3TU-RD2012_WongPH

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3TU.Ethics Research Day 2012

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Pak-Hang Wong ( [email protected] ) PhD Research Fellow Department of Philosophy University of Twente www.wongpakhang.com 3TU .Ethics Research Day 2012

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Net Recommendation 8 June, 2012 Prudential Appraisals of Digital Media and the Good Life Coming Soon

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HOW?

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2008 WHO? / WHERE?

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Technologists, Pundits & Gurus SENSE-MAKING Hermeneutical Reconstruction (Philosophical (Re)interpretation) Modern Self: Disengaged Self / Expressive Self Late-/Post Modern Self

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(Late-/Post-)Modern Self? From Modernity to Modernities Internet Policy & Opinion Pieces in Guangming Daily Confucian Self Photo ( http://flic.kr/p/arXRRY )by Mike Licht , NotionsCapital.com

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Philosophers & (Net) Recommendation Picture ( http://flic.kr/p/aJ7igp ) by Yau Hoong Tang

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8 June, 2012 University of Twente

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RECOMM ENDATION, Ethics The Good Life & Part II

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Ethics The Good Life Ethics (i.e. ‘right’ and ‘just’) does not diverge from the Good Life at the minimal threshold. For example, deprivation of (basic) resources/capacities (capabilities) for the good life is a question about rights and justice. The more tricky questions arise when the discussion goes beyond the minimal threshold, especially when answering questions about the good life positively . Permitted-but-not-obliged – It is this area contemporary ethical theories (esp. Kantian ethics) have difficulties to acknowledge. ?

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SOMETHING POSITIVE: RECOMMENDATION Should I use Facebook to communicate with my friends ? Should I use Google to work on my research? Should I use the Internet ? Is iPad / iPhone … good for us? Should I use an iPad /Kindle , or should I read Books instead? …and many more. If Philosophers are to discuss the good life normatively, they need something that goes beyond what is permitted and/or what is obliged.

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“The Ameliorative Question” Christine Korsgaard, The Normative Question : “Why should I be moral […] We are asking what justified the claims that morality makes on us” “Why should I live better […] and what justified what the recommendations being made on us” NORMATIVITY & RECOMMENDATION

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Christine Korsgaard, Practical Identity “a description under which you value yourself, a description under which you find your life to be worth living and your actions to be worth undertaking… [It] is a complex matter and for the average person there will be a jumble of such conceptions. You are a human being, a woman or a man, an adherent of a certain religion, a member of an ethnic group, someone’s friend, and so on. And all of these identities give rise to reasons and obligations . Your reasons express your identity, your nature; your obligations spring from what that identity forbids.” (Korsgaard 1996, p. 101) THE NORMATIVE QUESTION & THE AMELIORATIVE QUESTION

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Interestingly, Korsgaard actually starts The Sources of Normativity noting the distinction between the right and the (prudential) good “[morality] make claims on us: they command, oblige, recommend, or guide. Or at least, when we invoke them, we make claims on one another. When I say that an action is right I am saying that you ought to do it; when I say that something is good I am recommending it as worthy of your choice” (Korsgaard 1996, p. 8). THE NORMATIVE QUESTION & THE AMELIORATIVE QUESTION Unfortunately, she rarely discusses the (prudential) good in The Sources of Normativity . It seems that she is indifferent to terms such as ‘command’ and ‘oblige’, and terms such as ‘recommend’ and ‘guide’.

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PRACTICAL IDENTITY & RECOMMENDATION Practical Identity and Recommendation . Practical Identity specifies what an individual is allowed (reasons), prohibited/obliged (obligations) and encouraged (recommendations). Assumption: recommendations are normative , and they are about optional choices and actions (permitted-but-not-required). Recommendations cannot be reduced to either reasons or obligations . In short, practical identity is the normative ground for recommendations.

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RECOMM ENDATION RETURNING TO From Ethics of Design to… The End

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