9th Honors English Composition Definitions and Concepts

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9th Honors English Composition Definitions and Concepts:

9 th Honors English Composition Definitions and Concepts Mr. McKelvey 2014-2015 American Preparatory Academy

Proper APA Heading: What should it look like?:

Proper APA Heading: What should it look like? Proper Class Heading     Student Full Name Teacher’s Name Class Name or Period Due Date Assignment (skip line)   1)Numbers should remain within the margin   2)Work should line up with the margin   3)Keep work neat and free of unnecessary marks or extra text

My Job and Your Job:

My Job and Your Job English Language Arts

My Job:

My Job My Job is to accomplish the following objectives: Be Prepared Be Knowledgeable of My Subject Matter Be Equitable In My Treatment of Students Be Consistent with Policies and Procedures Be Positive and Promote Personal Academic Growth In All Students

Your Job:

Your Job Your job is to fulfill the following expectations: Be On Time Be Prepared Be Willing To Work Be Willing To Achieve Greatness

How To Properly Synthesize A Paragraph:

How To Properly Synthesize A Paragraph APA William McKelvey 2014-2015

Proper Paragraph Format:

Proper Paragraph Format Organization Basic Paragraph Format Paragraphs are the building blocks of a paper. A paragraph discusses one idea in detail and aids the development of an overall topic for the essay. Paragraph lengths will vary depending on the purpose of the paragraph. PARTS OF A PARAGRAPH The basic paragraph consists of four parts: a topic sentence, supporting details, paraphrase the supporting details by explaining in your own words, and a concluding sentence. This basic paragraph format will help you to write and organize a paragraph and make each paragraph lead to the next.

Proper Paragraph Format:

Proper Paragraph Format TOPIC SENTENCE The main idea of each paragraph is stated in a topic sentence that shows how the idea relates to the thesis or overall focus of the paper. Generally, the topic sentence is the first sentence of a paragraph. All subsequent points made in the paragraphs should support the topic sentence. SUPPORTING DETAILS Supporting details elaborate upon and prove the topic sentence. Supporting details should be drawn from a variety of sources and based on research, experiences, etc. plus the writer’s own analysis. Using a combination of different supports is the most common and effective way to strengthen a paragraph. The following are common ways to provide supporting details: 1) Expert Opinion 2)Facts and Statistics 3)Personal Experience 4)Others’ Experiences 5)Research Studies 6)Brief Stories 7)Journal Entries 8)Personal Analysis 9)Interviews 10)Metaphors

Proper Paragraph Format:

Proper Paragraph Format CONCLUDING SENTENCE Each paragraph should end with a final statement that ties together the ideas brought up in the paragraph and emphasizes the main idea one last time. If the assignment is longer, it should transition to the ideas of the next paragraph. EXAMPLE PARAGRAPH Maintaining a healthy lifestyle requires eating a nutritious diet and getting regular exercise. A nutritious diet includes eating a variety of foods from each of the four food groups: meat, dairy, fruits and vegetables, and grains. Regular exercise is also an essential part of keeping a healthy lifestyle. Most experts recommend exercising at least thirty minutes a day, six days a week. These two aspects, eating a healthy diet and exercising on a regular basis, will maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Formula For Proper Paragraph Format:

Formula For Proper Paragraph Format Topic Sentence Supporting Detail #1 Paraphrase: Explain In Your Own Words Supporting Detail #2 Paraphrase: Explain In Your Own Words Supporting Detail #3 Paraphrase: Explain In Your Own Words Concluding Remarks

Practice With Analogies:

Practice With Analogies Examples Of Analogies ____: is to_____:: just as___ :is to______ 1)hot: cold :: tall : _________ 2) worker: factory :: student:___________ 3) cold: winter :: hot : _____________

Practice With Analogies: Synonyms For Claim:

Practice With Analogies: Synonyms For Claim Complete each word relationship with a vocabulary word. Deny: Refuse:: : Make Clear Give Proof: :: Examine: Investigate Contend:achieve :: : persuade Move forward: ::end: conclude

Practice With Synonyms For Claim:

Practice With Synonyms For Claim Complete each sentence using a vocabulary word: 1)My views were after the Mayan Apocalypse didn’t occur. 2)She was a student based on her constant studying and reading. 3)The author the conspiracy with little evidence. 4)The dominant speaker his party’s views at the House of Representatives meeting last week.

