9th Grade English Literature Vocabulary Literary Terms All Definition

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9th Grade English Literature Vocabulary(All Definitions And Examples):

9 th Grade English Literature Vocabulary(All Definitions And Examples) Mr. McKelvey American Preparatory Academy 2014-2015

Bell Ringer 08/26/2014 Day Two:

Bell Ringer 08/26/2014 Day Two Define the following Literary Terms: Allegory: Allusion: Anachronism: Alliteration: Anaphora:

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Allegory  (AL-eh-GOR- ee ): a narrative that serves as an extended metaphor. Allegories are written in the form of fables, parables, poems, stories, and almost any other style or genre. The main purpose of an allegory is to tell a story that has characters, a setting, as well as other types of symbols, that have both literal and figurative meanings. The difference between an allegory and a symbol is that an allegory is a complete narrative that conveys abstract ideas to get a point across, while a symbol is a representation of an idea or concept that can have a different meaning throughout a literary work ( A Handbook to Literature ). One well-known example of an allegory is Dante’s  The Divine Comedy.  In  Inferno , Dante is on a pilgrimage to try to understand his own life, but his character also represents every man who is in search of his purpose in the world ( Merriam Webster Encyclopedia of Literature ). Although Virgil literally guides Dante on his journey through the mystical inferno, he can also be seen as the reason and human wisdom that Dante has been looking for in his life. Allegory  is a  literary device  in which characters or events in a literary, visual, or musical art form represent or symbolize ideas and concepts. Allegory has been used widely throughout the histories of all forms of art; a major reason for this is its immense power to illustrate complex ideas and concepts in ways that are easily digestible and tangible to its viewers, readers, or listeners. An allegory conveys its hidden message through  symbolic  figures, actions, imagery, and/or events. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of  rhetoric ; a rhetorical allegory is a demonstrative form of representation conveying meaning other than the words that are spoken.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms allusion  (a-LOO- zhuhn ):  a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature. Allusions are often indirect or brief references to well-known characters or events. Specific examples of allusions can be found throughout Dante’s  Inferno . In a passage, Dante alludes to the Greek mythological figures, Phaethon and  Icarus , to express his fear as he descends from the air into the eighth circle of hell. He states: I doubt if Phaethon feared more - that time  he dropped the sun-reins of his father's chariot  and burned the streak of sky we see today – or if poor  Icarus  did - feeling his sides  unfeathering  as the wax began to melt,  his father shouting:  "Wrong, your course is wrong" (Canto XVII: 106-111). Allusions are often used to summarize broad, complex ideas or emotions in one quick, powerful image. For example, to communicate the idea of self-sacrifice one may refer to Jesus, as part of Jesus' story portrays him dying on the cross in order to save mankind (Matthew 27:45-56). In addition, to express righteousness, one might allude to Noah who "had no faults and was the only good man of his time" (Genesis 6:9-22). Furthermore, the idea of fatherhood or  patriarchial  love can be well understood by alluding to Abraham, who was the ancestor of many nations (Genesis 17:3-6). Finally, Cain is an excellent example to convey banishment, rejection, or evil, for he was cast out of his homeland by God (Genesis 4:12). Thus, allusions serve an important function in writing in that they allow the reader to understand a difficult concept by relating to an already familiar story.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Anachronism Found in thesaurus:  timekeeping ,  artefact ,  artifact ,  anomaly ,  unusual person   n. assigning of a person or event to the wrong time period; something that is obsolete or out of date  An  anachronism , from the  Greek   ανά ( ana : up, against, back, re-) and χρόνος ( chronos : time), is a  chronological  inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from different periods of time. Often the item misplaced in time is an object, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a custom, or anything else associated with a particular period in time so that it is incorrect to place it outside its proper temporal domain.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms alliteration  (a-LIT-uh-RAY- shuhn ): a pattern of sound that includes the repetition of consonant sounds.  The repetition can be located at the beginning of successive words or inside the words. Poets often use alliteration to audibly represent the action that is taking place.  For instance, in the  Inferno , Dante states: "I saw it there, but I saw nothing in it, except the rising of the boiling bubbles" (261). The repetition of the "b" sounds represents the sounds of bubbling, or the bursting action of the boiling pitch. In addition, in Sir Phillip Sidney's  Astrophel  and Stella , the poet states: "Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite" (Line 13). This repetition of  the "t" sound represents the action of the poet; one can hear and visualize his anguish as he bites the pen. Also in  Astropheland Stella , the poet states, "Oft turning others' leaves, to see if thence would flow, / Some fresh and fruitful showers upon my  sunburn'd  brain" (7-8). Again, the poet repeats the " fr " sounds to emphasize the speaker's desire for inspiration in expressing his feelings. Poets may also use alliteration to call attention to a phrase and fix it into the reader's mind; thus, it is useful for emphasis. Therefore, not only does alliteration provide poetry or prose with a unique sound, it can place emphasis on specific phrases and represent the action that is taking place.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Anaphora is a poetic technique which derives from the Greek language meaning to "carry back" or "carry up." It is a rhetorical device that consists of parallelism when successive lines or phrases begin with the same words often used in poetry and prayers. The repetitive sequence can be as short as a single word or as lengthy as a complete sentence. Anaphora creates a rhythmic pattern throughout a written work as well as intensifies the author's emotions in poetry with the use of repetitive sound. Famed English writer, Charles Dickens, is well-known for his use of anaphora in his works. in "A Tale of Two Cities" Dickens writes, "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity..." Other writers and public figures throughout history known for mastering the use of anaphora are William Shakespeare, Francis Thompson, Langston Hughes, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and T.S. Eliot. 

Bell Ringer 08/27/2014 Day Three:

Bell Ringer 08/27/2014 Day Three Define The Following Literary Terms: 1) Anastrophe 2)Antagonist 3) Antithesis 4) Anthropomorphism 5)Apostrophe

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms antagonist n. adversary, opponent; one who opposes; (Pharmacology, Medicine) drug or substance that acts against or annuls the effect of another substance  An  antagonist  (from  Greek   ἀνταγωνιστής -  antagonistēs  , "opponent, competitor, enemy, rival", from anti- "against" + agonizesthai "to contend for a prize,") is a character, group of characters, or  institution  that represents the opposition against which the  protagonist  or protagonists must contend. In other words, an antagonist is a person or a group of people who oppose the main character(s).

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms anastrophe n. change in the order of words or phrases in a grammatical construction; inversion of the normal order of words  Anastrophe  (from the ,  anastrophe , "a turning back or about") is a  figure of speech  in which the syntactically correct order of subject, verb and object is changed. For example, the usual English order of   subject ,  object  and  verb  might be changed to object-subject-verb, as in saying "potatoes I like" to mean "I like potatoes."

Literary Devices Definitions:

Literary Devices Definitions Antithesis Definition: An antithesis is used when the writer employs two sentences of contrasting meanings in close proximity to one another. Whether they are words or phrases of the same sentence, an antithesis is used to create a stark contrast using two divergent elements that come together to create one uniform whole. An antithesis plays on the complementary property of opposites to create one vivid picture. The purpose of using an antithesis in literature is to create a balance between opposite qualities and lend a greater insight into the subject. Example: When Neil Armstrong walked on the moon it might have been one small step for a man but it was one giant leap for mankind.

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Anthropomorphism Definition: Anthropomorphism can be understood to be the act of lending a human quality, emotion or ambition to a non-human object or being. This act of lending a human element to a non-human subject is often employed in order to endear the latter to the readers or audience and increase the level of relativity between the two while also lending character to the subject. Example: The raging storm brought with it howling winds and fierce lightning as the residents of the village looked up at the angry skies in alarm

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Apostrophe Definition of Apostrophe In literature, apostrophe is a figure of speech sometimes represented by exclamation “O”. A writer or a speaker, using an apostrophe, detaches himself from the reality and addresses an imaginary character in his speech. It is important not to confuse the apostrophe which is a figure of speech and the apostrophe which is a punctuation mark (‘). It shows possession or a mark to indicate omission of one or more letters (contractions) while apostrophe used in literature is an arrangement of words addressing a non-existent person or an abstract idea in such a way as if it were present and capable of understanding feelings. Examples of Apostrophe from Literature English literature is replete with instances of apostrophe. Let us have a look at a few examples. Example #1 William Shakespeare makes use of an apostrophe in his play “Macbeth”: “Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee! I have thee not, and yet I see thee still.” In his mental  conflict  before murdering King Duncan, Macbeth has a strange vision of a dagger and talks to it as if it were another person.

