9th Grade Honors Literature Definitions 2014

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9th Grade Honors Literature Definitions( In Class Cornell Notes Slides):

9 th Grade Honors Literature Definitions( In Class Cornell Notes Slides) Mr. McKelvey 2014-2015 American Preparatory Academy

Proper APA Heading: What should it look like?:

Proper APA Heading: What should it look like? Proper Class Heading     Student Full Name Teacher’s Name Class Name or Period Due Date Assignment (skip line)   1)Numbers should remain within the margin   2)Work should line up with the margin   3)Keep work neat and free of unnecessary marks or extra text

My Job and Your Job:

My Job and Your Job English Language Arts

My Job:

My Job My Job is to accomplish the following objectives: Be Prepared Be Knowledgeable of My Subject Matter Be Equitable In My Treatment of Students Be Consistent with Policies and Procedures Be Positive and Promote Personal Academic Growth In All Students

Your Job:

Your Job Your job is to fulfill the following expectations: Be On Time Be Prepared Be Willing To Work Be Willing To Achieve Greatness

Day Two Definitions:

Day Two Definitions 1) Text: any arrangement of words 2) Genre: Category or type of literatures (e.g. non-fiction, fiction, fantasy, science fiction, American Gothic) 3) Major Genre: Prose, Verse, drama 4) Minor Genre: Specific subdivisions of major genre 5) Narrative: Text that tells a story 6) Prose: Text written in standard paragraph form

Day Two Definitions:

Day Two Definitions 7) Verse: Text not written in standard paragraph form 8) Drama: Text meant to be performed

Freytag’s Plot Pyramid Definitions-Direct Instruction:

Freytag’s Plot Pyramid Definitions-Direct Instruction Plot- Series of events that will tell a story Story Line- Individual plot line (short stories usually have one, novels may possess several plot lines)


Plot Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story. It shows arrangement of events and actions within a story.

Plot Point Definitions On Freytag’s Plot Pyramid:

Plot Point Definitions On Freytag’s Plot Pyramid 1) Exposition- Beginning of a story, tells character, setting, mood, and tone 2) Rising Action- Attempts to solve problem 3) Climax- Solution to problem. The turning point of the story where the outcome begins to take shape. Usually the point of highest interest in the story. 4) Falling Action-Events caused by the solution to the story 5) Resolution- Reactions to the climax

Alternative Freytag’s Plot Pyramid Description:

Alternative Freytag’s Plot Pyramid Description Plot: Freytag’s Pyramid Gustav Freytag was a Nineteenth Century German novelist who saw common patterns in the plots of stories and novels and developed a diagram to analyze them. He diagrammed a story's plot using a pyramid like the one shown. Freytag's Pyramid: The Breakdown 1. Exposition : setting the scene. The writer introduces the characters and setting, providing description and background. 2. Inciting Incident : something happens to begin the action. A single event usually signals the beginning of the main conflict. The inciting incident is sometimes called 'the complication'. 3. Rising Action : the story builds and gets more exciting. 4. Climax : the moment of greatest tension in a story. This is often the most exciting event. It is the event that the rising action builds up to and that the falling action follows. 5. Falling Action : events happen as a result of the climax and we know that the story will soon end. 6. Resolution : the character solves the main problem/conflict or someone solves it for him or her. 7. Dénouement : (a French term, pronounced: day- noo - moh ) the ending. At this point, any remaining secrets, questions or mysteries which remain after the resolution are solved by the characters or explained by the author. Sometimes the author leaves us to think about the THEME or future possibilities for the characters. You can think of the dénouement as the opposite of the exposition: instead of getting ready to tell us the story by introducing the setting and characters, the author is getting ready to end it with a final explanation of what actually happened and how the characters think or feel about it. This can be the most difficult part of the plot to identify, as it is often very closely tied to the resolution.

