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Designing Media Messages:

Designing Media Messages Principle of Design

Principle of Design:

Principle of Design The elements of design refer to “what” are used in design The principles of design refer to “how” they are used in design

Principles:

Principles Gestalt Unity repetition Rhythm Unity using value/continuity Variety/contrast Focal point and visual hierarchy Balance

1. Gestalt:

1. Gestalt Gestalt: German word, noun, means form or shape German psychologist Max Wertheimer’s observation of train, stroboscope, flipbook “The whole is different from the sum of its parts”

1.Gestalt:

1.Gestalt Humans have the tendency to group individual parts of an image into a larger, greater image that may be very different from the components

1. Gestalt:

1. Gestalt FIGURE 2.1 Gestalt theory examples.

1. Gestalt:

1. Gestalt Unity or Harmony Unity and placement using lines Unity and placement using shapes Repetition and placement using lines Repetition and placement using shapes

1.1 Unity or Harmony:

1.1 Unity or Harmony Unity means things belong together. Harmony is a word in place of unity. FIGURE 2.2 Left: Unity. Right: Lack of unity.

1.1 Unity or Harmony:

1.1 Unity or Harmony Unity can be accomplished placement, repetition, continuation. Each of these principles connected to unity can be applied to any element of design, including line , shape , value , color

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line:

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line FIGURE 2.3 Lines of type that are organized to group information.

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line:

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line Space: Kerning—space between letters Leading– space between lines Alley– space between two columns Gutter– space between pages

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line:

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line Can you see the differences in value? Which is easier to read? FIGURE 2.4 A paragraph with more leading (left) and a paragraph with less leading (right).

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line:

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line Justification/flush: Flush or left justified (ragged right)/ right justified (ragged left) completely justified

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line:

1.2 Unity and Placement Using Line Justification gives unity, random placement of justification is less readable and more chaotic. FIGURE 2.5 Type arrangement that is flush to the left, type arrangement that is justified, and a type arrangement that is random.

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape:

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape What is the difference between the two placement? FIGURE 2.6 Unity and placement.

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape:

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape What is the difference between the two type placement? In visual design, distance is equal to time. Unity is achieved by using letters from the same font and placing the letters on the Same baseline. FIGURE 2.7 Type set close together and the same type set loose.

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape:

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape FIGURE 2.8 Shapes placed at random (left) and shapes placed with similar line direction and related aspects of the shapes themselves.

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape:

1.3 Unity and Placement Using Shape Which one is easy to read? Why? FIGURE 2.9 Unity between type and lines of type.

1.4 Repetition Using Line:

1.4 Repetition Using Line Repletion FIGURE 2.10 Example of how repetition of a line can unify a composition.

1.4 Repetition Using Line:

1.4 Repetition Using Line FIGURE 2.11 Repeated line width creating unity.

1.4 Repetition Using Line:

1.4 Repetition Using Line FIGURE 2.12 Repeated line direction and unity.

1.4 Repetition Using Line:

1.4 Repetition Using Line FIGURE 2.13 Diagonal line direction creating unity.

1.5 Repetition Using Shape:

1.5 Repetition Using Shape Designs that consist of the same or similar types of shapes are usually harmonious. different shapes exist in the same design is a good example of balancing unity with variety. Left: Similar rectilinear shapes. Middle: Curvilinear shapes. Right: Both types of shapes are combined and unified.

1.5 Repetition Using Shape:

1.5 Repetition Using Shape Many designs that emphasize unity usually use either curvilinear or rectilinear shapes (dominantly). FIGURE 2.15 Two designs that are curvilinear and rectilinear.

2. Rhythm:

2. Rhythm Rhythm creates unity by repeating exact or slightly different elements in a predictable manner. Rhythm Unity using value continuity Variety What is the difference between rhythm and repetition?

2. Rhythm:

2. Rhythm FIGURE 2.16 Repetition and rhythm.

2. Rhythm:

2. Rhythm Two types of rhythm: Alternating rhythm: repeated over and over Progressive rhythm: change FIGURE 2.17 Rhythm examples.

Slide 28:

FIGURE 2.18 Progressive rhythm and alternating rhythm examples.

2.1Unity Using Value:

2.1Unity Using Value Unity can be achieved through the use of repeated values in a design. By the use of value, unrelated shapes may be designed into a unified composition FIGURE 2.19 Unrelated shapes, shapes with similar values, and shapes with harmony through placement.

2.1 Unity Using Value:

2.1 Unity Using Value FIGURE 2.20 Similar values creating unity.

2.2 Unity Using Continuity:

2.2 Unity Using Continuity Another way to create unity is continuity Continuity means something is carried over or connected to another element.

2.2 Unity Using Continuity:

2.2 Unity Using Continuity FIGURE 2.21 A basic grid structure used for a simple double-page spread layout.

2.2 Unity Using Continuity:

2.2 Unity Using Continuity FIGURE 2.22 Four simple double-page layouts that use a grid structure for unity and varying sizes of images and type for variety.