Bell Ringer 08/29/2014 Day Four :

Bell Ringer 08/29/2014 Day Four Define the following literary terms: 1) Black humor 2)Blank Verse 3) Cacophony 4) Caricature

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Black Humor Found in thesaurus:  expressive style ,  style   A  black comedy  ( dark comedy ) is a comic work that employs black humor, which, in its most basic definition, is humor that makes light of otherwise serious subject matter. Black humor corresponds to the earlier concept of  gallows humor .

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms blank verse unrhymed verse, unrhymed iambic pentameter verse  Blank verse  is  poetry  written in regular metrical but unrhymed lines, almost always  iambic pentameters . It has been described as "probably the most common and influential form that English poetry has taken since the 16th century" and  Paul Fussell  has estimated that "about three-quarters of all English poetry is in blank verse."

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Cacophony Definition: A cacophony in literature refers to the use of words and phrases that imply strong, harsh sounds within the phrase. These words have jarring and dissonant sounds that create a disturbing, objectionable atmosphere. Example: His fingers rapped and pounded the door, and his foot thumped against the yellowing wood

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Caricature Found in thesaurus:  wit ,  humour ,  wittiness ,  humor ,  witticism ,  mock   n. drawing that exaggerates certain physical characteristics; something absurd   v. draw a satirical cartoon; distort and exaggerate reality (in cartoon or comic form)  Noun 1. a representation of a person that is exaggerated for comic effect (synonym) imitation, impersonation ( hypernym ) wit, humor, humour , witticism, wittiness (hyponym) mock-heroic

Bell Ringer 09/02/2014 Day Five:

Bell Ringer 09/02/2014 Day Five Define the Following Literary Terms: 1) Catharsis 2) Characterization 3)Colloquialism 4) Conceit

Definition Of Literary terms:

Definition Of Literary terms catharsis n. purging, purification (Medicine); emotional cleansing through drama; (Psychiatry) relief of tension and anxiety through the expression of repressed thoughts and feelings (also katharsis )  Catharsis  (from the Greek meaning "purification" or "cleansing") is the purification and purgation of emotions—especially pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration. It is a metaphor originally used by  Aristotle  in the  Poetics  to describe the effects of  tragedy  on the spectator.

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Characterization Definition: Characterization in literature refers to a step-by-step process wherein a character of a story is brought to notice and then detailed upon in front of the reader. Characterization is a sort of initiation wherein the reader is introduced to the character. The initial step is to introduce the character with a marked emergence. After the arrival his behavior is discussed. This is followed by an insight into his thought-process. Then comes the part where the character voices his opinions or converses with others in the story. The last and finalizing part is when others in the plot respond to the character’s presence. Example:  Michael Corleone was not jus' a mafiaso , but a family man. A man who walked the knife's edge to preserve his sanity.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms colloquialism n. expression used in familiar and informal conversation  Colloquialism  is a  word ,  phrase  or  paralanguage  that is employed in  conversational  or informal language but not in formal speech or  formal writing . Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation  colloq.  as an  identifier . Colloquialisms are sometimes referenced collectively as "colloquial language". A  colloquial name  is a word or term used for identification that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms conceit n. arrogance, excessive pride, haughtiness  In  literature , a  conceit  is an  extended metaphor  with a complex  logic  that governs a poetic passage or entire  poem . By juxtaposing,  usurping  and  manipulating  images and ideas in surprising ways, a conceit invites the reader into a more sophisticated understanding of an object of comparison. Extended conceits in English are part of the poetic idiom of  Mannerism , during the later sixteenth and early seventeenth century.

Bell Ringer 09/03/2014 Day Six:

Bell Ringer 09/03/2014 Day Six Please Define The Following Literary Terms: 1) Connotation 2) Couplet 3) Deus ex Machina 4) Diction 5) Double Entendre 6) Dramatic Irony

Literary Device Definition:

Literary Device Definition Connotation Definition: Connotations are the associations people make with words that go beyond the literal or dictionary definition. Many words have connotations that create emotions or feelings in the reader. Example: And once again, the autumn leaves were falling. This phrase uses ‘autumn’ to signify something coming to an end.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms couplet n. two rhyming lines of verse (Poetry)  A  couplet  is a pair of lines of  meter  in poetry. Couplets usually consist of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter. A couplet may be formal (closed) or run-on (open). In a formal (or closed) couplet, each of the two lines is end-stopped, meaning that there is a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse. In a run-on (or open) couplet, the meaning of the first line continues into the second. Example: Drunk with Emotions Drunken stupors and shocking dreams sealing my heart with animosities; I’m sure destiny had a good motive to make me feel these atrocities. I have conceded very quickly no point in clutching at straws when there is no hope of happiness I had to abandoned my cause. Indubitably I am getting on in my years nevertheless my love still thrives without fears. Sometimes I’ll face serious doubts and fears, with a past that continues to shed my tears.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms deus ex machina n. someone or something which unexpectedly comes to the rescue at the last moment (especially in a book or play)  Deus ex machina  (, or ; ; plural:  dei ex machina ) is a  plot device  whereby a seemingly unsolvable problem is suddenly and abruptly resolved by the contrived and unexpected intervention of some new event, character, ability or object. Depending on how it is done, it can be intended to move the story forward when the writer has "painted one’s self into a corner" and sees no other way out, to surprise the audience, to bring the tale to a  happy ending , or as a comedic device.

Literary Device Definition:

Literary Device Definition Diction Definition: Diction is the distinctive tone or tenor of an author’s writings. Diction is not just a writer's choice of words it can include the mood, attitude, dialect and style of writing. Diction is usually judged with reference to the prevailing standards of proper writing and speech and is seen as the mark of quality of the writing. It is also understood as the selection of certain words or phrases that become peculiar to a writer. Example: Certain writers in the modern day and age use archaic terms such as ‘thy’, ‘thee’ and ‘wherefore’ to imbue a Shakespearean mood to their work

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms double entendre word or expression that has two different meanings one of which is obscure  A  double entendre  is a  figure of speech  in which a spoken  phrase  is devised to be understood in either of two ways. Typically one of the interpretations is rather obvious whereas the other is more subtle. The more subtle of the interpretations is sometimes sexually suggestive. It may also convey a message that would be socially awkward, or even offensive, to state directly. (The  Oxford English Dictionary  describes a double entendre as being used to "convey an indelicate meaning".) Example: Examples of Double Entendre in Literature Double entendre is used in literature, everyday life, films, magazines and newspapers to criticize and provide entertainment and sometimes to make people laugh. It is widely used for insinuation and  irony . William Shakespeare and Geoffrey Chaucer have made use of double entendres in their works. Example #1 “Marriage is a fine institution, but I’m not ready for an institution” (Mae West, the 2,548 Best things Anybody Ever Said). The word “institution” in connection to marriage has two meanings in this context. One, it refers to marriage as an important practice of a society. Two, marriage is something that will cause an individual to go to a mental institution.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Definition:  Dramatic irony is when the words and actions of the characters of a work of literature have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the characters. This is the result of the reader having a greater knowledge than the characters themselves. Examples:  In Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," when Hester is in the governor's garden to see to it that Pearl is not taken away from her, she asks the Reverend Dimmesdale to support her position. This is an example of dramatic irony as the reader knows that Dimmesdale and Hester are partners in sin, but the characters do not.