Homework For Plot Pyramid: Due 08/27/2014:

Homework For Plot Pyramid: Due 08/27/2014 Name __________________________________ Period _______ Freytag’s Pyramid Lesson From Theory to Practice As Carol Jago explains, “It’s easy to ‘teach’ literary terminology and devise quizzes on the terms, but to make the language of literature useful to readers, students need to practice using academic vocabulary in ways that deepen their understanding of how stories work” (51). Jago proposes using Freytag’s Pyramid to present and explore plot because the graphic organizer “allows readers to visualize key features of stories” (51). This lesson, which is adapted from Jago’s “Stop Pretending and Think about Plot,” asks students to practice using the literary term “in familiar contexts” (51). Through this process, students gain a deeper comprehension of the literary element’s meaning and the ways that it contributes to a writer’s craft. Further Reading Jago , Carol. “Stop Pretending and Think about Plot . ” Voices from the Middle 11.4 (May 2004): 50-51. The Lesson For homework, I want you to watch one of your favorite television shows. That’s right, for homework you’re to watch TV! But there’s a catch (there always is)…you must also chart the key events that create the plot of the show. Step 1 Answer the following questions (you may wish to do this as you watch the show): 1.) What did the author need to explain to viewers in the exposition section? What background information was given for this show? 2.) What inciting event causes the action to begin to “rise”? 3.) Where does the story peak? Is there a clear climax ? 4.) Which events lead up to the conclusion ? 5.) How is the story resolved ? Step 2 Fill in the Plot Diagram Worksheet attached. Step 3 Be prepared to defend your findings in open discussion groups.    

Day Three Definitions And Terms To Study:

Day Three Definitions And Terms To Study 1) Main Idea- Summary of the plot 2) Conflict- When the desires of a character is blocked 3) Internal Conflict- Conflict exists in the mind of a character ( requires a decision to be made) 4) External Conflict- Conflict exists outside of the mind (requires an action to be performed)

Plot Diagram:

Plot Diagram Basic situation/intro to conflict Exposition Development/ Rising Action Climax Falling Action Denouement/ Resolution CONFLICT

A Closer Look at Conflict:

A Closer Look at Conflict Conflict: A struggle between opposing forces The “ problem ” of the story Moves the plot forward (without conflict, we have no story!) Types of Conflict (may be more than 1 per story): External Conflict Character vs. person/group/animal/society/ nature, etc. Conflict with an external/outside force Internal Conflict Character vs. self Conflict occurs within their own mind or conscience

PowerPoint Presentation:

Essential Question: What is conflict? Answer: Conflict is a story’s/novel’s main problem. Another way to think about conflict is to refer to conflict as the main problem within a story’s plot and how this problem is solved/resolved/fixed.   There are several types of conflict you should know about: 1)Man versus Man Example:   2)Man versus Self Example:   3)Man versus Wild/Nature Example:   4)Man versus Society Example:   5)Man versus Technology Example:   6)Man versus The Unknown or Man versus Fate Example:

Man vs. Man:

Man vs. Man A conflict between two or more people. Example: two friends get in an argument and stop speaking to each other.

Man vs. Nature:

Man vs. Nature A conflict between a person and an element of the natural world. Example: a hiker gets lost in the mountains.

Man vs. Self :

Man vs. Self A conflict within a person. Example: an alcoholic struggles to overcome his addiction.

Man vs. Society:

Man vs. Society A conflict between a person and the laws or beliefs of a group. Example: a person goes to the capital and protests a new law.

Man vs. Fate:

Man vs. Fate A conflict between a person and God or the gods. Example: a ancient Greek hero fights Poseidon, the god of the sea.

Man Versus Technology:

Man Versus Technology A conflict between Man and the technological advancements within that may or may not be creating the conflict or driving force of the story. For Example: “There Will Come Soft Rains” by Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451 by Bradbury, I, Robot by Isaac Asimov, “The Veldt” by Ray Bradbury, Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep by Phillip K. Dick

Man Versus The Unknown:

Man Versus The Unknown Man Versus The Unknown conflict may include, but is not limited to, a struggle between man and God, man versus a paranormal force, man versus an alien force. Examples: The War Of The Worlds by H.G Wells, Hamlet by William Shakespeare

Other Plot Techniques:

Other Plot Techniques Chronological Order Story is written the order the events actually occurred Flashbacks (or flash-forward) interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past (or future) Foreshadowing Hint/clue about what might happen later in the story Suspense A feeling of excitement of tension Dramatizes a moment Cliffhanger When a story leaves the reader in suspense