Five Paragraph Essay Formula: Student Cornell Notes:

Five Paragraph Essay Formula: Student Cornell Notes While evaluating this portion of the slideshow, you will need to take effective notes that may be utilized throughout the entirety of the school year

Five-Paragraph Essay:

Five-Paragraph Essay INTRODUCTION Hook Thesis Map BODY PARAGRAPH 1 Topic Sentence Evidence Commentary Evidence Commentary Evidence Commentary Transition

Five-Paragraph Essay:

Five-Paragraph Essay CONCLUSION Map Thesis Hook

Thesis Statements:

Thesis Statements W ho, W here, V ivid V erb, t hat, T heme. W,W,VV,t,T

Maps:

Maps Pronoun, Vivid Verb, List, Tie-in P, VV, L, T

Hooks:

Hooks Hooks can come in the form of: personal experiences, observations, jokes, statistics, quotations, or questions.

Topic Sentences:

Topic Sentences Last Name, Vivid Verb, Map Item, Why LN, VV, MI, W

Evidence:

Evidence Evidence can come in two forms: Quotations or Paraphrases

Commentary:

Commentary Commentary explains (or comments on) how the evidence proves the topic sentence and/or the thesis. Use transition words often in your commentary sentences.

Thesis statements:

Thesis statements Judge for yourself: Thumbs up=good thesis; thumbs down=bad thesis . “ The book, The Great Hornspoon , is both similar to and different that the movie. ” President Kennedy meant many things when he said, ‘Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.’ ” “Many People think uniforms should be mandatory.”

Map Sentence:

Map Sentence Map Sentence: The sentence before the thesis, explains what reasons support your thesis. Intro Paragraph should contain: Hook Map Thesis

Map statement practice:

Map statement practice An Island getaway is the perfect way to unwind after a busy school year . List three reasons why this is true: The sounds of waves allows for meditation. Laying on the beach is rejuvenating for the body/ Change of scenery invigorates the senses . Now, turn these reasons into a sentence/attach it to the thesis:--use transitional phrases/words to aid in this exercise. An island getaway is the perfect way to unwind after a busy school year in that the sound of the waves allows for meditation, laying on the beach is rejuvenating for the body, and a change of scenery invigorates the senses.

Map Statement practice:

Map Statement practice Create a MAP sentence for each of these thesis statements : Students should consider the brain-worthy benefits of leisure reading. It is scientifically proven that sleep is beneficial for the growth of the brain. School lunch should be healthy and nutritious.

Map Statement practice:

Map Statement practice Students should consider the brain-worthy benefits of leisure reading. Three Reasons: 1. 2. 3. Thesis & Map together:

Topic Sentences:

Topic Sentences v Write 1-2 sentences about this picture

Topic Sentences:

Topic Sentences Write 1-2 sentences About this picture:

Topic Sentences:

Topic Sentences Finally, Write 1-2 sentences about this picture

Topic Sentences:

Topic Sentences Now, read your last 3-6 sentences; write a sentence that unifies these sentences.

Evidence:

Evidence Like a lawyer in a jury trial, a writer must convince her audience of the validity of her argument by using evidence effectively. As a writer, you must also use evidence to persuade your readers to accept your claims, by leading your reader through your reasoning.

Incorporating Evidence:

Incorporating Evidence -Offer evidence that agrees with your stance up to a point, then add to it with ideas of your own . -Present evidence that contradicts your stance, and then argue against (refute) that evidence and therefore strengthen your position . -Use sources against each other, as if they were experts on a panel discussing your proposition . -Use quotations to support your assertion, not merely to state or restate your claim.

Evidence:

Evidence Weak or strong: thumbs up or thumbs down: Today, we are too self-centered. Most families no longer sit down to eat together, preferring instead to eat on the go while rushing to the next appointment ( Gleick 148). Everything is about what we want. This is a weak example of evidence because the evidence is not related to the claim. What does the claim about self-centeredness have to do with families eating together? The writer doesn't explain the connection.

Evidence:

Evidence Stronger use of evidence: Today, Americans are too self-centered. Even our families don't matter as much anymore as they once did. Other people and activities take precedence. In fact, the evidence shows that most American families no longer eat together, preferring instead to eat on the go while rushing to the next appointment ( Gleick 148). Sit-down meals are a time to share and connect with others; however, that connection has become less valued, as families begin to prize individual activities over shared time, promoting self-centeredness over group identity.

