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Unit 1 PowerPoint for World History II

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Unit 1 PowerPoints: Religious Wars and Globalization:

1 Unit 1 PowerPoints: Religious Wars and Globalization Interactive: Click next to or below image for additional information.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre:

2 St . Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Duke of Alva:

3 Duke of Alva

Dutch Revolt:

4 Dutch Revolt

Philip II:

5 Philip II

Queen Elizabeth I:

6 Queen Elizabeth I

Spanish Armada (1):

7 Spanish Armada (1)

Spanish Armada (2):

8 Spanish Armada (2)

Thirty Years War 1618-1648:

9 Thirty Years War 1618-1648

Marco Polo's headless people:

10 Marco Polo's headless people Medieval Christians believed that wondrous peoples lived beyond the borders of Christendom. Images of headless or one-legged men were usually included in travel accounts. This illustration from Marco Polo's Travels shows what many Europeans expected to find when they traveled. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Marco Polo's headless people Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Polynesian canoes:

11 Polynesian canoes Pacific Ocean mariners sailing canoes such as these, shown in an eighteenth-century painting, made epic voyages of exploration and settlement. A large platform connects two canoes at the left, providing more room for the members of the expedition, and a sail supplements the paddlers. This painting depicts Tereoboo, King of Owyhee, bringing presents to Captain Cook. (Courtesy, The Dixon Library, State Library of New South Wales) Polynesian canoes Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Cantino Map:

12 Cantino Map The Cantino Map was named for the agent secretly commissioned to design it in Lisbon for the Duke of Ferrara, an avid Italian map collector. It reveals such a good knowledge of the African continent, of the islands of the West Indies, and of the shoreline of present-day Venezuela, Guiana, and Brazil that modern scholars suspect there may have been clandestine voyages to the Americas shortly after Columbus's. (Biblioteca Estense, Modena) Cantino Map Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ca' d'Oro:

13 Ca' d'Oro Travel and long-term residence in the Muslim East gave Venetian merchants familiarity with Islamic architecture. Inspired by what they saw, and using Islamic motifs, Venetian merchants built palaces that served both as headquarters for their businesses and as family homes. The Contarini family, whose colossal fortune rested on banking and commerce, built this palace--the Ca' d'Oro--on the Grand Canal. Ca is an abbreviation of casa (house), a term of modesty to distinguish it from palazzo (palace), a word reserved for the doge's residence. Because the exterior was gilded, it was called the House of Gold. (Scala/Art Resource, NY) Ca' d'Oro Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Vessels off Java Coast:

14 Vessels off Java Coast This sixteenth-century Dutch engraving shows four types of vessels off the Java Coast. Clockwise from top: a Javanese trading sailboat; a Chinese junk, a flatbottomed ship with high poop (exposed partial deck) and battens (material to fasten down hatches in foul weather); a local fishing boat; and a Javanese junk. (From Lodewycksk, 1598) Vessels off Java Coast Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Pepper harvest:

15 Pepper harvest To break the monotony of their bland diet, Europeans had a passion for pepper, which--along with cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and ginger--was the main object of the Asian trade. One kilo of pepper cost 2 grams of silver at the place of production in the East Indies; 10 to 14 grams in Alexandria, Egypt; 14 to 18 grams in Venice; and 20 to 30 grams at the markets of northern Europe. Thus, we can appreciate the fifteenth-century expression "as dear as pepper." Here natives fill vats, and the dealer tastes a peppercorn for pungency. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Pepper harvest Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Portuguese in India:

16 Portuguese in India In the sixteenth century Portuguese men moved to the Indian Ocean basin to work as administrators and traders. This Indo-Portuguese drawing from about 1540 shows a Portuguese man speaking to an Indian woman, perhaps making a proposal of marriage. (Biblioteca Casanatense, Rome. Photo: Humberto Nicoletti Serra) Portuguese in India Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Arawak women making tortillas:

17 Arawak women making tortillas The first Amerindians to encounter Columbus were the Arawak of Hispaniola (modern Haiti and the Dominican Republic). They cultivated maize (corn), cassava (a tuber), sweet potatoes, and hot peppers, as well as cotton and tobacco. This sixteenth-century woodcut depicts techniques of food preparation in the West Indies. The woman at the left grinds cornmeal on a metate. The woman in the center pats cornmeal dough flat and fries the tortillas. The third woman serves tortillas with a bowl of stew. (Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University) Arawak women making tortillas Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Mexico-Spanish encounter:

18 Mexico-Spanish encounter On May 23, 1520, Pedro de Alvarado, one of Cortes's captains, massacred Mexican nobles who had been dancing during a religious celebration. This illustration from the Codex Duran depicts the Mexican counterattack. The Spaniards took refuge in the palace, where the Mexicans besieged them. The difference in weapons is striking: The Mexicans are armed with spears, the Spaniards with firearms and crossbows. The colorful dress of the Mexicans--indicating that this was a ceremonial rite for them--contrasts with the dull metallic gray of the Spaniards' armor. The location of these events is indicated by the glyph for Mexico-Tenochtitlan (the cactus) seen above the Mexican warriors. (Instit Amatller d'Art Hispanic) Mexico-Spanish encounter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Las Casas and Crusade for Justice:

19 Las Casas and Crusade for Justice Bartolome de las Casas (1474-1566)--a Dominican missionary and eventually bishop of Chiapas in southern Mexico--passionately condemned the violence and brutality of the Spanish conquests. His criticisms were published widely and accompanied by woodcuts such as this one showing the cruelty of the conquerors. In response to Las Casas, Charles V passed laws protecting the rights of the indigenous peoples. (Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University) Las Casas and Crusade for Justice Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Indians harvesting wheat:

20 Indians harvesting wheat Between 1500 to 1800, Europe underwent a population explosion, solved partly by immigration to the Americas. The transfer of Old World animals and foods enhanced the Americas' ability to feed their growing population. Sixteenth-century Spaniards introduced wheat into Latin America, where it competed with the native corn and manioc. (Institut Amatller d’Art Hispanic) Indians harvesting wheat Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Silver refinery at Potosi, Bolivia:

21 Silver refinery at Potosi, Bolivia The silver refineries of Spanish America were among the largest industrial establishments in the Western Hemisphere during the colonial period. By the middle of the seventeenth century the mines of Potosi, Bolivia, had attracted a population of more than 120,000. This illustration shows a typical refinery (ingenio). Aqueducts carried water to the refineries. The water wheel shown on the right drove two sets of vertical stamps that crushed ore. Crushed ore was sorted, dried, and mixed with mercury and other catalysts to extract the silver. The amalgam was then separated by a combination of washing and heating. The end result was a nearly pure ingot of silver. (From Alan K. Craig and Robert C. West (eds), In Quest of Mineral Wealth: Aboriginal and Colonial Mining and Metallurgy in Spanish America, vol. 33 of Geoscience and Man, 1994. Courtesy, Geoscience Publications) Silver refinery at Potosi, Bolivia Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Columbian Exchange:

22 Columbian Exchange The term Columbian Exchange refers to the transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and diseases between the New and Old Worlds. After the Spanish conquest, the introduction of plants and animals from the Old World dramatically altered the American environment. Here an Amerindian woman is seen milking a cow. Livestock sometimes destroyed the fields of native peoples, but cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats also provided food, leather, and wool. (Photo: Imaging Services, Harvard College Library) Columbian Exchange Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Tobacco factory machinery, Mexico:

23 Tobacco factory machinery, Mexico As part of the Columbian Exchange, the New World introduced to the Old plants that provided dyes, medicinal plants, varieties of cotton, and tobacco. This illustration shows a tobacco factory in eighteenth-century Mexico City using a horse-driven mechanical shredder to produce snuff and cigarette tobacco. (Archivo General de la Nacion, Buenos Aires) Tobacco factory machinery, Mexico Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Forming Mexican Peoples:

24 Forming Mexican Peoples This painting by an unknown eighteenth-century Mexican artist presents a naive but sympathetic view of interracial unions and marriages in colonial Mexico. On the left, the union of a Spanish man and a native American woman has produced a racially mixed mestizo. The handsome group on the right features a mestizo woman and a Spaniard with their little daughter. (Private Collection) Forming Mexican Peoples Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Portuguese fort guarding Musqat harbor:

25 Portuguese fort guarding Musqat harbor Portuguese power in East Africa suffered severe blows when the Arabs of Oman, in southeastern Arabia, captured their south Arabian stronghold at Musqat (1650) and went on to create a maritime empire of their own, working in greater cooperation with the African populations. Musqat in Oman and Aden in Yemen, the best harbors in southern Arabia, were always targets for imperial navies trying to establish dominance in the Indian Ocean. Musqat's harbor is small and circular with one narrow entrance overlooked by the fortress. The palace of the sultan of Oman is still located at the opposite end of the harbor. (Robert Harding Picture Library) Portuguese fort guarding Musqat harbor Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

From the Jesuit Library at Beijing:

26 From the Jesuit Library at Beijing Jesuits such as Matteo Ricci were willing to share books on technology and science with Chinese scholars. But without firsthand experience it was impossible for Chinese translators to convey how a man walking in a wheel drives a shaft that changes the pressure inside two pumps. The left-hand illustration is from Zonca, Trombe da Rota per Vavar Aqua, 1607. In the Chinese translation of the drawing, from Qi tushuo (Illustrations on Energy), 1627, the mechanisms were all lost. (Reproduced from Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China, vol. 4, with permission) From the Jesuit Library at Beijing Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Islamic wedding present of Chinese porcelain:

27 Islamic wedding present of Chinese porcelain During the fifteenth century vast amounts of Chinese porcelain were exported to the Islamic world. This fragment from an Aqqoyunlu Turkoman scroll, from western Iran, depicts part of a wedding procession with several pieces of Chinese blue-and-white ware in the filigreed cart, probably part of the bride's dowry. The image shows clear signs of Chinese influence in the artist's treatment of landscape. (Topkapi Palace Museum) Islamic wedding present of Chinese porcelain Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: Indian Ocean Trade Routes:

28 Map: Indian Ocean Trade Routes Indian Ocean Trade Routes The faith of Islam took strong root on the east coast of Africa and in northern India, Sumatra, the Malay Archipelago, and the southern Philippines. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Christianity competed with Islam for the adherence of peoples on all the Indian Ocean islands. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Map: European Exploration and Conquest, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries:

29 Map: European Exploration and Conquest, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries European Exploration and Conquest, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries The voyages of discovery marked another phase in the centuries-old migrations of European peoples. Consider the major contemporary significance of each of the three voyages depicted on the map Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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