Bell Ringer 09/03/2014 Day Seven:

Bell Ringer 09/03/2014 Day Seven Define the following literary terms: 1) Ellipsis 2) Enjambment 3) Epiphany 4) Ethos 5) Foreshadowing

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Definition of Ellipsis Ellipsis is a literary device that is used in narratives to omit some parts of a sentence or event, which gives the reader a chance to fill the gaps while acting or reading it out. It is usually written between the sentences as “…”. Most films have ellipses to omit the sections of a story or event that are not of any significance within the  narrative . Apart from being convenient, ellipsis also helps in advancing the story. Description The part of a sentence or an event that is left out by substituting it with ellipses is often used to either save time or use it as a stylistic element by allowing the reader to fill in the gaps by using their imagination. Ellipsis can be dated back to Earnest Hemingway who also presented the Iceberg theory, which is also called the theory of omission. Examples of Ellipsis Example #1 Among the famous examples of ellipsis in literature, the best would be Virginia Woolf’s novel,  To the Lighthouse . The book involves two parts, one before the World War I was fought and won and the later one accounts for the events occurring afterwards. All the events that occurred in between have not been mentioned in the book. Rather it has left to the readers to deduce the events from the notable changes that have occurred in the characters’ lives.

Definitions Of Literary Terms:

Definitions Of Literary Terms Definition of Enjambment Enjambment, derived from a French word  enjambment , means to step over or put legs across. In poetry it means moving over from one line to another without a terminating punctuation mark. It can be defined as a thought or sense, phrase or clause in a line of poetry that does not come to an end at the  line break  but moves over to the next line. In simple words, it is the running on of a sense from one  couplet  or line to the next without a major pause or syntactical break. Features of an Enjambment 1. Enjambment lines usually do not have a punctuation mark at the end. 2. It is a running on of a thought from one line to another without final punctuation. 3. It is used in poetry to trick a reader. Poets lead their readers to think of an idea then, on the next line, give an idea that conflicts it. 4. Poets can achieve a fast pace or  rhythm  by using enjambment. 5. Multiple ideas can be expressed without using semi-colons, periods and commas. 6. It helps reinforce the main idea that might seem to be confusing with pauses. 7. It can be seen in different songs and poems. 8. It helps readers to continue thinking about the idea which is expressed in one line and which continues through to the next. Examples of Enjambment from Literature Example #1 It is a beauteous Evening, calm and free; The holy time is quiet as a Nun Breathless with adoration; the broad sun Is sinking down in its tranquility; The gentleness of heaven is on the Sea; Listen! The mighty Being is awake And doth with his eternal motion make A sound like thunder― everlastinly . Thou liest in Abraham’s bosom all the year; And worshipp’st at the Temple’s inner shrine, God being with thee when we know it not. ( It is a Beauteous Evening  by William Wordsworth) This poem is one of the perfect examples of enjambment. In this poem, every line is running over to the next while the sense is not finished at the end of lines without pause or break. Each line does not make sense and stand on its own without the next line.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Definition of Epiphany Derived from the Greek word “ epiphaneia ”, epiphany means “appearance” or “manifestation. In literary terms, an epiphany is that moment in the story where a character achieves realization, awareness or a feeling of knowledge after which events are seen through the prism of this new light in the story. James Joyce, the great Irish writer used this term in his writings to indicate a sudden eye-opener regarding the nature of a person or situation. He said that it is the moment in which “the soul of the commonest object … seems to us radiant, and may be manifested through any chance, word or gesture.” He means to say that even insignificant things in our life can suddenly inspire in us an awareness that can change our lives for good. A Common Example of Epiphany Let us consider an epiphany of a smoker: “I used to smoke a lot. Everyone let me know that it was bad for my health however, I didn’t pay any notice. One day I saw my two years of age offspring trying for a used cigarette within an ashtray. Seeing this, abruptly it dawned upon me how terrible smoking was and I stopped smoking.” So, this sudden feeling of knowledge that brings to light what was so far hidden and changes one’s life is called epiphany. Let us analyze some epiphany examples from different genres of literature. Examples of Epiphany from Literature Example #1 James Joyce’s novel “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man” shows two examples of epiphany. Stephen Dedalus , the main character of “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man”, experienced his first epiphany when he was sixteen and in a boarding school. One day he goes back to his room. Depressed by his sins, he falls ill and makes a decision to reform himself. He goes to church for confession where the priest is very kind. So, Stephen finds a new course in life – he becomes a priest. Stephen’s second epiphany was when his life took another turn. He realizes that he cannot waste his life living as a priest. He wants to live in the real world and be creative like an artist. He sees some boys diving from the rocks, and sees and follows attractive girls standing in the water – this moment in the novel is Joyce’s “epiphany”. It is an emotional moment with an emotional meaning which marks a realization leading to a transformation in Stephen’s life.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms 4)e thos noun \ ˈē-ˌthäs \ : the guiding beliefs of a person, group, or organization Full Definition of ETHOS the distinguishing character, sentiment, moral nature, or guiding beliefs of a person, group, or institution; also :   ethic 2c

Ethos: Credibility:

Ethos: Credibility Ethos refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the speaker/writer. Ethos is often conveyed through a writer’s tone and style of message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. Ethos can also be influenced by the reputation a writer or speaker possesses independent of the subject matter. The impact of ethos is often called the argument’s ethical appeal or the appeal from credibility.

Literary Device Definition:

Literary Device Definition Foreshadowing Definition: The literary device foreshadowing refers to the use of indicative words/phrases and hints that set the stage for a story to unfold and give the reader a hint of something that is going to happen without revealing the story or spoiling the suspense. Foreshadowing is used to suggest an upcoming outcome to the story. Example: “He had no idea of the disastrous chain of events to follow”. In this sentence, while the protagonist is clueless of further developments, the reader learns that something disastrous and problematic is about to happen to/for him.

Bell Ringer 09/04/2014 Day Eight:

Bell Ringer 09/04/2014 Day Eight Define the following literary terms: 1) Foil 2)Form 3)Hubris 4)Hyperbole 5) Imagery

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Definition of Foil In literature, a foil is a character that shows qualities that are in contrast with the qualities of another character with the objective to highlight the traits of the other character. The term foil, though generally being applied for a contrasting character, may also be used for any  comparison  that is drawn to portray a difference between two things. What we observe in literature very often is that a foil is a secondary character who contrasts with the major character to enhance the importance of the major character. The etymology of the term foil testifies the aforementioned assertion as the word “foil” is taken from the practice of backing gems with foil (tool) so that they shine more brightly. Examples of Foil in Literature Paradise Lost, Wuthering Heights, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde  are books that are often used for examples of foil. Example #1 Milton’s “ Paradise Lost Book I ” is based on the comparison of two contrasting characters: God and Satan. Satan, in the entire work, appears as a foil to God. The negative traits of Satan and the positive traits of God are frequently compared which consequently brings to the surface not only the contrast between the two characters but also “justify the ways of God…” We reach a conclusion that it is only just for Satan to be expelled from the paradise because of his refusal to give in to the will of God.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms form v. shape, fashion, create; design; constitute; arrange; take shape; be created, be shaped  n. shape; image; framework, mold; format; document with blank spaces to be filled in; fitness; mood; type; grade, class (British); custom, social standards; order; format; area of a hypertext document that includes options for receiving user input (Computers, Internet)  FORM  may refer to: FORM (symbolic manipulation system), a symbolic manipulation system. First-order reliability method, a method to evaluate the reliability of a civil engineering structure   Form Form  is the  shape ,  visual appearance ,  constitution  or  configuration  of an object. In a wider sense, the form is the way something is or happens, the answer to "how?". When then considering the idea of  global  form, the sense of form reaches the one of  Gestalt , as in  Gestalt psychology .

