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Unit 8 Power Point Presentation for World History II

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1 Unit 8 PowerPoint Presentation: World War I / Asian Nationalism Click next to or below image for information

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand:

2 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand This photograph depicts the capture of the assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Habsburg throne, on a visit to Sarajevo in Austrian-ruled Bosnia. A young Bosnian nationalist, Gavril Princip, was arrested minutes after he had assassinated the archduke and his wife, on June 28, 1914. This political murder helped unleash World War I. (Gernsheim Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Center, University of Texas, Austin) Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

"N'Oublions Jamais“:

3 "N'Oublions Jamais" This 1915 French poster with its passionate headline--Never Forget!--dramatizes Germany's brutal invasion of Belgium in 1914. Neutral Belgium is personified as a traumatized mother, assaulted and ravished by savage outlaws. The "rape of Belgium" featured prominently, and effectively, in anti-German propaganda. (Mary Evans Picture Library) "N'Oublions Jamais“ Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Canadians in trench warfare:

4 Canadians in trench warfare This painting, The Princess Patricias at Frezenberg by the Canadian artist W.B. Wollen, depicts fighting on the Western Front on May 8, 1915. When all other officers of the regiment had been killed or wounded in this German attack near Ypres, in northern France, Lieutenant Hugh Niven took command. The remnants of this Canadian battalion beat back every German attack, but at the end of the day only 150 men remained. (Courtesy, The Princess Patrice's Canadian Light Infantry, Regimental Museum and Archives) Canadians in trench warfare Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Indians at front:

5 Indians at front Indian soldiers from the so-called warrior castes had long been a critical factor in imperial Britain's global power. These Indian troops, preparing for the Battle of the Somme in 1916 during World War I, ironically appear to be out for a pleasant bicycling excursion. Dispatched to France in October 1914, most Indian soldiers were moved to western Asia in 1915 to fight against the Ottoman Empire. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Indians at front Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Paul Nash, Menin Road:

6 Paul Nash, Menin Road In 1917 Paul Nash (British surrealist painter, 1889-1946) was recruited as a war artist. In November of that year he was sent to the Western Front, where he painted several important pictures including this painting, The Menin Road. In a landscape ravaged by artillery fire, we see two soldiers dash for cover amid shell holes and the charred remains of a forest. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Paul Nash, Menin Road Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Russian munitions worker:

7 Russian munitions worker All over Europe, governments recruited women to work in munitions factories. This Russian government poster uses an image of a working woman to rally support for the war. The text reads, "Everything for the war effort! Subscribe to the war loans at 5-1/2 percent." (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Russian munitions worker Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Delegates to Peace Conference, 1919:

8 Delegates to Peace Conference, 1919 The Arab Prince Faisal (1885-1993) (foreground)--who would later become king of Iraq--attended the Paris Peace Conference, where he lobbied for the creation of an independent Arab kingdom from part of the former Ottoman Turkish holdings in the Middle East. Among his supporters was the British office Colonel T.E. Lawrence (middle row, second from the right), on his way to becoming the legendary "Lawrence of Arabia." (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Delegates to Peace Conference, 1919 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Versailles Treaty signed:

9 Versailles Treaty signed This group portrait by the painter William Orpen (born in Dublin, 1878) features the three principal Allied leaders, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson (all seated in the center), who have finally reached an agreement at Versailles, June 28, 1919. Like Paul Nash, Orpen had been recruited by the War Propaganda Bureau to paint on the Western Front. He was later commissioned to paint this portrait of politicians at the Versailles Peace Conference. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Versailles Treaty signed Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Harlem Hellfighters:

10 Harlem Hellfighters Returning to New York in 1919 aboard the USS Stockholm, these black men of the famed U.S. 369th Division had fought in the bloody battle of the Meuse-Argonne during World War I. The French government awarded 150 of them the coveted Croix de Guerre. Yet, since the United States practiced strict racial segregation at that time, these soldiers couldn't be served in any restaurant south of Philadelphia. (Corbis) Harlem Hellfighters Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

"The War As I Saw It“:

11 "The War As I Saw It" The War As I Saw It was the title of a series of grotesque drawings that appeared in 1920 in Simplicissimus, Germany's leading satirical magazine. Nothing shows better the terrible impact of World War I than this profoundly disturbing example of expressionist art. (Caroline Buckler) "The War As I Saw It“ Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

