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Unit 4 PowerPoint Presentation for World History II

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1 Unit 4 PowerPoint Presentation Africa, Asia and the Islamic World. Click next to or below image for information.

Queen Mother and Attendants:

2 Queen Mother and Attendants As in Ottoman, Chinese, and European societies, so the mothers of rulers in Africa sometimes exercised considerable political power because of their influence on their sons. African kings granted the title "Queen Mother" as a badge of honor. In this figure, the long beaded cap, called "chicken's beak," symbolizes the mother's rank as do her elaborate neck jewelry and attendants. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. KIlaus G. Perls, 1991 (1991.17.111). Photograph (c) 1991 The Metropolitan Museum of Art) Queen Mother and Attendants Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Fort Jesus, Mombasa:

3 Fort Jesus, Mombasa This great fortress of Fort Jesus, Mombasa, was designed by the Milanese military architect Joao Batista Cairato in traditional European style, and built between 1593 and 1594. It still stands as a symbol of Portuguese military and commercial power in East Africa and the Indian Ocean in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (Wolfgang Kaehler/Getty Images) Fort Jesus, Mombasa Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Sapi-Portuguese saltcellar:

4 Sapi-Portuguese saltcellar Contact with the Sapi people of present-day Sierra Leone in West Africa led sixteenth-century Portuguese traders to commission this ivory saltcellar, for which they brought Portuguese designs. But the object's basic features--a spherical container and separate lid on a flat base, with men, women, and supporting beams below--are distinctly African. An executioner, holding an ax with which he has beheaded five men, stands on the lid. This piece was probably intended as an example of Sapi artistic virtuosity, rather than for practical table use. (Courtesy, Museo Preistorico y Etnografico, Rome) Sapi-Portuguese saltcellar Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Saint George in Ethiopian Art:

5 Saint George in Ethiopian Art This image of a black Saint George slaying a dragon, from a seventeenth-century Ethiopian manuscript, attests to the powerful and pervasive Christian influence in Ethiopian culture. (British Library) Saint George in Ethiopian Art Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

City of Luanda, 1575:

6 City of Luanda, 1575 Founded by the Portuguese in 1575, Luanda was a center of the huge slave trade to Brazil. In this print, offices and warehouses line the streets, and (right foreground) slaves are dragged to the ships for transportation to America. (New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations/Art Resource, NY) City of Luanda, 1575 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Queen Njiga (Nzinga):

7 Queen Njiga (Nzinga) Njiga (Nzinga) of Ndongo (r. 1624-1629) was the most important female political figure in the history of early modern Angola. She used military force in her expansionist policy and participated fully in the slave trade, but she fiercely resisted Portuguese attempts to control that trade. Here she sits enthroned, wearing her crown (the cross a sign of her Christian baptism) and bracelets, giving an order. She has become a symbol of African resistance to colonial rule. (Courtesy, Ezio Bassani) Queen Njiga (Nzinga) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Olaudah Equiano:

8 Olaudah Equiano Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797) was probably the best-known African slave during the time of the Transatlantic slave trade. Born in Benin (modern Nigeria), he was enslaved and eventually placed in the custody of a kind English family. They gave him the rudiments of an education, and he was baptized a Christian. By the time he was 21 years old--after being a slave for ten years--he had amassed enough money to buy his freedom. His book Travels is a well-documented argument for the abolition of slavery and a literary classic that went through nine editions before his death. In this engraving, Equiano is dressed as an elegant Englishman, his Bible open to the Book of Acts. (New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture/Art Resource, NY) Olaudah Equiano Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Slave ship:

9 Slave ship This drawing from a British parliamentary report on slavery shows that the revolting conditions on slave ships sailing to Caribbean and North American ports pale in barbarity beside conditions on the southern route to Brazil, where slaves were literally packed like sardines in a can. Slave ship Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Caribbean Sugar Mill:

10 Caribbean Sugar Mill This painting, from William Clark's Ten Views in the Island of Antigua, 1823, depicts a Caribbean windmill crushing sugar cane whose juice is boiled down in the smoking building next door. (British Library) Caribbean Sugar Mill Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Chinese plate in African pillar tomb:

11 Chinese plate in African pillar tomb Embedded in an eighteenth-century Kunduchi pillar tomb, these Chinese plates testify to the enormous Asian-African trade that flourished in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries. Kunduchi, whose ruins lie north of Dar es Salaam in present-day Tanzania, was one of the Swahili city-states. (Werner Forman Archive/Art Resource, NY) Chinese plate in African pillar tomb Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: The Atlantic Economy:

12 Map: The Atlantic Economy The Atlantic Economy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Suleimaniye mosque:

13 Suleimaniye mosque Designed and built (1548-1557) by Pasha Sinan (1491-1588), a Greek-born devshirme recruit who became the greatest architect in Ottoman history, the Suleimaniye Mosque in Istanbul asserts the dynasty's power, religious orthodoxy, and the sultan's position as "God's shadow on earth." Suleiman, who financed it, is buried here. (Robert Frerck/Woodfin Camp & Associates) Suleimaniye mosque Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ottoman coffeehouse:

14 Ottoman coffeehouse This sixteenth-century miniature depicts many activities typical of Ottoman coffeehouses: patrons enter (upper left); some sit, drinking coffee in small porcelain cups (center); the manager makes fresh coffee (right). In the center, men sit on a low sofa, reading and talking. At bottom appear activities considered disreputable: musicians playing instruments, others playing games such as backgammon, a board game where moves are determined by rolls of dice. (Reproduced by kind permission of the Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin) Ottoman coffeehouse Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ottoman glassmakers on parade:

15 Ottoman glassmakers on parade Celebrations of the circumcisions of the sultan's sons featured parades organized by the craft guilds of Istanbul. This illustration, from the Surnama (Book of the Circumcision Festival) of Murad III (ca. 1582), shows a float from the parade of the Ottoman guild of potters. It features glassmaking, a common craft in Islamic realms. The most elaborate glasswork included oil lamps for mosques and colored glass for the small stained-glass windows below mosque domes. (Topkapi Palace Museum) Ottoman glassmakers on parade Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Fatehpur-Sikri:

16 Fatehpur-Sikri The reign of Akbar (r. 1556-1605) may well have been the greatest in the history of India. In 1569 he founded the city of Fatehpur-Sikri to honor the Muslim holy man Shaykh Salim Chishti, who had foretold the birth of Akbar's son and heir, Jahangir. The red sandstone city, probably the finest example of Mughal architecture still intact, was Akbar's capital for fifteen years. (Nrupen Madhvani/Dinodia Picture Agency) Fatehpur-Sikri Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Taj Mahal:

17 Taj Mahal Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658) had a strong interest in architecture. His most enduring monument is the Taj Mahal, the supreme example of a garden tomb. Twenty thousand workers toiled eighteen years to build this memorial in Agra to Shah Jahan's favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died giving birth to their fifteenth child. The Taj Mahal is both an expression of love and a superb architectural blending of Islamic and Indian culture. Its white marble exterior is inlaid with semiprecious stones in Arabic inscriptions and floral designs. The oblong pool reflects the building, which asserts the power of the Mughal Dynasty. (John Elk/Stock, Boston) Taj Mahal Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

English factory at Surat:

18 English factory at Surat This factory-fort at Surat began as a storage place for goods before they were bought and transported abroad. It gradually expanded to include merchants' residences and some sort of fortification. By 1650 the English had twenty-three factory-forts in India. Surat, in the Gujarat region on the Gulf of Cambay, was the busiest factory-fort and port until it was sacked by the Marathas (a blend of warrior and agrarian classes who spoke Marathi) in 1664. (Mansell Collection) English factory at Surat Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ceramics manufacture:

19 Ceramics manufacture Ming porcelain factories perfected a style of assembly-line manufacture. The techniques were well established in central coastal China, and woodblock-printed technical books such as this one (Tiangong Kaiwu) made the information widely available to technicians, investors, managers, and officials. This combination of industrial organization and printed information was later emulated in Korea, Japan, and Europe. (From Tiangong Kaiwu) Ceramics manufacture Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Navigation techniques of Zheng-He:

20 Navigation techniques of Zheng-He The navigational techniques that Zheng He and his crew used were well established and tested, as this manual Wubei zhi (records of military preparations), 1621, shows. Ships were precisely guided by reference to the Pole Star, and the routes to India, the Middle East, and East Africa were well known. The manual underscores that Zheng He's mission was not to explore but to carry out political and, if possible, economic mandates. (From Wubei zhi, 1621) Navigation techniques of Zheng-He Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Sesshu painting:

21 Sesshu painting Sesshu Toyo (1420–1506) is renowned as the creator of a distinctive style in ink painting that contrasted with the Chinese styles that predominated earlier in Japan. He owed much of his training to the development of Japanese commerce in the period of the Ashikaga Shogunate. As a youth he traveled to China, where he first learned his techniques. As he developed his style, a market for his art developed among the merchant communities of the Ashikaga period, and spread to other urban elites. ( Tokyo National Museum/DNP Archives) Sesshu painting Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Emperior Kangxi:

22 Emperior Kangxi A group of Manchu aristocrats who dominated the first Qing emperor based in China were regents for his young son, who was declared emperor in 1662. In 1669 this child-emperor, Kangxi--at the age of 16--gained real as well as formal control of the government by executing his chief regent. He was an intellectual prodigy and a successful military commander. His reign, lasting until his death in 1722, was marked not only by great expansion of the empire but by great stability as well. This portrait of Kangxi, from about 1690, depicts him as a refined scholar, as he preferred to be portrayed. (Palace Museum, Beijing) Emperior Kangxi Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Scholar-bureaucrat's study, Qing:

23 Scholar-bureaucrat's study, Qing In this reconstruction of a scholar-bureaucrat's study of the Qing Period, we see the carved rosewood desk with brass-edged corners (rear left); the small stove for preparing tea for guests; the cushioned couch (rear right); the rich carpet; the long narrow table for painting or studying scrolls, some of which stand in a holder on the tiled floor; and the birdcage on the window wall. The immaculate order, restrained elegance, and sense of calm tranquillity of this study--which was located in the most private part of the scholar's house--incorporate the loftiest Confucian ideals for the highest class, the scholars. (Philadelphia Museum of Art, Gift of Wright S. Ludington in memory of his father, Charles H. Ludington (1929-30-1)) Scholar-bureaucrat's study, Qing Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Scholars taking civil service exam:

24 Scholars taking civil service exam The civil service examinations of the Qing dynasty tested candidates' knowledge of the Confucian canon: rituals, history, poetry, cosmology--all believed to provide the basis for a moral life--and calligraphy. By the eighteenth century, the system was under attack because it failed to select the ablest scholars, the number of candidates had not increased in proportion to population, degrees were sold to the rich, and frequently even successful candidates could not find positions. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Scholars taking civil service exam Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Qianlong Emperor at Archery Contest:

25 Qianlong Emperor at Archery Contest During the sixty-year reign of the Qianlong emperor, China became the world's richest and most populous nation. Executed by the Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione, whose portraits and panoramas combine Chinese composition with Western perspective and coloration, this painting of the emperor at an archery contest--with elegant garden, stately uniforms of the attendants, and dignified image of the emperor--suggests the formal ritual of the imperial court. Castiglione was a special favorite of the emperor, who also supported Jesuit architects and designers. (Private Collection) Qianlong Emperor at Archery Contest Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Tea fields:

26 Tea fields When tea became England's national drink in the eighteenth century, tea imported from China cost the English a staggering 20,000,000 British pounds per year--all paid for in silver, because the Chinese did not want to accept English goods in exchange. China also exported huge quantities of porcelain and cotton textiles to Europe and the Americas, leading to a net drain from the West to China of 3,000,000 ounces of silver in 1760 and 16,000,000 ounces in 1780. These figures suggest the urgency of the Macartney mission that reached Canton in June 1793 and sought the establishment of permanent Chinese-British diplomatic relations, broader trade, and a fair system of tariffs or customs duties. (Private Collection. Reproduced courtesy of Thames & Hudson) Tea fields Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Daimyo procession:

27 Daimyo procession Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616), who ruled vast territories around Edo (modern-day Tokyo), set up the sankin kotai (alternate residence) system, whereby the daimyo (feudal lords), were compelled to live in the capital, Edo, every other year and to leave their wives and sons there, essentially as hostages. Travel with retinues between the daimyos' residences and Edo, as we see here, stimulated construction of roads, inns, and castle towns. This system of sankin kotai also meant that the shogun could keep tabs on the daimyos, control them through their children, and weaken them financially with the burden of maintaining two residences. (Tokugawa Art Museum, Nagoya/Tokagawa Reimeikai Foundation) Daimyo procession Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Western warehouses, Canton harbor:

28 Western warehouses, Canton harbor Trade with Europe was carefully regulated by the Chinese imperial government, the Manchu Dynasty. It required all foreign merchants to live in the southern city of Canton and to buy and sell only to the local merchant monopoly. For years the little community of foreign merchants in Canton had to accept the Chinese system. Here we see Western warehouses and offices, with their respective flags flying, in Canton Harbor in the nineteenth century. (Courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum) Western warehouses, Canton harbor Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: The Ming Empire and Its Allies, 1368-1500:

29 Map: The Ming Empire and Its Allies, 1368-1500 The Ming Empire controlled China but had a hostile relationship with peoples in Mongolia and Central Asia who had been under the rule of the Mongol Yuan emperors. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: The Ottoman Empire at Its Height, 1566:

30 Map: The Ottoman Empire at Its Height, 1566 The Ottoman Empire at Its Height Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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