Unit2_WWII_PPP

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World War II :

World War II FDR and the Road to War America in World War II

America First bumper sticker: "Keep Our Boys at Home":

America First bumper sticker: "Keep Our Boys at Home" The isolationist America First Committee produced this bumper sticker in 1941 in a vain attempt to halt the United States descent into war. America First was organized in September of 1940 and attracted many prominent members, including the famed aviator Charles Lindbergh. (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library) America First bumper sticker: "Keep Our Boys at Home" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Roosevelt and Churchill at Atlantic Charter Meeting, 1941:

Roosevelt and Churchill at Atlantic Charter Meeting, 1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt (left) and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874–1965) confer on board a ship near Newfoundland during their summit meeting of August, 1941. During the conference, they signed the Atlantic Charter. Upon his return to Great Britain, Churchill told his advisers that Roosevelt had promised to "wage war" against Germany and do "everything" to "force an incident." (Franklin D. Roosevelt Library) Roosevelt and Churchill at Atlantic Charter Meeting, 1941 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Operation Magic Machine and Decoded Message:

Operation Magic Machine and Decoded Message How do historians know... that American leaders knew in December 1941, before the attack on Pearl Harbor, that Japan intended to go to war with the United States? In September 1940, U.S. cryptanalysts--code breakers--of the Signal Intelligence Service cracked the most secret diplomatic cipher used by the Japanese government. The code breakers discovered patterns in the incoherent letters of telegraphed messages, produced texts, and even duplicated the complicated PURPLE machine (shown here). Thereafter, under Operation MAGIC, they decoded thousands of intercepted messages sent by Japanese officials around the world. (National Archives ) Operation Magic Machine and Decoded Message Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

The U.S.S. West Virginia, Pearl Harbor:

The U.S.S. West Virginia, Pearl Harbor The stricken U.S.S. West Virginia was one of the eight battleships caught in the surprise Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, Hawai'i, on December 7, 1941. In this photograph, sailors on a launch attempt to rescue a crew member from the water as oil burns around the sinking ship. (U.S. Army) The U.S.S. West Virginia, Pearl Harbor Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

He CAN'T Forget Pearl Harbor--Can You?:

He CAN'T Forget Pearl Harbor--Can You? This World War II poster encourages support for the U.S. war effort by pointing to one soldier's disabilities that resulted from Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. (Library of Congress) He CAN'T Forget Pearl Harbor--Can You? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Japanese American teens, 1942:

Japanese American teens, 1942 In February of 1942 President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered that all Japanese Americans living on the West Coast be rounded up and placed in prison camps. These families were awaiting a train to take them to an assembly center in Merced, California; from there, they would be sent to relocation camps in remote inland areas. (National Archives) Japanese American teens, 1942 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

U.S. Navy Recruiting Booklet:

U.S. Navy Recruiting Booklet "MEN MAKE THE NAVY…" proclaims this U.S. Navy recruiting booklet, which encourages men to enlist by highlighting the good pay, food, and shipmates, as well as the possibility of "fighting action." One hundred thousand women also responded to the navy's recruiting efforts by joining the WAVES. (Private Collection) U.S. Navy Recruiting Booklet Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Hitler:

Hitler The German leader Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) is surrounded in this propagandistic painting by images that came to symbolize hate, genocide, and war: Nazi flags with emblems of the swastika; the iron cross on the dictator's pocket; and Nazi troops in loyal salute. The anti-Semitic Hitler denounced the United States as a "Jewish rubbish heap" of "inferiority and decadence" that was "incapable of conducting war." (U.S. Army Center of Military History) Hitler Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Poster by Thomas Hart Benton: "Back Him Up":

Poster by Thomas Hart Benton: "Back Him Up" This poster by the famous artist Thomas Hart Benton emphasized the need for all Americans to do their part in winning the war by buying war bonds and laboring in factories and fields, as well as by fighting in the armed forces and, not incidentally, contributing their artistic talents. (Library of Congress) Poster by Thomas Hart Benton: "Back Him Up" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Rosie the Riveter:

Rosie the Riveter Memorialized in song and story, "Rosie the Riveter" symbolized the women war workers who assumed jobs in heavy industry to take up the slack for the absent 15 million men in the armed services. Here a very real Rosie the Riveter is doing her job in April 1943 at the Baltimore manufacturing plant for Martin PMB mariners. Although sometimes scorned by male workers, the dedication and efficiency of most female workers won them the praise of male plant supervisors. (National Archives) Rosie the Riveter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Women train operators, New York, 1942:

Women train operators, New York, 1942 Women workers mastered numerous job skills during the war. In 1942 crews of women cared for Long Island commuter trains like this one. (Corbis-Bettmann) Women train operators, New York, 1942 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Women in the service: black nurses:

Women in the service: black nurses Lining the rails of their ship, African American army nurses arrive at the European theater of operations in August 1944. These nurses, like their white counterparts in America's segregated army, served in field and base hospitals, often right behind the fighting front. (Library of Congress) Women in the service: black nurses Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Tuskegee Airmen:

Tuskegee Airmen The pilots of the 99th Pursuit Squadron, the first African American aerial fighting unit, trained at a field adjacent to Alabama's all-black Tuskegee Institute and became known as the "Tuskegee Airmen." They entered combat over North Africa in June of 1943 and won much praise for their battles against the Luftwaffe. However, most blacks throughout the war were confined to noncombat service. (U.S. Air Force) Tuskegee Airmen Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Col. Benjamin Davis, Jr., WWII pilot:

Col. Benjamin Davis, Jr., WWII pilot A leader of the Tuskegee airmen, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. was the fourth African American to graduate from West Point. During the war, Colonel Davis commanded the 332d Fighter Group, which destroyed over two hundred enemy planes in southern Europe. (National Archives) Col. Benjamin Davis, Jr., WWII pilot Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Navajo Code Talkers by Colonel C.H. Waterhouse, USMCR:

Navajo Code Talkers by Colonel C.H. Waterhouse, USMCR Navajo "code talkers," who were U.S. Marines, were among the first assault forces to land on Pacific beaches. Dodging enemy fire, they set up radio equipment and transmitted vital information to headquarters, including enemy sightings and targets for American shelling. The Japanese never broke the special Navajo code. The artist is Colonel C.H. Waterhouse, U.S. Marine Corps (retired). (U.S. Marine Corps Art Coallection/Colonel C.H. Waterhouse) Navajo Code Talkers by Colonel C.H. Waterhouse, USMCR Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Victory parade on Hotel Street, Honolulu, August, 1945:

Victory parade on Hotel Street, Honolulu, August, 1945 A spontaneous victory celebration on Hotel Street, Honolulu, August 14, 1945. For many servicemen in Hawai'i, Emperor Hirohito's surrender meant they would not have to take part in an invasion of Japan. "We are going to live," exulted one soldier. "We are going to grow up to adulthood after all." () Victory parade on Hotel Street, Honolulu, August, 1945 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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