Literary Device Definition:

Literary Device Definition Hubris Definition: Hubris , in this day and age, is another way of saying overly arrogant. You can tell the difference of hubris and just regular arrogance or pride by the fact that the character has seemed to allow reality slip away from them. The character portraying hubris, also commonly referred to as hybris , may have just gained a huge amount of power and the false belief that they are “untouchable”. This term hubris used to have a slightly different meaning and was a very negative subject back in ancient Greek. It used to be closely related to a crime in Athens. In writing and literature hubris is generally considered a “tragic flaw” and it is saved for the protagonist. The reason for this is because at the end of the story you should be able to see that it is this flaw that brings the “bad guy” down. Example: A classic example of hubris is featured in Shakespeare’s play Macbeth. Macbeth, the protagonist, overfilled with ambition and arrogance, allows his hubris to allow him/will him to kill the valiant Duncan without penalty so he can claim the throne of Scotland for himself. Obviously murder is highly frowned upon, so this eventually leads to Macbeth’s demise as well.

Literary Device Definition:

Literary Device Definition Hyperbole Definition: A hyperbole is a literary device wherein the author uses specific words and phrases that exaggerate and overemphasize the basic crux of the statement in order to produce a grander, more noticeable effect. The purpose of hyperbole is to create a larger-than-life effect and overly stress a specific point. Such sentences usually convey an action or sentiment that is generally not practically/ realistically possible or plausible but helps emphasize an emotion. Example: “I am so tired I cannot walk another inch” or “I’m so sleepy I might fall asleep standing here”.

Bell Ringer Definitions:

Bell Ringer Definitions 3)Imagery: In literature, one of the strongest devices is imagery wherein the author uses words and phrases to create “mental images” for the reader. Imagery helps the reader to visualize and therein more realistically experience the author’s writing. The usage of metaphors, allusions, descriptive words and similes amongst other literary forms in order to “tickle” and awaken the readers’ sensory perception is referred to as imagery. Imagery is not limited to only visual sensations, but also refers to igniting kinesthetic, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, thermal, and auditory sensations as well. Example: The gushing brook stole its way down the lush green mountains, dotted with tiny flowers in a riot of colors and trees coming alive with gaily chirping birds.

Bell Ringer 09/05/2014 Day Nine:

Bell Ringer 09/05/2014 Day Nine Define the following literary terms: 1)Idiom 2)In Media Res 3)Irony 4)Juxtaposition 5) Leitmotif

What Is An Idiom?:

What Is An Idiom? Idioms exist in every language. An idiom is a word or phrase that is not taken literally , like “bought the farm” has nothing to do with purchasing real estate, but refers to dying. Idiom also refers to a dialect or jargon of a group of people, either in a certain region or a group with common interests, like in science , music, art, or business.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms In medias res In medias res  ( Latin  "in the midst of things") is the literary and artistic  narrative  technique of relating a story from the midpoint, rather than the beginning (cf.  ab ovo ,  ab initio ). In an  in medias res  narrative, the story opens with dramatic action rather than exposition setting up the characters and situation.

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Irony Definition: The use of irony in literature refers to playing around with words such that the meaning implied by a sentence/word is actually different from the literal meaning derived. Often, irony is used to suggest the stark contrast of the literal meaning being put forth. The deeper, real layer of significance is revealed not by the words themselves but the situation and the context in which they are placed. Example: Writing a sentence such as, “Oh! What fine luck I have!”. The sentence on the surface conveys that the speaker is happy with their luck but actually what they mean is that they are extremely unhappy and dissatisfied with their (bad) luck.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Definition of Juxtaposition Juxtaposition is a literary technique in which two or more ideas, places, characters and their actions are placed side by side in a  narrative  or a poem for the purpose of developing comparisons and contrasts. In literature, juxtaposition is a useful device for writers to portray their characters in great detail to create suspense and achieve a rhetorical effect. It is a human quality to comprehend one thing easily by comparing it to another. Therefore, a writer can make readers sense “goodness” in a particular character by placing him or her side by side to a character that is predominantly “evil”. Consequently, goodness in one character is highlighted by evil in the other character. Juxtaposition in this case is useful in the development of characters. Examples of Juxtaposition in Literature Example #1 John Milton’s “Paradise Lost” is one of the narrative poems that can be used as examples of juxtaposition. This well-crafted literary piece is clearly based on the juxtaposition of two characters: God and Satan. Frequently in the poem, the bad qualities of Satan and the good qualities of God are placed side by side and  comparison  hence made brings to the surface the contrast between the two characters. The juxtaposition in the poem helps us to reach a conclusion that Satan deserved his expulsion from the paradise because of his unwillingness to submit to God’s will.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms leitmotif Line breaks:  leit|motif Pronunciation :  /ˈ lʌɪtməʊˌtiːf     / (also  leitmotiv ) NOUN A recurrent theme throughout a musical or literary composition, associated with a particular person, idea, or situation: there are two leitmotifs in his score marking the heroine and her Fairy Godmother

Bell Ringer 09/06/2014 Day Ten:

Bell Ringer 09/06/2014 Day Ten Define the following literary terms: 1) Line Breaks 2) Logos 3) Malapropism 4) Metaphor 5) Meter

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms line break Line breaks: line break ( NOUN) Printing: A point at which text is split into two lines; the end of a line even the freest free verse must justify its rhythms and line breaks

Logos: Logical:

Logos: Logical Logos is derived from the Greek term for word. Logos means persuading by the use of reasoning Aristotle viewed Logos as one of the most important forms of argument because it was the most logical.

Logos: Logical:

Logos: Logical One may classify the premises of logos into the following categories: 1) Are they arguments based on the definition? 2) Does the arguer make analogies or comparisons? Does he or she cite parallel cases? 3) Are there appeals to cause and consequences? 4) Does the arguer rely on testimony or authority by citing the received opinions of experts?

Logos: Logical:

Logos: Logical Types of logos include: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Giving reason, factual evidence, is the heart of logos. The impact of logos upon an audience is sometimes called the argument’s logical appeal. In summary, logos refers to the internal consistency of the message. It focuses upon the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence.

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Malapropism Definition: Malapropism in literature refers to the practice of misusing words by substituting words with similar sounding words that have different, often unconnected meanings, and thus creating a situation of confusion, misunderstanding and amusement. Malapropism is used to convey that the speaker/character is flustered, bothered, unaware or confused and as a result cannot employ proper diction. A trick to using malapropism is to ensure that the two words (the original and the substitute) sound similar enough for the reader to catch onto the intended switch and find humor in the result. Example: In the play Much Ado About Nothing, noted playwright William Shakespeare’s character Dogberry says, "Our watch, sir, have indeed comprehended two auspicious persons." Instead, what the character means to say is “"Our watch, sir, have indeed apprehended two suspicious persons."

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Metaphor Definition: Metaphors are one of the most extensively used literary devices. A metaphor refers to a meaning or identity ascribed to one subject by way of another. In a metaphor, one subject is implied to be another so as to draw a comparison between their similarities and shared traits. The first subject, which/who is the focus of the sentences is usually compared to the second subject, which is used to convey/carry a degree of meaning that is used to characterize the first. The purpose of using a metaphor is to take an identity or concept that we understand clearly (second subject) and use it to better understand the lesser-known element (the first subject). Example: “Henry was a lion on the battlefield”. This sentence suggests that Henry fought so valiantly and bravely that he embodied all the personality traits we attribute to the ferocious animal. This sentence implies immediately that Henry was courageous and fearless, much like the King of the Jungle.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Meter is the rhythmic, recurring pattern of accented and unaccented syllables you hear in literature. It can be used in prose and plays, though it is most commonly found in poetry. A piece of writing may contain several different types of meters, but there is usually a dominant pattern that follows throughout. Types of Meter Poetry What Is the Meter of a Poem? Basic meters Meter is defined by the number of alternating stressed and unstressed syllables in a line. Each sequence or group of two to three syllables in a line is called a foot. The simplest and most basic types of meters are: monometer, which is one foot; dimeter , two feet; trimester, three feet; tetrameter, four feet; pentameter, five feet; hexameter, six feet; and heptameter, seven feet. An example of hexameter is found in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's "Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie ": THIS is the | FORest pri | ME val. The | MURmuring | PINES and the | HEMlocks Iambic pentameter The most commonly used meter is iambic pentameter. Each line contains five feet, or 10 paired syllables. Every other syllable is stressed, following the pattern "unstressed-stressed" within each foot. Here is an example from William Shakespeare's 29th sonnet: When IN | dis GRACE | with FOR | tune AND | men's EYES