Types of Characters:

Types of Characters Protagonist Seen as the main character/focus of the story The character in conflict who must solve a problem Antagonist The character or force that blocks the protagonist from achieving their goal Not always a “ villain, ” but gets in the protagonist ’ s way Subordinate Characters Other characters within the story, who add interest and complicate the story but aren ’ t the main focus

How do we learn about characters?:

How do we learn about characters? A writer reveals what a character is like (characterization) and how they change throughout the story Direct Characterization Writer tells us what the character is like “ Mr. Bumble was a great person ” Indirect Characterization Shows us what a character is like by describing character: what character 1. says, 2. does, and 3. what others say about that character “ Mr. Bumble is very generous for helping me with my garden, ” said Patricia.

Analyzing Characters:

Analyzing Characters Character motivation What makes each character tick Why are they doing what they ’ re doing? Dynamic Character Character changes by the end of the story Learned something new, see the world differently, etc. Both Della and Jim change in “ Gift of the Magi ” Static Character Characters that remain exactly the same at the end as they were in beginning Often called a “ stock ” character too

“Paradox of Possession” Statement:

“ Paradox of Possession ” Statement Who, or What owns the character? What is a “ paradox ” ? Self-contradictory statement—a statement or proposition that contradicts itself Person of opposites: a person with seemingly self-contradictory qualities So a character ’ s Paradox of Possession is… The term used to describe an internal conflict or flaw found in the character The chief obstacle in character ’ s search for contentment, fulfillment, or even survival Readers must consider both the character ’ s motivations and conflict in the story


Formula When thinking about character, we ’ ll think about the story ’ s conflict too. In the story ______ , the (character, event, object, place, or idea) owns ___(the character)___ because … Example: In the Harry Potter series, a sense of justice owns Harry because he searches out Lord Voldemort in order to avenge not only his parent ’ s death but, indirectly, that of Professor Dumbledore.

Try together:

Try together Let ’ s write one for Hemingway’s short story “ A Clean, Well-Lighted Place ” In the story “ A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” , the (character, event, object, place, or idea) owns ___(the character)___ because …



Setting:The Time and Place A Story Occurs( When and Where):

Setting:The Time and Place A Story Occurs( When and Where) Details that describe: Scenery Customs Transportation Clothing Dialects Weather Time of day Time of year Geography

Author’s Stylistic Choices: Literary Devices:

Author’s Stylistic Choices: Literary Devices

What is Style?:

What is Style? The way in which something is said, told, or done A combination of literary techniques/features, including word choice, imagery, phrasing, and figurative language Figurative language : words and images that exaggerate reality, or change the way we see the literal Similes and metaphors He was as fast as a cheetah. Voice : writer ’ s distinct use of words and images Helps portray the mood, purpose, and theme of a work

Point of View:

Point of View Is the vantage point from which a writer tells a story To determine, ask Who is telling the story? How much does the narrator know/understand? How much does the narrator want me to know? Can I trust the narrator? How might the story be different if someone else were telling it? Four types: 1 st person, 2 nd person, 3 rd person (2 types)

Point of View, continued:

Point of View, continued First-Person Second-Person “ I ” tells the story. Narrator is also a participant I in the story We only know what the narrator knows: what they say, feel, hear, or do Narrator may or may not be reliable They may not be objective about events, or may not tell the full truth “ You ” is pronoun used. Narrator tells the story to another character using “ you. ” It ’ s the least used perspective in writing

Point of View, continued:

Point of View, continued Third-person Limited Third-person Omniscient Pronouns “ he, ” “ she, ” “ they ’ Story is told from an outside observer, who refers to characters instead NOT a part of the story Views the action from the vantage point of just one character Plot events limited to what that one character experiences/observes Example: “ Harry Potter ” Pronouns “ he, ” “ she, ” “ they ’ Story is told from an outside observer, who refers to characters instead “ Omniscient ” : all-knowing. Narrator is a “ know it all ” Narrators knows everything that goes on in the story and tells us what each character is thinking Most commonly used