Evidence:

Evidence Ex 1: Today, we are too self-centered. "We are consumers-on-the-run . . . the very notion of the family meal as a sit-down occasion is vanishing. Adults and children alike eat . . . on the way to their next activity" ( Gleick 148). Everything is about what we want . Ex 2: Today, Americans are too self-centered. Even our families don't matter as much any more as they once did. Other people and activities take precedence, as James Gleick says in his book, Faster . "We are consumers-on-the-run . . . the very notion of the family meal as a sit-down occasion is vanishing. Adults and children alike eat . . . on the way to their next activity" (148). Sit-down meals are a time to share and connect with others; however, that connection has become less valued, as families begin to prize individual activities over shared time, promoting self-centeredness over group identity

Evidence:

Evidence Citing Your Sources Evidence appears in essays in the form of quotations and paraphrasing. Both forms of evidence must be cited in your text . Citing evidence means distinguishing other writers' information from your own ideas and giving credit to your sources . There are plenty of general ways to do citations. Note both the lead-in phrases and the punctuation (except the brackets) in the following examples: Quoting: According to Source X, "[direct quotation]" ([date or page #]). Paraphrasing: Although Source Z argues that [his/her point in your own words], a better way to view the issue is [your own point] ([citation]). Summarizing: In her book, Source P's main points are Q, R, and S [citation].

Evidence:

Evidence Bottom line, avoid accidental plagiarism, and give credit where credit is due. Review: Evidence should: -agree with your stance -be argued against to strengthen your claim. -be used as sources that argue against each other. -support your assertion and be completely relevant

Evidence Practice:

Evidence Practice Using the article highlight , underline, or circle the usage of evidence. Questions : How is evidence used effectively in this article? What is the same about the evidence usage within the article? How would you better use evidence if you were to re-write the article?

Using Evidence Practice:

Using Evidence Practice Quoting: According to Source X, "[direct quotation]" ([date or page #]) . [your commentary] Paraphrasing: Although Source Z argues that [his/her point in your own words], a better way to view the issue is [your own point] ([citation]). Summarizing: In her book, Source P's main points are Q, R, and S [citation].

Using Evidence Practice:

Using Evidence Practice Let’s try together. Quote: “Kindness is the language which the deaf can hear and the blind can see.” Mark Twain Now, write a topic sentence that addresses the subject of the quote. Now, explain the quote’s meaning and usage.

Using Evidence/commentary:

Using Evidence/commentary Topic Sentence: Quote: Commentary:

Using Evidence/commentary:

Using Evidence/commentary Your turn—try this one on your own : Quote: “Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people. “—Eleanor Roosevelt Topic sentence about this subject: Commentary: Now, put the components into their correct positions (Topic sentence; quote with a transitional phrase; commentary)

Using Evidence/Commentary Group Work:

Using Evidence/Commentary Group Work 1. Read the quote, figure out what claim about life it it making in your group . 2. Write a paragraph using the quote effectively . 3. Write paragraph on a piece of paper that has both of your names on it. Be sure that you are using the quote and claim effectively. Work together to complete the assignment. 5. This will be collected at the end of the period

Concluding Paragraphs:

Concluding Paragraphs --concluding paragraphs restate the information in the introductory paragraph, but use different words to do so. Concluding paragraphs should also restate (in different words of course) the map or thesis statement. So, let’s try this together:

Concluding Paragraphs:

Concluding Paragraphs Turn this intro paragraph into a concluding paragraph. “What is self respect? Having self respect is a huge deal for me and others. If you don’t have self respect, how are others supposed to respect you? Disrespect is putting yourself down, not dressing appropriately. Lacking self respect might looks like not being yourself, but being what others what you to be. Self respect is one aspect we can all have. If you respect yourself, others will respect you as well. ” Highlight the main ideas in the paragraph, write them down. Reword the main ideas. Create a paragraph based on the main ideas you have reworded.

Concluding Paragraphs:

Concluding Paragraphs You try: Introductory Paragraph: “Self respect is something everyone should have because it reflects the way that others view you. The reason it is important is because later in the future, people will judge you based on the way you treat yourself and others. The benefits of self respect are confidence in yourself, not having to worry about what others think, and a happy life.” Identify main ideas: Reword main ideas: Create a paragraph:

Concluding paragraphs:

Concluding paragraphs You try; Intro paragraph: “Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, could spend one million dollars per day, every day, seven days a week and would not run out of money until he was 311 years old! Most would agree that he has reached a point of financial security. In fact, it would be almost impossible to figure out how one could spend one million dollars per day. For most Americans, finding an occupation that is satisfying, earning enough money to live comfortably, and figuring out a realistic blend between work and leisure are three essential factors in beginning one’s career.” Main ideas: Reword: Rewrite

What Are Vivid Verbs? :