Bell Ringer 09/07/2014 Day Eleven:

Bell Ringer 09/07/2014 Day Eleven Define the following literary terms: 1)Metonymy 2)Myth 3)Narrator 4)Neologism 5) Onomatopeia

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Metonymy Definition: Metonymy in literature refers to the practice of not using the formal word for an object/subject and instead referring to it by using another word that is intricately linked to the formal name/word. It is the practice of substituting the main word with a word that is closely linked to it. Example: When we use the name “Washington D.C” we are talking about the U.S’ political hot seat by referring to the political capital of the United States because all the significant political institutions such as the White House, Supreme Court, the U.S. Capitol and many more are located here. The phrase “Washington D.C.” is metonymy for the government of the U.S. in this case.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms A myth is a traditional story, which may describe the origins of the world and/or of a people. A myth is an attempt to explain mysteries, supernatural events, and cultural traditions. Sometimes sacred in nature, a myth can involve gods or other creatures. And, a myth represents reality in dramatic ways. Many cultures have their own versions of common myths, which contain archetypal images and themes. Myth criticism is used to analyze these threads in literature. A prominent name in myth criticism is Northrop Frye.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms narrator n. person who narrates; storyteller; one who reads narration or descriptive text in between the acts of a play (also narrater )  Noun 1. someone who tells a story (synonym) storyteller, teller ( hypernym ) speaker, talker, utterer , verbalizer , verbaliser (hyponym) anecdotist, raconteur (derivation) tell, narrate, recount, recite

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Definition of Narrative Narrative is a report of related events presented to the listeners or readers in words arranged in a logical sequence. A story is taken as a synonym of narrative. A narrative or story is told by a narrator who may be a direct part of that experience and he or she often shares the experience as a first-person narrator. Sometimes he or she may only observe the events as a third-person narrator and gives his or her verdict. History of Narration or Storytelling Storytelling is an essential part of human nature. Man is the only creature that tells stories. Man has been telling stories and listening to them since the time he learnt to speak. The storytelling began with oral traditions and in forms of myths, legends, fables, anecdotes, ballads etc. These were told and retold and were passed down from generation to generation and they show the knowledge and wisdom of early people. The basic  theme  of the abovementioned forms of stories were fears of natural forces, deeds of heroes, gods and goddesses, and they might be told to learn a lesson from an experience. Biblical stories have the primary purpose of teaching spirituality. Most biblical stories were performed in churches to convey spiritual messages to the masses. Narrative in Everyday Life The modern narratives have a broader function. After a close study of famous examples of Modern narrative, one would realize that such narratives do not merely entertain but serve as ways to communicate writers’ moral, cultural and political perspectives. Moreover, narratives have contributed to achieving educational objectives in our everyday life. Different forms of media are enabling people to express and record their real life stories and to share their knowledge and their cultural values across the world. In addition, many documentaries on television adopt a narrative technique to communicate information in an interesting way. Examples of Narratives in Literature Example #1 “Animal Farm” by George Orwell is an among the famous example of a modern narrative that aims modern narrative examples that aim at extending a writer’s political views. It is a form of narrative known as a political  satire . It uses animals on a farm to describe the overthrow of the last of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WW II. The actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the Revolution. It also describes how powerful people can change the ideology of a society.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms neologism n. new expression; new word; modern usage of words or expressions  A  neologism  (; ) is the name for a newly coined term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use but that has not yet been accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. ( neolexίa ,  Greek : a "new word", or the act of creating a new word) is a synonym for it. The term  neologism  is first attested in English in 1772, borrowed from French  néologisme  (1734).

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Definition of Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia is defined as a word, which imitates the natural sounds of a thing. It creates a sound effect that mimics the thing described, making the description more expressive and interesting. For instance, saying, “The gushing stream flows in the forest” is a more meaningful description than just saying, “The stream flows in the forest.” The reader is drawn to hear the sound of a “gushing stream” which makes the expression more effective. In addition to the sound they represent, many onomatopoeic words have developed meanings of their own. For example, “whisper” not only represents the sound of people talking quietly, but also describes the action of people talking quietly. Common Examples of Onomatopoeia The buzzing bee flew away. The sack fell into the river with a splash. The books fell on the table with a loud thump. He looked at the roaring sky. The rustling leaves kept me awake. The different sounds of animals are also considered as examples of onomatopoeia. You will recognize the following sounds easily: Meow Moo Neigh Tweet Oink Baa

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Onomatopoeia Definition: The term ‘onomatopoeia’ refers to words whose very sound is very close to the sound they are meant to depict. In other words, it refers to sound words whose pronunciation to the actual sound/noise they represent. Example: Words such as grunt, huff, buzz and snap are words whose pronunciation sounds very similar to the actual sounds these words represent. In literature such words are useful in creating a stronger mental image. For instance, sentences such as “the whispering of the forest trees” or “the hum of a thousand bees” or “the click of the door in the nighttime” create vivid mental images.

Bell Ringer 09/08/2014 Day Twelve:

Bell Ringer 09/08/2014 Day Twelve Define the following literary terms: 1)Oxymoron 2)Paradox 3)Parallelism 4)Parody 5)Pathos

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Oxymoron Definition: Oxymoron is a significant literary device as it allows the author to use contradictory, contrasting concepts placed together in a manner that actually ends up making sense in a strange, and slightly complex manner. An oxymoron is an interesting literary device because it helps to perceive a deeper level of truth and explore different layers of semantics while writing. Example: Sometimes we cherish things of little value . He possessed a cold fire in his eyes

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Paradox Definition: A paradox in literature refers to the use of concepts/ ideas that are contradictory to one another, yet, when placed together they hold significant value on several levels. The uniqueness of paradoxes lies in the fact that a deeper level of meaning and significance is not revealed at first glace, but when it does crystallize, it provides astonishing insight. Example: High walls make not a palace; full coffers make not a king.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Paradox Definition of Paradox The term Paradox is from the Greek word “ paradoxon ” that means  contrary to expectations, existing belief or perceived opinion . It is a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas. A paradox is often used to make a reader think over an idea in innovative way. Examples of Paradox Your enemy’s friend is your enemy. I am nobody. “What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young.” – George Bernard Shaw Wise fool Truth is honey which is bitter. “I can resist anything but temptation.” Oscar Wilde From the above examples of paradox, we can say that paradox creates a humorous effect on the readers because of its ridiculousness. Examples of Paradox in Literature In literature, paradox is not just a clever or comical statement or use of words. Paradox has serious implication because it makes statements that often summarize the major themes of the work they are used in. Let us analyze some paradox examples from some famous literary works: Example #1 In George Orwell’s  Animal Farm,  one part of the cardinal rule is the statement, “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others”. This statement seems to not make any sense. However, on closer examination, it gets clear that Orwell points out a political truth. The government in the novel claims that everyone is equal but it has never treated everyone equally. It is the concept of equality stated in this paradox that is opposite to the common belief of equality.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Parallelism Definition of Parallelism Parallelism is the use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter. Parallelism examples are found in literary works as well as in ordinary conversations. This method adds balance and  rhythm  to sentences giving ideas a smoother flow and thus can be persuasive because of the  repetition  it employs. For example, “Alice ran into the room, into the garden, and into our hearts.” We see the repetition of a phrase that not only gives the sentence a balance but rhythm and flow as well. This repetition can also occur in similar structured clauses e.g. “Whenever you need me, wherever you need me, I will be there for you.” Common Examples of Parallelism Like father, like son. The escaped prisoner was wanted dead or alive. Easy come, easy go. Whether in class, at work or at home, Shasta was always busy. Flying is fast, comfortable, and safe. Examples of Parallelism in Literature In literature, parallelism is used in different ways to impress upon the readers in order to convey messages or moral lessons. Let us analyze a few examples of parallelism in literature: Example #1 Antithesis is a kind of parallelism in which two opposite ideas are put together in parallel structures. Alexander Pope in his “An Essay on Criticism” uses antithetic parallel structure: “To err is human; to forgive divine.” Imperfection is a human trait and God is most forgiving. Through these antithetical but parallel structures, the poet wants to say that God is forgiving because his creation is erring.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Parody Definition of Parody Parody is an imitation of a particular writer, artist or a genre, exaggerating it deliberately to produce a comic effect. The humorous effect in parody is achieved by imitating and overstressing noticeable features of a famous piece of literature, as in caricatures, where certain peculiarities of a person are highlighted to achieve a humorous effect. We, in our daily life, can employ the above technique to spoof somebody for the sake of fun. Parody examples are often confused as examples of  satire . Although parody can be used to develop satire, it differs from satire to a certain extent. Parody mimics a subject directly to produce a comical effect. Satire, on the other hand, makes fun of a subject without a direct imitation. Moreover, satire aims at correcting shortcomings in society by criticizing them. Examples of Parody in Everyday Life Example #1 In our daily watching of television, we may see extremely hilarious examples of parody which are shows that blend parody and satire. “The Daily Show”, “The Colbert Report”, and “The Larry Sanders Show” are renowned and these shows mimic famous political personalities and this allows them to target what they think are unintelligent political and social viewpoints.

