Unit 8 PowerPoint

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Unit 8 PowerPoint Presentation

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1 Unit 8: Europe in the Middle Ages

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2 Medieval Manor

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3 Medieval Knights

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4 Serfs working an estate in Medieval Europe.

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5 Plan of Charlemagne's palace This model of Charlemagne's Palace in Aachen shows, in the foreground, the octagonal chapel and throne room. It is joined by galleries to the residential quarters in the background. The models for these buildings were found in Rome and Ravenna.

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6 Medieval Castle.

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7 Saint Matthew, Gospel Book of Charlemagne, 800 The Gospel Book of Charlemagne reputedly was found laying on Charlemagne's knees when his tomb was opened in 1000. Following the custom of manuscripts of the Palace School, they contain full-page portraits of the Gospel writers. This portrait of Saint Matthew shows him adorned in classical garb and seated on a stool. In his left hand he holds an inkhorn as he writes his Gospel with his right hand. Were it not for the large golden halo, this might almost be mistaken for a classical author's portrait. The landscape--with its soft brushwork and gentle colors--harkens back to the illusionistic tradition of the Romans.

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8 Oseberg Ship Discovered in 1880, the Oseberg ship was buried in Norway in (probably) the tenth century. The ship may have belonged to a king, and contained the remains of Queen Asa. It is 21.6 meters long and 5 meters wide. Its crew would have been thirty to forty men.

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9 Consecration of Cluny This manuscript illumination depicts Pope Urban II surrounded by mitered bishops. Abbot Hugh of Cluny (with cowled monks) is on the right. A French nobleman who had been a monk of Cluny, Urban coined the term curia as the official designation of the central government of the church.

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10 Matilda, Gregory, and Henry IV A staunch supporter of the reforming ideals of the papacy, the Countess Matilda of Tuscany (ca. 1046-1115) arranged the dramatic meeting of the pope and emperor at her castle at Canossa near Reggio Emilia in the Apennines. The arrangement of the figures--with Henry IV kneeling, Gregory lecturing, and Matilda persuading--suggests contemporary understanding of the scene where Henry received absolution. Matilda's vast estates in northern Italy and her political contacts in Rome made her a powerful figure in the late eleventh century.

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11 Crusades: Capture of Jerusalem During the First Crusade western armies and bands of followers crossed the Balkans and the Byzantine Empire in 1096 and 1097; in July 1099, after a bitter siege, they entered Jerusalem. This thirteenth-century miniature from the manuscript of the History of William of Tyre shows the siege and capture. On the right soldiers bombard the city with stones from a catapult and attack the walls from a tower on wheels. Above are scenes from the Passion and, on the left, the Dormition and Assumption of the Virgin.

Bayeux Tapestry:

12 Bayeux Tapestry The Bayeux Tapestry was commissioned by the brother of William the Conqueror. This detailed design of needlework is wool embroidery executed on eight bolts of natural linen cloth, employing only two types of stitches. It narrates the story of the Norman invasion of England in 1066 from the perspective of the Normans, depicting both the triumphs and brutality of war. Designed to run clockwise around the nave of the Cathedral of Bayeux in Normandy, the tapestry is 230 feet long and 20 inches high. Scholars assume that it was fashioned by the women of Queen Matilda's court. This scene portrays the death of the Anglo-Saxon king, Edward, and the coronation of Harold. The people on the left rejoice at the news of this event, whereas the people on the right view it as a portent of disaster. (Reproduced with permission of the Tapisserie de Bayeux) Bayeux Tapestry Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Layout of a manor:

13 Layout of a manor In 1440 Edmund Rede, lord of Boarstall Manor, Buckinghamshire, had a map made showing his ancestor receiving the title from King Edward I (lower field). Note the manor house, church, and peasants' cottages along the central road. In the common fields, divided by hedges, peasants cultivated on a three-year rotation cycle: winter wheat, spring oats, a year fallow. Peasants' pigs grazed freely in the woods, indicated by trees. (Buckinghamshire Record Office, Aylesbury) Layout of a manor Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Oxteam plowing:

14 Oxteam plowing From an eleventh-century calendar showing manorial occupations for each month, this illustration for January--the time for sowing winter wheat--shows two pairs of oxen pulling a wheeled plow, which was designed for deeper tillage. One man directs the oxen, a second prods the animals, and a third drops seeds in the ground. (British Library) Oxteam plowing Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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15 Homage and fealty Although the rite of entering a feudal relationship varied widely across Europe and sometimes was entirely verbal, we have a few illustrations of it. Here the vassal kneels before the lord, places his clasped hands between those of the lord, and declares "I become your man." Sometimes the lord handed over a clump of earth, representing the fief, and the ceremony concluded with a kiss, symbolizing peace between them.

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16 Flemish weavers, 14th c The spread of textile weaving gave employment to many people in the Netherlands. The city of Ypres in Flanders (now northern Belgium) was an important textile center in the thirteenth century. This drawing, from a fourteenth-century manuscript, shows a man and a woman weaving cloth on a horizontal loom, while a child makes thread on a spinning wheel.