Tone Is the attitude a speaker or writer takes toward a subject, a character, or a reader Part of the author ’ s voice , which combines the writer ’ s choice of words with their attitude Also relates to the story ’ s mood , or what feelings are portrayed through the story Examples: sympathetic, humorous, sarcastic, critical, ironic, bitter, etc. The tone depends a lot upon who narrates the story. If the narrator is bitter towards the characters, that will show in the story


Irony An expression/situation where result is opposite, or contradictory to, what was intended/meant. Signals difference between appearance and reality of things Three types: Verbal irony: say one thing and mean another “ It sure is a nice day for a picnic, ” in the middle of a rainstorm Situational irony: result is opposite of what was intended You laugh at your friend for stepping in the mud, only to then step in a puddle yourself Dramatic irony: we know what ’ s going to happen but the character doesn ’ t We know that the wolf is in Grandma ’ s clothes, but Little Red Riding Hood doesn ’ t

Mistakes With Irony:

Mistakes With Irony It is very easy to mistake irony, and misidentify it Alania Morissette ’ s song Ironic Let ’ s see…Ironic or not? The name of Britain ’ s biggest dog (until it died recently) was Tiny… YES, ironic A man is incarcerated in a prison he used to be the warden of… YES, ironic “ It ’ s like rain on your wedding day. ” NO, not ironic. It might be ironic if it ’ s raining on your wedding day in the desert. Or snowing on a wedding day in July. Drawing trees on paper… This one could go either way,. Irony is somewhat subjective, so for something like this context matters Always be careful to distinguish between sarcasm and irony . They are not always the same thing!


Symbolism Examples:

What is a Symbol?:

What is a Symbol? A symbol is an object/setting/event/animal/person that functions in the story in two ways: literal and figuratively. The object stands for something beyond the literal Represent some other larger more concrete object, idea, or experience such as love, power, death, etc. Examples Dove with an olive branch = Peace “ The Ring ” in Lord of the Rings = power and evil “ Mockingjay pin, ” Hunger Games = rebellion


Allegory Stories in which character and events represent or symbolize ideas and concepts Allegory uses symbolism but the characters/symbols are there solely for a symbolic purpose Literal meaning/storyline doesn ’ t really matter Characters/Objects: Often represent virtues, vices, or evil Examples The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe Animal Farm “ The Force ” in Star Wars can be seen as an allegory for religion/God

Symbolic Statement:

Symbolic Statement In the story (name of work), (object, character, idea, setting, or event) represents the larger idea of/that… Example: In the Harry Potter series, Harry ’ s scar represents the sacrifice his parents made In the movie Finding Nemo, the idea of the drop off represents the unidentifiable dangers in the world.

More examples:

More examples In “ All Summer in Day, ” the sun represents the larger idea of freedom, friendship and happiness. In “ The Gift of the Magi, ” Della ’ s haircut represents the larger idea of sacrificial love because she gave up everything she had to surprise Jim.



What is a Theme?:

What is a Theme? A theme is broad idea in a story, or a message, or lesson conveyed by a work Themes are fundamental and universal ideas explored in a literary work The theme of a piece of fiction (short story, novel) is its message about life and how people behave (human nature) Themes are usually implied rather than explicitly stated Remember: many novels and stories contains more than one theme!

Thematic Statements:

Thematic Statements In terms of _____, (the story) by ____, reveals that ________ because… Example: In terms of human experience, “ The Gift of the Magi ” by O ’ Henry, reveals that love is the greatest gift of all because they sacrificed everything for each other.

Your Turn:

Your Turn In terms of _____________, (the story) by __________, reveals that _______________________________ because…

Day Three Literary Terms And Definitions:

Day Three Literary Terms And Definitions Characterization: Direct and Indirect Characterization Characterization: Strategies an author uses to give characters personality Direct Characterization: Author tells the reader the character’s personality through verbal descriptions Indirect Characterization: Author shows the reader the character’s personality through actions and behavior

Day Four Literary Terms And Definitions:

Day Four Literary Terms And Definitions 1) Allusion: A reference to something outside the text that the reader is expected to know. Common allusions are made to fairy tales, mythology, Shakespearean Dramas, popular culture, history, and the Bible. 2) Symbol: when something is itself and represents something else 3) Theme: General statement about life; May be positive or negative, never a single word, may or may not be what the author intended 4) Main Idea: Summary of events in a story.