Pathos: Emotional:

Pathos: Emotional Pathos is derived from the Greek word for suffering or experience Pathos means persuading by appealing to a reader’s emotions. Examples of pathos style writing can be found in: classic essays, documentary films, and advertising. A writer’s language choice affects the audience’s emotional response. Emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument.

Pathos: Emotional:

Pathos: Emotional Pathos is often associated with emotional appeal, more specifically the appeal to the audience’s sympathies and imaginations. An appeal to pathos causes the audience to not just respond emotionally, but to identify with the writer’s point of view; in other words, the speaker or writer invites the audience to feel what he or she feels. In this sense pathos evokes a meaning implicit in the verb, to suffer.

Pathos: Emotional:

Pathos: Emotional The most common way of conveying pathetic appeal is through narrative or story, which can transform the abstractions of logic into something more tangible. To summarize, pathos refers to the emotional and imaginative impact of a message upon an audience, the outcome of which effects the audience to act or decide.

Bell Ringer 09/11/2014 Day Thirteen:

Bell Ringer 09/11/2014 Day Thirteen Define the following literary terms: 1) Pedantry 2)Personification 3)Plot 4) Point Of View 5) Protagonist 6) Pun

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms pedantry    [ ped ′ 'n trē ] noun Pedantry is an excessive attention to the rules or paying strong attention to the minor points of learning. An example of pedantry is a friend standing in line for a show not letting another friend cut in line in front of them. An example of pedantry is a teacher insisting that the students learn the minute, obscure details of a subject.

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Personification Definition: Personification is one of the most commonly used and recognized literary devices. It refers to the practice of attaching human traits and characteristics with inanimate objects, phenomena and animals. Example: “The raging winds” “The wise owl” “The warm and comforting fire”

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Plot Definition: The plot usually refers to the sequence of events and happenings that make up a story. There is usually a pattern, unintended or intentional, that threads the plot together. The plot basically refers to the main outcome and order of the story. There is another kind of plot in literature as well; it refers to the conflict or clash occurring as a part of the story. The conflict usually follows 3 regular formats: a) characters in conflict with one another b) characters in conflict with their surroundings and c) characters in conflict with themselves. Example: Many date movies follow a similar simple plot. Boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy wins girl back in the end.

Literary Device Definitions:

Literary Device Definitions Point of View Definition: In literature, the ‘point of view’ is a literary device that depicts the manner in which a story is narrated/ depicted and who it is that tells the story. Simply put, the point of view determines the angle and perception of the story unfolding, and thus influences the tone in which the story takes place. The point of view is instrumental in manipulating the reader’s understanding of the narrative. In a way, the point of view can allow or withhold the reader access into the greater reaches of the story. Two of the most common point of view techniques are the first person, wherein the story is told by the narrator from his/ her standpoint and the third person wherein the narrator does not figure in the events of the story and tells the story by referring to all characters and places in the third person with third person pronouns and proper nouns. Example: In the popular Lord of the Rings book series, the stories are narrated in the third person and all happenings are described from an “outside the story” point of view. Contrastingly, in the popular teen book series, Princess Diaries, the story is told in the first person, by the protagonist herself.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Protagonist Definition of Protagonist A protagonist is the central character or leading figure in poetry,  narrative , novel or any other story. A protagonist is sometimes called a “hero” by the audience or readers. The word originally came from the Greek language and in Greek drama which refers to the person who led the chorus. Later on, the word started being used as a term for the first actor in order of performance. Iago in Othello could be identified as the protagonist of the novel because he played a central role in all the controversies of the play. The question here would be that, even though he was a central character, was he really the lead character too? Such a kind of indistinctness generally results in completely different interpretations of whether the said character is a protagonist or not. Examples of Protagonists from Literature Example #1 Protagonist examples in many stories are not shown to be flawless. They generally undergo some change that causes a turn of events, which makes a story interesting and helps deliver a message. Sometimes, a moral weakness is highlighted that causes the fall of the protagonist. For example: in William Shakespeare’s play  Hamlet , the protagonist experiences terrible events because of his indecisiveness, which troubles him while murdering his evil uncle. So, Hamlet’s struggle in dealing with the  antagonist  is what precedes the story.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Pun Definition of Pun A pun is a play on words in which a humorous effect is produced by using a word that suggests two or more meanings or by exploiting similar sounding words having different meanings. Humorous effects created by puns depend upon the ambiguities words entail. The ambiguities arise mostly in homophones and homonyms. For instance, in a sentence “A happy life depends on a liver”, liver can refer to the organ liver or simply the person who lives. Similarly, in a famous saying “Atheism is a non-prophet institution” the word “prophet” is used instead of “profit” to produce a humorous effect. Common Examples of Pun In everyday life, pun examples are found intentionally or accidentally used in jokes and witty remarks. Such as: The life of a patient of hypertension is always at  steak . Why do we still have troops in Germany? To keep the Russians in Czech. A horse is a very stable animal. Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana. An elephant’s opinion carries a lot of weight. What is the difference between a conductor and a teacher? The conductor minds the train and a teacher trains the mind. Examples of Pun in Literature In literature, puns have been used by famous writers in their literary works. Example #1 In constructing puns, William Shakespeare was a master craftsman. We find many examples of puns in his plays. Let us have a look at some of them: “It is the unkindest  tied  that ever any man  tied .”(Richard III) “winter of our discontent…made glorious summer by this  Son  of York.”(Richard III) Claudius: “…But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son…” Hamlet: [aside] “A little more than kin, and less than kind. (Kindred)” (Hamlet)

Bell Ringer 09/12/2014 Day Fourteen:

Bell Ringer 09/12/2014 Day Fourteen Please define the following literary terms: 1)Quip 2)Rhyme 3)Rhyme Scheme 4)Rhythm 5)Satire

Definition Of Term:

Definition Of Term quip   ( kwp ) n. 1.  A clever, witty remark often prompted by the occasion. 2.  A clever, often  sarcastic  remark; a gibe. See Synonyms at  joke . 3.  A petty distinction or objection; a quibble. 4.  Something curious or odd. intr.v .   quipped ,  quip·ping ,  quips To  make quips or a quip.