"Freedom" poster, 1905:

12 "Freedom" poster, 1905 This peasant woman, who appears as the symbol of radical demands in the Russian countryside in the revolution of 1905, holds aloft a red socialist banner that reads "Freedom!" This vibrant drawing is on the first page of a new review featuring political cartoons from the rapidly growing Russian popular press. (New York Public Library, Slavonic Division) "Freedom" poster, 1905 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Russian demonstrations, 1917:

13 Russian demonstrations, 1917 The mass demonstrations in Petrograd, June 1917, showed a surge of working-class support for the Bolsheviks. In this photo, a few banners of the Mensheviks and other moderate socialists are drowned in a sea of Bolshevik slogans. (Sovfoto) Russian demonstrations, 1917 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Lenin as orator, 1920:

14 Lenin as orator, 1920 The Bolsheviks were a small but tightly disciplined group of radicals obedient to the will of their leader, Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924). Here he is addressing Red Army soldiers in Sverdlov Square, Moscow, in 1920. At the time, the Bolsheviks were mopping up the last of the anti-Bolshevik forces and were fully engaged in a war with Poland. The fate of the Revolution depended on the fighting spirit of the Red Army soldiers and on their loyalty to Lenin. (David King Collection) Lenin as orator, 1920 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Armenian genocide:

15 Armenian genocide In 1915, when some Armenians welcomed Russian armies as liberators after years of persecution, the Ottoman government ordered a genocidal mass deportation of its Armenian citizens from their homeland to the empire's eastern provinces. This photo, taken in Kharpert in 1915 by a German businessman from his hotel window, shows Turkish guards marching Armenian men off to a prison, where they will be tortured to death. A million Armenians died from murder, starvation, and disease during World War I. (Courtesy of the Armenian Library & Museum of America, Watertown, MA) Armenian genocide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Turks celebrate victory at Smyrna, 1922:

16 Turks celebrate victory at Smyrna, 1922 In 1919 Greek armies carried by British ships landed on the Turkish coast at Smyrna (the ancient name Europeans used for the port of Ismir). The sultan ordered his exhausted troops not to resist, and Greek armies advanced into the interior. After three years of fighting, the Turks were victorious over the Greek and British invaders, and Mustafa Kemal ended the Greek idea of establishing a modern empire that would include part of Turkey. In this photo, the Turks celebrate victory at Smyrna, October 1922. (Liaison/Getty Images) Turks celebrate victory at Smyrna, 1922 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Mustafa Kemal:

17 Mustafa Kemal In 1919 Mustafa Kemal, a hero of the Gallipoli campaign, had formed a nationalist government in central Anatolia with the backing of fellow army officers. After World War I, he was determined to modernize Turkey on the western model. Here he is shown wearing a European-style suit and teaching the Latin alphabet. (Stock Montage) Mustafa Kemal Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

"First Fruits":

18 "First Fruits" Whereas Jerusalem was the center of Jewish religious culture and conservative art in the 1920s, the new coastal city of Tel Aviv sprang up secular, and it gloried in avant-garde modern art. This painting, First Fruits (or First Pioneers), 1923, by Reuven Rubin (1893-1974), a leader of Tel Aviv's modernist school, depicts Jewish pioneers in a stark, two-dimensional landscape and conveys an exotic "Garden of Eden" flavor. Arriving from Romania, Rubin was bowled over by Palestine. (Collection, Rubin Museum, Tel-Aviv) "First Fruits" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Palestinian Arabs protest:

19 Palestinian Arabs protest In the early twentieth century, Great Britain and France had agreed to divide up the Arab lands; at Versailles President Wilson had insisted that the right of self-determination should be applied to the conquered Ottoman territories. To present their view to the Americans, Arab nationalists passed a resolution on July 2, 1919 that called for political independence, and talked of possible French rule under a League of Nations mandate and the establishment of a Jewish national home. This wasn't the view of all Arabs. In this photo, Palestinian Arabs protest against large-scale Jewish migration into Palestine. (Roger-Viollet/Getty Images) Palestinian Arabs protest Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

"The Right Path to Liberty":

