Unit 5 PowerPoint

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Unit 5 PowerPoint Presentation

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5 | 1 Unit 5: Roman Civilization

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5 | 2 Celtic hill-fort Around 500 B.C.E. Celtic peoples spread across a substantial portion of Europe. The early Celts lived in or near hill-forts--lofty natural locations made even more defensible by earthwork fortifications. Hundreds of Celtic hill-forts, such as this one, have been found across Europe. They served as centers of administration, gathering points for Celtic armies, manufacturing centers, storage depots for food and trade goods, and places of refuge. As shown here, the natural defense offered by a hill could be improved by the construction of ditches and earthwork walls.

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5 | 3 Sarcophagus of Lartie Seianti The Etruscans, living among various peoples in Italy at this time, evolved cities that resembled Greek city-states. Their wealth and political and military institutions enabled them to dominate an area that extended as far north as the Po Valley and as far south as Latium and Campania. The woman portrayed on this lavish sarcophagus is the noble Etruscan Lartie Seianti. Although the sarcophagus is her place of burial, she is portrayed as in life: comfortable and at rest. The influence of Greek art on Etruscan works is apparent in almost every feature of the sarcophagus.

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5 | 4 Roman Forum The site of the future Roman Forum, the famous public square and center of Roman political life, was originally the cemetery of the small community of early Romans. Under the Etruscans the Forum began its history as a public meeting place, a development parallel to that of the Greek agora.

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5 | 5 Floor littered with food This mosaic is of a floor that can never be swept clean. It whimsically suggests what a dining room floor looked like after a lavish dinner and also tells something about the menu: a chicken head, a wishbone, and the remains of various seafood, vegetables, and fruits are easily recognizable.

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5 | 6 Bronze Punic Armor This bronze Punic armor is a breast- and backplate found in a third-century B.C.E. tomb near Carthage. The ornamentation suggests an Italo-Greek origin.

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5 | 7 Tophet of Carthage Here, from the seventh to second centuries B.C.E., the cremated bodies of sacrificed children were buried. Archaeological excavation has confirmed the claim in ancient sources that the Carthaginians sacrificed children to their gods at times of crisis. Stone markers, decorated with magical signs and symbols of divinities as well as family names, were placed over ceramic urns containing the ashes and charred bones of one or more infants or, occasionally, older children.

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5 | 8 Coin of Julius Caesar Upon his acquisition of power in 46 B.C.E., Caesar allowed a number of extraordinary honors to be conferred upon him. The Senate declared him "father of his country" and had this stamped on his coinage. He was the first living Roman to be represented on a coin, a sign both of his power and of the break with tradition that he marked.

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5 | 9 Augustus as imperator Augustus, dressed in breastplate and uniform, emphasizes the imperial majesty of Rome and his role as imperator. The naked feet signify Augustus's divinity; the small cupid riding the dolphin alludes to Augustus's claim that the Julian line descended from Venus. The breastplate commemorates his victory over the Parthians, the triumph that ushered in the Augustan Peace.

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5 | 10 Double portrait, Pompeii This wall painting from a house joined to a bakery in Pompeii depicts a married couple, possibly the wealthy baker P. Paquius Proculus and his wife. The portraiture is realistic. The couple carries symbols of education: she holds wax tablets and a stylus (pen), while he grasps a sealed scroll.

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5 | 11 Roman Amphitheater, Tunisia Amphitheaters where gladiatorial combats took place were as common in Italy and the Roman Empire as skyscrapers are in a modern city. This amphitheater in the city of El Djem in modern Tunisia (the Roman province of Africa) was built of high-quality local stone. It was meant to have sixty-four arches but was never completed. The openings in the floor permitted animals to be released into the arena. This amphitheater held at least thirty thousand spectators.

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5 | 12 Gladiators, mosaic Gladiators--literally men who carried a gladius (sword)--fought to the death in the arena and enraptured the Roman Empire. This mosaic from a Roman villa in Germany depicts scenes from the area. The illustration shows a retiarius (net-and-trident bearer), fighting a better-armed secutor (literally "pursuer") under the watchful eyes of a lanista (trainer).

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5 | 13 The Good Shepherd This ceiling painting comes from a Christian catacomb in Rome dating before 284 C.E. The pastoral image, common in the early church, recalls Christ's ministry. It symbolizes his beneficence and his sacrifice, as well as his closeness to ordinary people.

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5 | 14 Diocletian's Tetrarchy The emperor Diocletian's attempt to reform the Roman Empire by dividing rule among four men is represented in this piece of sculpture, which in many features illustrates the transition from ancient to medieval art. Here the four tetrarchs demonstrate their solidarity by clasping one another on the shoulder. Nonetheless each man has his other hand on his sword--a gesture that proved prophetic when Diocletian's reign ended and another struggle for power began.

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5 | 15 Colossal statue of Constantine The head of Constantine is part of an enormous sculpture of him seated that was once originally placed in his basilica. The entire statue was over 30 feet high; the head alone weighs over 8 tons. Head, arms, hands, legs and feet were of marble. The drapery was probably of bronze plates over a masonry frame. The colossal head and neck are superbly modeled, but the eyes, which seem to be fixed on some spot above our heads (perhaps on eternity), seem overly large. Such a feature is common in the early Christian period.

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5 | 16 Arch of Constantine The triple arch commemorates Constantine's victory over his rival Maxentius. Much of the sculpture on the arch was plundered from earlier imperial monuments honoring Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. Not only were the portraits of these earlier emperors recast to portray Constantine as the restorer of the glory of Rome, but the inscriptions above the frieze laud Constantine as "the Liberator of the City" and "the State's avenger upon the tyrant and his faction."

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5 | 17 Pantheon Interior The Pantheon in Rome is a very large round temple whose interior is the best preserved, as well as the most impressive, of any surviving Roman structure. Originally a temple for the gods, it later served as a Christian church. As such, it symbolizes the adaptation of pagan elements to Christian purposes.

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5 | 18 The geographical configuration of the Italian peninsula shows how Rome stood astride north-south communication routes and how the state that united Italy stood poised to move into Sicily and northern Africa.

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5 | 19 Roman Expansion During the Republic The main spurt of Roman expansion occurred between 264 and 133 B.C.E., when most of the Mediterranean fell to Rome, followed by the conquest of Gaul and the eastern Mediterranean by 44 B.C.E.

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5 | 20 Roman Expansion Under the Empire Following Roman expansion during the republic, Augustus added vast tracts of Europe to the Roman Empire, which the emperor Hadrian later enlarged by assuming control over parts of central Europe, the Near East, and North Africa.

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5 | 21 The Economic Aspect of the Pax Romana The Roman Empire was not merely a political and military organization but also an intricate economic network through which goods from Armenia and Syria were traded for Western products from as far away as Spain and Britain.

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