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17 Jews Demonized The fourth Lateran Council of 1215 required that Jews wear distinctive clothing--special caps and the Star of David--so that they could be distinguished from Christians. In this caricature from an English treasury record for 1233, Isaac of Norwich (top center), reputedly the richest Jew in England, wears a crown implying his enormous influence and power. The figure at left (holding scales) suggests the Jewish occupation of moneylender. At right Satan leads Jews to hell.

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18 Spanish Apothecary This miniature from the Cantigas of Alfonso X, a parchment codex with illuminated miniatures, depicts a Spanish pharmacist seated outside his shop within the town walls, describing the merits of his goods to a crowd of Christians and Muslims.

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19 Tres Riches Heures: February The late Gothic style of manuscript illumination was defined by the Limbourg brothers--Jean, Paul, and Herman--who flourished as artists during the late fourteenth century and the early fifteenth century. They were commissioned by the Duke of Berry to complete two books of hours. The last commission they undertook for the duke was Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, begun in 1413. It is, perhaps, the finest example of manuscript illumination. The brothers were able to complete illustrations for eleven of the months; another artist completed November. At the top of each calendar page is a two-tiered arch. The outer arch consists of the zodiac sign, the inner arch shows the blue dome of heaven and Apollo, and below the arch is the labor associated with each, as is evident in this snowy February scene.

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20 Hanseatic League Merchants In the thirteenth century the merchants of Hamburg and other cities in northern Germany formed an association for the suppression of piracy and the acquisition of commercial privileges in foreign countries. Members of the Hansa traded in furs, fish, wax, and oriental luxury goods. This miniature depicts members of the Hansa at the port of Hamburg.

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21 Battle of Crecy, 1346 Pitched battles were unusual in the Hundred Years' War. At the Battle of Crecy, the English (on the right with lions on their royal standard) scored a spectacular victory. The longbow proved a more effective weapon over the French crossbow, but characteristically the artist concentrated on the aristocratic knights.

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22 Expulsion of Albigensians from Carcassone This illustration from a fourteenth-century manuscript depicts the grim realities of the Albigensian Crusade launched in 1208. Here the Albigensians are being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. But the Cathars of Carcassonne fared less badly than those of Beziers, who were massacred.

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23 Students at Lecture This beautifully carved marble sculpture, with the fluid drapery characteristic of the late Gothic style, conveys the students' curiosity and intellectual intensity. However, the profusion of books and (especially) the presence of the woman (bottom, center) makes us wonder if the artist actually witnessed such a scene. Universities generally did not admit women until the late nineteenth century.

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24 St. Sebastian and the plague-stricken In his painting of St. Sebastian Interceding for the Plague-Stricken, the Flemish artist Josse Lieferinxe portrays an outbreak of the plague. One dying man seems to be falling terrified to the ground while a female bystander in the background screams in alarm. In the foreground the body of a dead person, carefully shrouded, is attended by a priest and other clerics bearing a cross. In the background is a cart transporting the dead to common graves. At the top of the painting, Christ listens to the prayers of Saint Sebastian (pierced by arrows).

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25 Siege of Constantinople The siege of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453--which lasted only fifty-three days--required the attackers to isolate the city both by sea and by land. This miniature from the fifteenth century shows the Turkish camps, as well as the movements of Turkish boats, completing the isolation of the city.

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26 Gothic Cathedral: Notre Dame Paris This view from the south of Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, offers a fine example of the twin towers (left), the spire, the great rose window over the south portal, and the flying buttresses that support the walls and the vaults. Like hundreds of other churches in medieval Europe, it was dedicated to the Virgin. With a nave rising 226 feet, this Gothic cathedral was the tallest building in Europe.

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27 Gothic interior, Notre-Dame de Chartres The advent of the High Gothic architectural style is marked by the rebuilding of the Romanesque styled Notre-Dame de Chartres. The 446-foot-long interior consists of a nave culminating in an apse that houses the crypt bearing the relic of Mary, "The Veil of the Virgin," a piece of the garment supposedly worn by Mary when she gave birth to Jesus. The wide side aisles of the nave, which also run around the transept, were designed to hold many pilgrims without disturbing the worshipers. At the center of the nave is the prayer labyrinth--a meandering stone path designed to symbolize Jesus carrying his cross to the crucifixion--which penitents circled on their knees as they recited their prayers.

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28 Notre-Dame de la Belle Verriere The most numerous, and best preserved, stained-glass windows during this period are those that were created for the cathedral at Chartres. The four central panels for the famous Notre-Dame de la Belle Verriere (Our Lady of the Beautiful Window) were fashioned for the south ambulatory in the twelfth century. Because of the beauty of its blue glass, this window is often referred to as "The Blue Virgin Window." It depicts the Virgin Mary with a crown on her head, seated on a throne supported by angels, holding Jesus in her lap.

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30 The Routes of the Crusades which let to a major cultural encounter between Muslim and Christian values

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31 The Reconquista: The Christian conquest of Muslim Spain was followed by ecclesiastical reorganization, with the establishment of dioceses, monasteries, and the Latin liturgy, which gradually tied the peninsula to the heartland of Christian Europe and to the Roman papacy.

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32 Trade in Medieval Europe

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33 The Course of the Black Death in 14th-Century Europe. Note the routes that the bubonic plague took across Europe.

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