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Unit 7 PowerPoint Presentation for World History II

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1 Unit 7 PowerPoint Presentation: Imperialism in Africa and Asia Click next to or below image for information.

Zulu regimental camp under Shaka:

2 Zulu regimental camp under Shaka Under the leadership of the founder of the Zulu kingdom, an upstart military genius named Shaka (r. 1818-1828), young men from across the kingdom were gathered together in Zulu regimental camps, where they learned the arts of war and military discipline. In the center of the camp youths are performing a dance. Note the neat rows of "beehive" sleeping huts, the cattle enclosure in the upper right of the center, and the horses at the lower left--probably owned by European visitors. The Zulu became the most powerful and most feared fighters in southern Africa. (National Archives, Zimbabwe) Zulu regimental camp under Shaka Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Tewodros's mighty cannon:

3 Tewodros's mighty cannon Tewodros's mighty cannon Like other modernizers in the nineteenth century, Emperor Tewodros of Ethiopia sought to reform his military forces. In 1861 he forced resident European missionaries and craftsmen to build guns and cannon, including this 7-ton behemoth nicknamed "Sebastapol" after the Black Sea port that had been the center of the Crimean War. It took 500 men to haul the cannon across Ethiopia's hilly terrain. (From Hormuzd Rassam, Narrative of the British Mission to Theodore, King of Abyssinia, II, London 1869) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Jaja founds Opobo, 1869:

4 Jaja founds Opobo, 1869 This talented man rose from slavery in the Niger Delta port of Bonny to head one of the town's major palm-oil trading firms, the Anna Pepple House, in 1863. Six years later, Jaja founded and ruled his own trading port of Opobo. (Reproduced from Michael Crowder, West Africa: An Introduction to Its History, by courtesy of the publishers, Addison Wesley Longman) Jaja founds Opobo, 1869 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Pashim Halim receives Archduke of Austria:

5 Pashim Halim receives Archduke of Austria As this painting of Pasha Halim receiving Archduke Maximilian of Austria suggests, Ottoman leaders became well-versed in European languages and culture. They also mastered the game of power politics, playing one European state off against another and securing the Ottoman Empire's survival. The black servants on the right may be slaves from the Sudan. (G. Dagli-Orti/The Art Archive) Pashim Halim receives Archduke of Austria Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Diamond mining, S. Africa, 1889:

6 Diamond mining, S. Africa, 1889 The discovery of diamonds in the Transvaal, in southern Africa, in 1867, attracted prospectors to the area around Kimberley. The first wave of prospectors consisted of individual "diggers," including a few Africans. By the late 1870s, surface deposits had been exhausted and further mining required complex and costly machinery. After 1889, one company, De Beers Consolidated, owned all the diamond mines. The photograph shows the entrance to a mineshaft and mine workers surrounded by heavy equipment. (Royal Commonwealth Society. By permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library) Diamond mining, S. Africa, 1889 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

A Steamboat for the Congo River, 1895:

7 A Steamboat for the Congo River, 1895 Soon after the Congo Basin was occupied by Europeans in the late nineteenth century, the new colonial rulers realized they needed to improve transportation. Since access from the sea was blocked by rapids on the lower Congo River, steamboats had to be brought in sections, hauled from the coast by thousands of Congolese over very difficult terrain. This picture from The Congo, Vol. 2, by the American journalist Henry Morton Stanley, 1885, shows the pieces arriving at Stanley Pool, ready to be reassembled. (From H.M. Stanley, The Congo, vol. 2, London, 1885) A Steamboat for the Congo River, 1895 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Victorious Ethiopians, 1896:

8 Victorious Ethiopians, 1896 Among the states of Africa in the late nineteenth century, Ethiopia alone was able to defend itself against European imperialism. In the 1880s, hemmed in by Italian advances to its east and north and by British advances to its south and west, Ethiopia purchased modern weapons and trained its army to use them. Thus prepared, the Ethiopians defeated an Italian invasion at Adowa in 1896. These Ethiopian army officers wore their most elaborate finery to pose for a photograph after their victory. (National Archives) Victorious Ethiopians, 1896 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

British Mem-Sahib:

9 British Mem-Sahib Lady Mary was the wife of Sir Elijah Impey, Chief Justice of Bengal from 1774 to 1782. An enthusiast of painting, she commissioned a series of natural history paintings that rival the paintings of the Mughal school. In this portrait--probably by Shaykh Zayn-al-Din--Lady Mary is preoccupied with her milliner, who offers an elegant hat. In her comfortably formal salon that mixes Indian and European decor, she is surrounded by various Indian servants including an Anglo-Indian butler in English livery, a colorfully dressed page, and the gardener with his daily offering of flowers and vegetables. (The Art Archive) British Mem-Sahib Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Indian railroad station:

10 Indian railroad station In this charming painting of an Indian railroad station in 1866, travelers of every social class mill around on the platform. British India built the largest network of railroads in Asia. (Eyre & Hobhouse Art Gallery) Indian railroad station Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Asian laborers in British Guinea:

11 Asian laborers in British Guinea The manager of this sugar estate in British Guiana reposes on the near end of the gallery of his house with the proprietor's attorney. At the other end of the gallery European overseers review the plantation's record books. In the yard, cups of lifeblood are being drained from bound Chinese and Indian laborers. This allegorical drawing by a Chinese laborer in the nineteenth century represents the exploitation of Asian laborers by Europeans. (Boston Athenaeum) Asian laborers in British Guinea Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

British and Sikh leaders meeting:

12 British and Sikh leaders meeting The Sikh kingdom in the Punjab fell to the British in a brief war in 1845-1846. This painting depicts the British and Sikh representatives negotiating the resulting treaty, which gave Britain control of the region. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) British and Sikh leaders meeting Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Opening of Suez Canal, 1869:

13 Opening of Suez Canal, 1869 This colored engraving depicts the opening of the Suez Canal, which the French had built across Egyptian territory in 1869, linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. It significantly shortened the voyage by ship from Europe to East Asia. The Suez Canal exemplified the speeding up of transportation and communication in the second half of the nineteenth century. (akg-images) Opening of Suez Canal, 1869 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Matthew Perry arriving in Japanese harbor:

14 Matthew Perry arriving in Japanese harbor In 1853 the American Commodore Matthew Perry's ships surprised the Tokugawa Shogunate by appearing not in Kyushu or southern Honshu, where European ships previously had been spotted, but at Uraga on the coast of eastern Honshu. The Japanese soon learned that Perry had come not from the south but across the Pacific from the east. The novelty of the threat unsettled the provincial leaders, who were largely responsible for their own defense. In this print done after the Meiji Restoration, the traditionally dressed local samurai go out to confront the mysterious "black ships." (Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) Matthew Perry arriving in Japanese harbor Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Yamagata Aritomo:

15 Yamagata Aritomo As a young man, Yamagata Aritomo had joined with other provincial leaders to overthrow the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1867-1868 and effect the Meiji Restoration. In 1910 he was still leading the government. Yamagata modernized Japan's army and remained a formidable force in Japanese policymaking until his death in 1922. (Asahi Shimbun Photo) Yamagata Aritomo Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Meiji skyscraper:

16 Meiji skyscraper Meiji Japan's fascination with things Western led to the construction of Western-style buildings. Japan's first elevator made possible this twelve-story tower constructed in Tokyo in 1890. Built in the entertainment district, it was filled with shops, theaters, bars, and restaurants. (Department of Historical Documents, National Institute of Japanese Literature/International Society for Education Information, Japan ) Meiji skyscraper Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Maxim gun:

17 Maxim gun These two representatives of the Qing Empire visited northern England after the great Chinese civil war, called the Taiping Rebellion, to examine and, if possible, purchase new weapons. They posed for a photograph after the famous Maxim gun shot a tree in half. (Peter Newark's Military Pictures) Maxim gun Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Nanjing encircled (Qing), 1864:

18 Nanjing encircled (Qing), 1864 The Taiping movement arose to drive the Manchu conquerors, the Qing, out of China. For a decade the Taipings held the city of Nanjing as their capital. For years Qing and international troops attempted to break the Taiping hold. By the summer of 1864, Qing forces had built tunnels leading to the foundations of Nanjing's city walls and had planted explosives. The detonation of the explosives signaled the final Qing assault on the rebel capital. As shown here, the common people of the city, along with their starving livestock, were caught in the crossfire. Many of the Taiping leaders escaped the debacle at Nanjing, but nearly all were hunted down and executed. (Roger-Viollet/Getty Images) Nanjing encircled (Qing), 1864 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Empress Dowager, 1862-1908:

19 Empress Dowager, 1862-1908 In the 1860s and 1870s, Cixi was a supporter of reform. After the 1880s, known as the "Empress Dowager," she was widely regarded as corrupt and self-centered, and as an obstacle to reform. Her greatest allies were the court eunuchs. Introduced to palace life in early China as managers of the imperial harem, eunuchs became powerful political parties at court. The first Qin emperors refused to allow the eunuchs any political influence, but by Cixi's time the eunuchs were once again a political force. (Courtesy, Freer Gallery, Smithsonian Institution) Empress Dowager, 1862-1908 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: Conflicts in the Qing Empire, 1839-1870:

20 Map: Conflicts in the Qing Empire, 1839-1870 Conflicts in the Qing Empire, 1839-1870 In both the Opium War of 1839-1842 and the Arrow War of 1856-1860, the sea coasts saw most of the action. Since the Qing had no imperial navy, the well-armed British ships encountered little resistance as they shelled the southern coasts. In inland conflicts, such as the Taiping Rebellion, the opposing armies were massive and slow moving. Battles on land were often prolonged attempts by one side to starve out the other side before making a major assault. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: Expansion and Modernization of Japan, 1868-1918:

21 Map: Expansion and Modernization of Japan, 1868-1918 Expansion and Modernization of Japan, 1868-1918 As Japan acquired modern industry, it followed the example of the European powers in seeking overseas colonies. Its colonial empire grew at the expense of its neighbors: Taiwan was taken from China in 1895. Karafutu (now Sakhalin) from Russia in 1905, and all of Korea became a colony in 1910. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: European Possessions in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific, 1870:

22 Map: European Possessions in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific, 1870 European Possessions in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific, 1870 After 1750, French and British competition for new territories generally expanded the European presence established earlier by the Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch. By 1870 the British controlled much of India, were settling Australia and New Zealand, and possessed important trading enclaves throughout the region. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: The Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, 1829-1914:

23 Map: The Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, 1829-1914 The Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, 1829-1914 at its height the Ottoman Empire controlled most of the perimeter of the Mediterranean Sea. But in the 1800s Ottoman territory shrank as many countries gained their independence--frequently with the aid of France or Russia. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: Africa in 1878 and 1914:

24 Map: Africa in 1878 and 1914 Africa in 1878 and 1914 in 1878 the European colonial presence was limited to a few coastal enclaves, plus portions of Algeria and South Africa. By 1914, Europeans had taken over all of Africa except Ethiopia and Liberia. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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