Definition Of Term:

Definition Of Term rhyme v. compose rhymes, write words or lines of poetry that end in similar sounds; be similar in sound, sound alike or identical    n. similarity of sound at the end of words or lines of poetry; word that ends with a sound similar to that of another word  A  rhyme  is a repetition of similar sounds in two or more words, most often at the end of  lines  in  poems  and  songs . The word "rhyme" may also be used as a  pars pro toto  to refer to a short poem, such as a  rhyming couplet  or other brief rhyming poem such as  nursery rhymes .

Definition Of term:

Definition Of term Rhyme scheme A  rhyme scheme  is the pattern of rhyme between lines of a  poem  or  song . It is usually referred to by using  letter s to indicate which lines  rhyme ; lines designated with the same letter all rhyme with each other. and therefore, it is the pattern of end rhymes or lines.

Definition Of Term:

Definition Of Term Rhythm Found in thesaurus:  musical time ,  cyclicity ,  periodicity ,  interval ,  time interval ,  prosody ,  inflection ,  guide , templet ,  template ,  natural family planning   n. beat, regular pulse or accent (in music, etc.); meter, recurrent beat in poetry or prose; cyclical pattern of events or elements  Rhythm  (from  Greek   ῥυθμός ,  rhythmos , "any regular  recurring  motion, symmetry") generally means a " movement  marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions." This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in  time  can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a  periodicity  or  frequency  of anything from microseconds to millions of years.

Definition Of Term:

Definition Of Term Satire Definition:  The use of satire in literature refers to the practice of making fun of a human weakness or character flaw. The use of satire is often inclusive of a need or decision of correcting or bettering the character that is on the receiving end of the satire. In general, even though satire might be humorous and may “make fun”, its purpose is not to entertain and amuse but actually to derive a reaction of contempt from the reader. Example:  An example of satire in modern pop-culture is the TV series South Park that uses satire as it primary medium for drawing attention the flaws in society, especially American society at present. The scripts and writing for the show are an excellent example of satire in written form

Bell Ringer 09/15/2014 Day Fifteen:

Bell Ringer 09/15/2014 Day Fifteen Please define the following literary terms: 1)Sentimentality 2)Simile 3)Soliloquy 4)Symbol 5) Synechdoche

Definition Of Term :

Definition Of Term sen•ti•men•tal•i•ty  (ˌ sɛn tə mɛnˈtæl ɪ ti )  n., pl.  -ties. 1.  the quality or state of being sentimental or excessively sentimental. 2.  a sentimental act, gesture, or expression. . Sentimentality   bleeding heart  A person of excessive and emotive compassion; one of undue sentimentality, whose heart strings quiver at the slightest provocation. This figurative phrase is  ofrelatively  recent origin: You want to think straight, Victor. You want to control this bleeding-heart trouble of yours. (J. Bingham,  Murder Plan Six , 1958) hearts and flowers  An expression or display of cloying sentimentality intended to elicit sympathy; sob stuff, excessive sentimentalism or mushiness;  maudlinism . This  Americanslang  phrase was originally the title of a mawkishly sad, popular song of 1910. I believed all the hearts and flowers you gave me about being in love with your husband … (J. Evans,  Halo , 1949) sob story  A very gloomy story; a sad tale designed to elicit the compassion and sympathy of the listener; a tear-jerker. This common, self-explanatory expression often applies to  analibi  or excuse. It also frequently describes the narrative recounting of the trials, frustrations, and disappointments of one’s  life.How  anyone could heed such a sob story is beyond me. ( Los Angeles Times , June, 1949)

Definition Of Term:

Definition Of Term Simile Definition of Simile A simile is a figure of speech that makes a  comparison , showing similarities between two different thttp://literarydevices.net/simile/hings. Unlike a  metaphor , a simile draws resemblance with the help of the words “like” or “as”. Therefore, it is a direct comparison. We can find simile examples in our daily speech. We often hear comments like “John is as slow as a snail.” Snails are notorious for their slow pace and here the slowness of John is compared to that of a snail. The use of “as” in the example helps to draw the resemblance. Some more examples of common similes are given below. Common Examples of Simile Our soldiers are as brave as lions. Her cheeks are red like a rose. He is as funny as a monkey. The water well was as dry as a bone. He is as cunning as a fox. Simile inputs vividness into what we say. Authors and poets utilize comparisons to convey their sentiments and thoughts through vivid word pictures like a simile. Examples of Simile in Literature Example #1 Written by Joseph Conrad, “I would have given anything for the power to soothe her frail soul, tormenting itself in its invincible ignorance like a small bird beating about the cruel wires of a cage.” The lines have been taken from  Lord Jim . The helplessness of the soul is being compared with a bird in a cage beating itself against the merciless wires of the cage, to be free.

Definition Of Term:

Definition Of Term Soliloquy Definition of Soliloquy A soliloquy is a popular literary device often used in drama to reveal the innermost thoughts of a character. It is a great technique used to convey the progress of action of the play by means of expressing a character’s thoughts about a certain character or past, present or upcoming event while talking to himself without acknowledging the presence of any other person. The word soliloquy is derived from Latin word “ solo ” which means “to himself” and “ loquor ” means “I speak” respectively. A soliloquy is often used as a means of character revelation or character manifestation to the reader or the audience of the play. Due to a lack of time and space, it was sometimes considered essential to present information about the  plot and to expose the feelings and intentions of the characters. Dramatists made extensive use of soliloquies in their plays but it has become outdated, though some playwrights still use it in their plays. Soliloquy examples abound during the Elizabethan era. Soliloquy and Monologue Sometimes soliloquy is wrongly mixed up with monologue and aside. These two techniques are distinctly different from a soliloquy. Although, like soliloquy, a monologue is a speech, the purpose and presentation of both is different. In a monologue, a character usually makes a speech in the presence of other characters, while in a soliloquy, the character or speaker speaks to himself. By doing so, the character keeps these thoughts secret from the other characters of the play. An aside on the other hand, is a short comment by a character towards the audience for another character usually without his knowing about it. Examples of Soliloquy from Literature Shakespeare made extensive use of soliloquies in his plays. But before Shakespeare, we find considerable use of this significant dramatic technique in Christopher Marlow’s play  Doctor Faustus  . Modern plays do not have as much examples of soliloquy as the Renaissance era. Example #1 “Yet art thou still but Faustus and a man” In the first soliloquy of  Doctor Faustus , Marlow has nicely summed up Faustus’ life, motives, intentions and growth of his ideas that took place before the start of action. An extra-ordinary ambitious soul of Doctor Faustus is revealed here who was not satisfied with the existing branches of knowledge and needed something beyond the powers of man.

Definition Of Literary Term:

Definition Of Literary Term symbol n. something that stands for or represents something else; printed or written character that is commonly used to designate something (as in mathematics or music)  A  symbol  is an object that represents, stands for, or suggests an  idea , visual image, belief, action, or material  entity . Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, or visual images and are used to convey ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite.  Numerals  are symbols for  numbers . Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose symbolizes love and compassion

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Definition Of Literary Term Synecdoche Definition of Synecdoche Synecdoche is a literary device in which a part of something represents the whole or it may use a whole to represent a part. Synecdoche may also use larger groups to refer to smaller groups or vice versa. It may also call a thing by the name of the material it is made of or it may refer to a thing in a container or packing by the name of that container or packing. Difference between Synecdoche and Metonymy Synecdoche examples are often misidentified as  metonymy  (another literary device). Both may resemble each other to some extent but they are not the same. Synecdoche refers to the whole of a thing by the name of any one of its parts. For example, calling a car “wheels” is a synecdoche because a part of a car “wheels” stands for the whole car. However, in metonymy, the word we use to describe another thing is closely linked to that particular thing, but is not necessarily a part of it. For example, “crown” that refers to power or authority is a metonymy used to replace the word “king” or “queen”. Examples of Synecdoche from Everyday Life It is very common to refer to a thing by the name of its parts. Let us look at some of the examples of synecdoche that we can hear from casual conversations: The word “bread” refers to food or money as in “Writing is my bread and butter” or “sole breadwinner”. The phrase “gray beard” refers to an old man. The word “sails” refers to a whole ship. The word “suits” refers to businessmen. The word “boots” usually refers to soldiers. The term “coke” is a common synecdoche for all carbonated drinks. “Pentagon” is a synecdoche when it refers to a few decision makers. The word “glasses” refers to spectacles. “Coppers” often refers to coins. Examples of Synecdoche in Literature Example #1 Coleridge employs synecdoche in his poem  The Rime of the Ancient Mariner : “The western wave was all a-flame. The day was well was nigh done! Almost upon the western wave Rested the broad bright Sun” The “western wave” is a synecdoche as it refers to the sea by the name of one of its parts i.e. wave.