Day 6: Hemingway’s, “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” Symbolsim:

Day 6: Hemingway’s, “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” Symbolsim Symbol Meaning 1) Light 2)Shadow 3)Sleep 4)Café 5)Bodega

Questions To Consider When Reading Hemingway’s Short Story:

Questions To Consider When Reading Hemingway’s Short Story 1) Characterization- Compassion or lack thereof in the waiters 2) Is the older waiter just describing himself while describing the deaf old man? 3) Explain “our nada who art in nada”-allusion

Day Six Literary Terms And Definitions For Hemingway’s Short Story:

Day Six Literary Terms And Definitions For Hemingway’s Short Story 1) colleague- (noun) a person somebody works with, especially in a professional or skilled job(synonyms: coworker, associate, partner) 2) omission- (noun) something that has been deliberately or accidentally left out or not done( synonyms: oversight, slip) 3) syntax- (noun) the ordering of and relationship between words and other structural elements in phrases and sentences ( synonyms: structure, rule)

Day Six Literary Terms And Definitions For Hemingway’s Short Story:

Day Six Literary Terms And Definitions For Hemingway’s Short Story 4) reluctant- (adjective) feeling no willingness or enthusiasm to do something ( synonyms: unwilling, hesitant) 5) insomnia- (noun) inability to fall asleep or to remain asleep long enough to feel rested (synonyms: sleeplessness, restlessness)

Day Six: Discussions Of Characters In Hemingway’s Novel:

Day Six: Discussions Of Characters In Hemingway’s Novel Discuss the meaning of theme: The act of generalizing the main idea. Old waiter: doesn’t want to go home: goes to bodega: goes home: sleeps through the day: Man, without human contact, goes against better judgment, withdraws, and gives up on life.

Day Seven Review: Vocabulary And Literary Terms:

Day Seven Review: Vocabulary And Literary Terms a) Because of John’s ____________, he was tired and sluggish throughout the day. Sarah had a phobia of water and was _________ to go in the pool. The ___________ of information created much information caused much confusion. Poor ________ made reading the letter very difficult. Many of Frank’s _________were at the company party.

Unreliable Narrator In Poe’s Short Story:

Unreliable Narrator In Poe’s Short Story Like the narrator in Hemingway’s, “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”, Poe’s short story also possesses a potentially unreliable narrator who may or may not be imposing his values on the reader. Montressor , the narrator, does the following: 1) Never explains the “insults” he has received 2) Last Line: sickness is caused by “ nitre ” but in reality it is his conscience and guilt.

Day Seven: Foreshadowing And Suspense In Poe’s Short Story:

Day Seven: Foreshadowing And Suspense In Poe’s Short Story Foreshadowing: the use of clues that suggest the outcome of situations in the narrative Suspense: creating tension within the reader by promoting questions or a desire to know what will happen next. Poe utilizes the Suspension Of Disbelief within his stories to keep the reader guessing what will occur next or to keep the reader guessing about the characters and their motives.

How Is Suspense Created?:

How Is Suspense Created? Suspense is created by: 1) giving clues as to what will happen next (Foreshadowing, including setting) 2) withholding information 3) by supplying false information (irony)

Vocabulary To Know For Faulkner’s, “A Rose For Emily”(Day Ten):

Vocabulary To Know For Faulkner’s, “A Rose For Emily”(Day Ten) 1)august :( adj ) dignified and splendid 2) diffident :( adj ) lacking self-confidence; reserved or restrained 3) acrid: ( adj ) pungent; sour 4) perpetuity: (noun) perpetual condition 5) deprecation: (noun) criticism 6) inextricable: ( adj ) impossible to escape from, to disentangle; extremely complex

Vocabulary To Know For Faulkner’s, “A Rose For Emily”(Day Ten):

Vocabulary To Know For Faulkner’s, “A Rose For Emily”(Day Ten) 7) archaic: ( adj ) outmoded; no longer in ordinary language; ancient 8) circumvent: (verb) get around restriction: outwit somebody 9) temerity: (noun) audacity; boldness 10) macabre: ( adj ) horribly gruesome