee; Italian proportion, Gothic décor, new Renaissance style

Slide 109: 

Milan Cathedral (view from the southwest), Milan, Italy, begun 1386