20 "The Right Path to Liberty" In 1920 Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi (1869-1948) launched a national campaign of nonviolent resistance to British rule in India. The result was nothing less than a revolution in Indian politics, and Gandhi made Congress into a mass political party with members from every ethnic group. This Indian National Congress poster--The Right Path to Liberty--draws upon Indian culture to build support for nationalism. All Indian communities are marching toward freedom, but Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), and others are in prison, and a bridge has collapsed. Yet the Hindu deity Krishna reassures anxious Mother India: with a little more sacrifice the journey will be complete. (British Library) "The Right Path to Liberty" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Gandhi with spinning wheel:

21 Gandhi with spinning wheel Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi (1969-1948) believed that foreign cotton mills had impoverished the Indian people. He made a bonfire of imported factory-made cloth, decided to wear only handmade cloth, and began spending half an hour every day spinning yarn on a simple spinning wheel, which became the symbol of his movement. Any Indian who wished to come before him had to dress in handwoven cloth. (TimePix/Getty Images) Gandhi with spinning wheel Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Mao on Long March, 1933:

22 Mao on Long March, 1933 Mao Zedong (1893-1976) joined the Communist Party in the early 1920s and soon became one of its leaders. In 1934-1935, pursued by the Guomindang army, Mao Zedong led his rag-tag army of Communist guerrillas on a Long March (6,000 miles in one year) across the rugged mountains of southern and western China. Of the 100,000 Communists who left Bangxi in October 1934, only 8,000-10,000 reached Shaanxi a year later. In this romanticized painting, young Mao is speaking to a group of soldiers in spotless uniforms who look up at him with worshipful expressions. (Library of Congress) Mao on Long March, 1933 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Japanese in Shanghai, 1937:

23 Japanese in Shanghai, 1937 The rise of Chinese nationalism challenged the control that Japan exercised over Manchuria through Chinese warlords. In 1937 the Japanese military and the ultranationalists decided to use a minor incident near Beijing as a pretext for a general attack. The Nationalist government joined in a united front with the Communists and fought hard to halt the Japanese. But Shanghai, China's leading port, fell to the invading Japanese in November of that year. These jubilant infantry troops have successfully stormed the city's North Station. In China, the Japanese won the battles but they could not win the war. (Ullstein Bilderdienst) Japanese in Shanghai, 1937 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: Europe in 1913:

24 Map: Europe in 1913 Europe in 1914: On the eve of World War I, Europe was divided between two great alliance systems--the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and the Entente (France, Great Britain, and Russia)--and their respective colonial empires. These alliances were not stable. When war broke out, the Central Powers lost Italy but gained the Ottoman Empire. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: The First World War in Europe:

25 Map: The First World War in Europe The First World War in Europe: The trench war on the Western Front was concentrated in Belgium and northern France, while the war in the east encompassed an enormous territory. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: Territorial Changes in Europe After World War I:

26 Map: Territorial Changes in Europe After World War I Territorial Changes in Europe After World War I: The Great War brought tremendous changes to eastern Europe. Empires were shattered, and new stations were established. A dangerous power vacuum was created between Germany and Soviet Russia. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: Territorial Changes in the Middle East after World War I:

27 Map: Territorial Changes in the Middle East after World War I Territorial Changes in the Middle East after World War I: The defeat and dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I resulted in an entirely new political map of the region. The Turkish republic inherited Anatolia and a small piece of the Balkans, while the Ottoman Empire's Arab provinces were divided between France and Great Britain as "Class A Mandates." The French acquired Syria and Lebanon and the British got Palestine (now Israel), Transjordan (now Jordan), and Iraq. Only Iran and Egypt remained as they had been. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire, 1914-1923:

28 Map: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire, 1914-1923 The Partition of the Ottoman Empire, 1914-1923: The decline of the mighty Ottoman Empire began in 1699, when the Habsburgs conquered Hungary, and it accelerated after 1805, when Egypt became virtually independent. By 1914 the Ottoman Turks had been pushed out of the Balkans, and their Arab provinces were on the edge of revolt; that revolt erupted in the First World War and contributed greatly to the Ottomans' defeat. When the allies then attempted to implement their plans, including independence for the Armenian people, Mustafa Kemal arose to forge in battle the modern Turkish state. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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