Bell Ringer 09/16/2014 Day Sixteen :

Bell Ringer 09/16/2014 Day Sixteen Please define the following literary terms: 1) Syntax 2) Theme 3) Tone 4) Understatement 5) Verisimilitude

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Definition Of Literary Term Syntax Definition of Syntax Syntax is a set of rules in a language. It dictates how words from different parts of speech are put together in order to convey a complete thought. Syntax and Diction Syntax and  diction  are closely related. Diction refers to the choice of words in a particular situation while syntax determines how the chosen words are used to form a sentence. Most often than not, adopting a complex diction means a complex syntactic structure of sentences and vice versa. In combination, syntax and diction help writers develop  tone , mood  and atmosphere in a text along with evoking interest of the readers. Examples of Syntax Syntax in Poetry The general word order of an English sentence is “ Subject+Verb+Object ”. In poetry, however, the word order may be shifted to achieve certain artistic effects such as producing rhythm or melody in the lines, achieving emphasis, heightening connection between two words etc. The unique syntax used in poetry makes it different from  prose . Let us consider the following examples of syntax: Example #1 In casual conversations, we can simply say, “I cannot go out” to convey our inability to go out. P J Kavanagh’s in his poem  Beyond Decoration  does not rely on merely stating a prosaic “I cannot go out”. Rather, he shifts the syntax and says “Go out I cannot”, which lays a much stronger emphasis on the inability to go out conveyed by the word “cannot”.

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Definition Of Literary Term Theme Definition of Theme Theme is defined as a main idea or an underlying meaning of a literary work that may be stated directly or indirectly. Major and Minor Themes Major and minor themes are two types of themes that appear in literary works. A major theme is an idea that a writer repeats in his work, making it the most significant idea in a literary work. A minor theme, on the other hand, refers to an idea that appears in a work briefly and gives way to another minor theme. Examples of theme in Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice” are matrimony, love, friendship, and affection. The whole  narrative  revolves around the major theme of matrimony . Its minor themes are love, friendship, affectation etc. Difference between a Theme and a Subject It is important not to confuse a theme of a literary work with its subject. Subject is a topic which acts as a foundation for a literary work while a theme is an opinion expressed on the subject. For example, a writer may choose a subject of war for his story and the theme of a story may be writer’s personal opinion that war is a curse for humanity. Usually, it is up to the readers to explore a theme of a literary work by analyzing characters,  plot  and other literary devices. Presentation of Themes A writer presents themes in a literary work through several ways. A writer may express a theme through the feelings of his main character about the subject he has chosen to write about. Similarly, themes are presented through thoughts and conversations of different characters. Moreover, the experiences of the main character in the course of a literary work give us an idea about its theme. Finally, the actions and events taking place in a narrative are consequential in determining its theme. Examples of Themes in Literature Example #1 Love and friendship are frequently occurring themes in literature. They generate emotional twists and turns in a narrative and can lead to a variety of endings: happy, sad or bittersweet. The following are famous literary works with love and friendship themes:

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Definition Of Term Tone Definition of Tone Tone, in written composition, is an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject. Every written piece comprises a central  theme  or subject matter. The manner in which a writer approaches this theme and subject is the tone. The tone can be formal, informal, serious, comic, sarcastic, sad, and cheerful or it may be any other existing attitudes. Consider the following examples of tone: “I want to ask the authorities what is the big deal? Why do not they control the epidemic? It is eating up lives like a monster.” “I want to draw the attention of the concerned authorities toward damage caused by an epidemic. If steps were not taken to curb it, it will further injure our community” The theme of both tone examples is the same. The only way we can differentiate between them is their separate tone. The tone in the first example is casual or informal while, it is more formal in the second.

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Definition Of Literary Term Understatement Definition of Understatement An understatement is a figure of speech employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is. For example, you win 10 million dollars in a lottery. When you tell a news reporter “I am delighted”, you are making an understatement. Similarly, suppose a team loses to its opponent 50 to 0 in a soccer match and the captain of the team says in a post-match ceremony says, “We did not do well”, it is an understatement because he is trying to decrease the intensity of the loss. An understatement usually has an ironic effect as an equally intense response is expected in severe situations but the statement in response is the opposite of what was expected i.e. less intense but of course with an ironical  tone . For instance, your friend returns your new coat with blots all over it; in response, you make an understatement, “It doesn’t look too bad”. Therefore, an understatement is opposite to another figure of speech  hyperbole  or an overstatement. Common Examples of Understatement Let us try to understand understatement better with the help of some common examples of understatement used in daily conversations: Example #1 “Deserts are sometimes hot, dry and sandy” while describing deserts of the world.

Definition Of Literary Terms:

Definition Of Literary Terms Verisimilitude Definition of Verisimilitude In a literary work, verisimilitude is likeness to the truth i.e. resemblance of a fictitious work to a real event even if it is a far-fetched one. Verisimilitude ensures that even a fantasy must be rooted in reality, which means that events should be plausible to the extent that readers consider them credible enough to be able to relate them somehow to their experiences of real life. Origin of Verisimilitude The theory of verisimilitude comes from a Platonic and Aristotelian dramatic theory called “mimesis”. According to this theory, a work of art should convince the audience by imitating and representing nature and having basis in reality. The playwright, conforming to the above- mentioned theory, had to draw themes from sources well-known to the common people of his time and maintain the unities of action, place and time. Besides, he had to bring a realistic union between the style and the subject. Suspension of Disbelief The theory of verisimilitude leads to the idea of “suspension of disbelief” or “willing suspension of disbelief,” a term coined in 1817 by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He was of the opinion that if a writer was able to fill his work with a “human interest and a semblance of truth”, the readers would willingly suspend or delay their judgment in relation to the doubtfulness of a  narrative . In his  Biographia Literaria , Coleridge says: “… It was agreed, that my endeavours should be directed to persons and characters supernatural, or at least romantic, yet so as to transfer from our inward nature a human interest and a semblance of truth sufficient to procure for these shadows of imagination that willing suspension of disbelief for the moment, which constitutes poetic faith. Mr. Wordsworth on the other hand was to propose to himself as his object, to give the charm of novelty to things of every day, and to excite a feeling analogous to the supernatural, by awakening the mind’s attention from the lethargy of custom, and directing it to the loveliness and the wonders of the world before us …” Examples of verisimilitude in Literature Example #1 Jonathan Swift’s “Gulliver Travels” is a brilliant work of fantasy that may be considered as one of the best examples of Verisimilitude. It achieves verisimilitude due to the fact it is one of the finest examples of political  satire  in English Literature. Readers find in it a resemblance to a reality as they are aware of the fact that Swift satirizes contemporary politics, religion, and English culture. For instance, criticizing party politics in England, Swift writes, “that for above seventy Moons past there have been two struggling Parties in this Empire, under the Names of Tramecksan and Slamecksan from the high and low Heels on their shoes, by which they distinguish themselves.” Two rival political parties, the Whigs and the Tories, dominated England political scene during Swift’s time. In his novel the fictitious kingdom of Lilliput is dominated by two parties distinguished by the size of the heels of their boots. By relating the trivial disputes between the two Lilliputian parties, Swift relentlessly satirizes the insignificant disputes of the two English parties of his period. He achieves verisimilitude through this.