2.2 Unity and Continuity:

2.2 Unity and Continuity The element or elements that are being carried over can be related to line, line direction, shapes, values, colors, forms, or texture. FIGURE 2.23 Continuity using four related storybook illustrations.

2.2 Unity and Continuity:

2.2 Unity and Continuity Continuity is also used in establishing corporate identities. Trademarks, product labels, equipment, packaging, business literature, and other promotional and associated material must be consistent to ensure that the identity of a company is reinforced and remembered. In other words, it is called branding

2.2 Unity Using Continuity:

2.2 Unity Using Continuity UAEU Branding UAEU Brand Guidelines

2.3 Variety:

2.3 Variety When everything is overly structured and unified, the result can be so predictable and repetitive that it becomes boring. Variety introduces interest through contrast . Contrast refers to the differences between elements.

2.3 Variety: Contrast in size:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in size Brand: Volkswagen Beetle Origin: USA Decade: 1960s Year: 1961 Image type: Magazine Advert Keywords: cars Slogans: think small Julian Koenig copywriter posters

2.3 Variety: Contrast in Size:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in Size

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors

2.3 Variety: Contrast in Colors:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in Colors

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors:

2.3 Variety: Contrast in colors FIGURE 2.27 Left: A book cover that shows the hierarchy of contrasting line directions. Right: Inverted image illustrates this point. (

2.3 Variety and Visual Weight:

2.3 Variety and Visual Weight Visual weight is related to size and value of a shape. FIGURE 2.28 Simple designs illustrate how visual weight is influenced by value.

2.3 Variety: contrast in shapes:

2.3 Variety: contrast in shapes FIGURE 2.29 Variety and contrasting shapes.

2.3. Variety and unity:

2.3. Variety and unity Unity and variety are very different , unity and variety have two things in common: they can both be applied to any or all elements of design, most successful designs are composed of a balance between these two principles.

2.3 Variety and unity:

2.3 Variety and unity Too much variety causes chaos; Too much unity is boring. FIGURE 2.25 Left: Too much variety. Right: Too much unity.

2.3 Variety and unity:

2.3 Variety and unity Variety must be used with unity to create a successful design. It is up to the designer to balance these two principles. FIGURE 2.30 A design that emphasizes unity over variety, and a design that emphasizes variety over unity.

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY:

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY A focal point is an element that is given emphasis so it will attract attention. It is a way to catch the viewer’s attention and make the viewer look deeper into a design.

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY:

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY Contrast is one way to create a focal point by making an element different from its surroundings; FIGURE 2.31 Focal point created using line direction, different types of shapes, contrasting values, and contrasting color.

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY:

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY Placing is another way of creating a focal point. FIGURE 2.32 Two pages from a Web site that show obvious focal points using placement, value, and size variation.

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY:

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY Many designs have several focal points. Focal points must be viewed one at a time, that’s why hierarchy is introduced. Visual hierarchy is to organize each area of emphasis so that it does not conflict or take away attention from another area of emphasis.

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY:

3. FOCAL POINT AND VISUAL HIERARCHY First focal point subtler focal point  even subtler focal point. Areas of lesser emphasis are called accents . They keep the viewer’s attention in the subtlest areas of a design.

Slide 58:

Not all designs have focal points. FIGURE 2.34 Compositions with no specific focal point.

4.Balance:

4.Balance Balance means a design is weighted equally. FIGURE 2.35 These two diagrams illustrate balance in the left design and imbalance on the right.

4. Balance: Visual Balance:

4. Balance: Visual Balance

4. Balance: Visual Balance:

4. Balance: Visual Balance

4. Balance :

4. Balance Symmetry balance Asymmetry balance

4. Balance: Symmetrical balance--formal, stable, static:

4. Balance: Symmetrical balance--formal, stable, static

4. Balance:

4. Balance

4. Balance: Asymmetrical balance-- informal, dynamic:

4. Balance: Asymmetrical balance-- informal, dynamic

4. Balance: Asymmetrical balance--informal, dynamic:

4. Balance: Asymmetrical balance--informal, dynamic

4. Radial balance:

4. Radial balance balance that radiates out from a central focal point. It can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical depending on the location of its focal point.

4. Balance:

4. Balance Balance is achieved by the right arrangement of shapes, colors , or  value

4. Balance: Triangle Shape Balance:

4. Balance: Triangle Shape Balance

4. Balance: S shape balance:

4. Balance: S shape balance

4. Balance: light and dark:

4. Balance: light and dark

Summery: Principles of design:

Summery: Principles of design Gestalt Unity repetition Rhythm Unity using value/continuity Variety Focal point and visual hierarchy Balance

Summery : Principles of design:

Summery : Principles of design the principles of design can apply to many different forms of design The principles of design can also be found in the organization and design of almost anything. Can you think of any experiences that are good examples of variety, unity, continuity, repetition, rhythm, contrast, and balance?

Summery:

Summery The elements and principles of design are the foundation for every project, but the specifics of how they will be used are dependent on the design problem. The next chapter deal with the procedures of defining design problems and creating visual solutions using the elements and principles of design.

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