What Are Vivid Verbs? (Pre Vocabulary Practices-Schematic Knowledge) In your own words, please define the following terms: 1) claim 2) accuse 3)deem 4)defend 5)expound 6)hypothesize 7)pronounce

Vivid Verbs:

Vivid Verbs 1) claim: claim transitive verb \ ˈklām \ to say that (something) is true when some people may say it is not true to say that you have (something) to say that (something) belongs to you or that you deserve (something) Full Definition of CLAIM  a) to ask for especially as a right < claimed the inheritance> b)   to call for :   require <this matter claims our attention>

Vivid Verbs:

Vivid Verbs 2 claim ( noun) : a statement saying that something happened a certain way or will happen a certain way : a statement saying that something is true when some people may say it is not true an official request for something (such as money) that is owed to you or that you believe is owed to you a right to have something Full Definition of CLAIM 1)  a demand for something due or believed to be due <an insurance claim > 2) a :   a right to something; specifically :   a title to a debt, privilege, or other thing in the possession of another

Vivid Verbs:

Vivid Verbs 2)accuse: ac·cuse verb \ ə-ˈkyüz \ : to blame (someone) for something wrong or illegal : to say that someone is guilty of a fault or crime ac·cusedac·cus·ing Full Definition of ACCUSE transitive verb 1)  to charge with a fault or offense :   blame 2)  to charge with an offense judicially or by a public process intransitive verb to bring an accusation

Vivid Verbs:

Vivid Verbs 3)deem: deem verb \ ˈdēm \ : to think of (someone or something) in a particular way Full Definition of DEEM transitive verb   to come to think or judge :   consider < deemed it wise to go slow> intransitive verb   to have an opinion :   believe Examples of DEEM The principal will take whatever action she deems appropriate in this case. deem it fitting that we mark this solemn occasion with a day of prayer and thanksgiving.

Vivid Verbs:

Vivid Verbs 4)defend: de·fend verb \ di-ˈfend \ : to fight in order to keep (someone or something) safe : to not allow a person or thing to hurt, damage, or destroy (someone or something) 2) to fight or work hard in order to keep (something, such as a right, interest, cause, etc.) from being taken away 3)to speak or write in support of (someone or something that is being challenged or criticized)

Vivid Verbs:

Vivid Verbs 5) expound: ex·pound verb \ ik-ˈspau̇nd \ : to explain or state (something) : to give details about (something) Full Definition of EXPOUND transitive verb 1 a :   to set forth :   state b :   to defend with argument 2)  to explain by setting forth in careful and often elaborate detail < expound a law>

Vivid Verbs:

Vivid Verbs 6) hypothesize: hy·poth·e·size verb \- ˌsīz \ : to suggest (an idea or theory) : to make or suggest (a hypothesis) hy·poth·e·sizedhy·poth·e·siz·ing Full Definition of HYPOTHESIZE intransitive verb   to make a hypothesis transitive verb   to adopt as a hypothesis

Vocabulary Terms:

Vocabulary Terms 7) pronounce: pro·nounce verb \ prə-ˈnau̇n(t)s \ : to make the sound of (a word or letter) with your voice to say or speak (a word) correctly to say or announce (something) in an official or formal way pro·nouncedpro·nounc·ing Full Definition of PRONOUNCE transitive verb 1)  to declare officially or ceremoniously <the minister pronounced them husband and wife> 2)  to declare authoritatively or as an opinion <doctors pronounced him fit to resume duties> 3)a:  to employ the organs of speech to produce < pronounce these words>; especially :   to say correctly <I can't pronounce his name> b :   to represent in printed characters the spoken counterpart of (an orthographic representation) <both dictionaries pronounce clique the same>

More Vivid Verbs:

More Vivid Verbs In your own words please define the following Vivid Verbs: Infer: ( ) Reveal: ( ) Imply: ( ) Explore: ( ) Illustrate: ( ) Suggest: ( )

Vivid Verb Definitions:

Vivid Verb Definitions in·fer inˈfər verb verb: infer ; 3rd person present: infers ; past tense: inferred ; past participle: inferred ; gerund or present participle: inferring 1 . deduce or conclude (information) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements.

Vivid Verb Definitions:

Vivid Verb Definitions re·veal riˈvēl verb verb: reveal ; 3rd person present: reveals ; past tense: revealed ; past participle: revealed ; gerund or present participle: revealing 1 . make (previously unknown or secret information) known to others.

Vivid Verb Definitions:

Vivid Verb Definitions im·ply imˈplī verb verb: imply ; 3rd person present: implies ; past tense: implied ; past participle: implied ; gerund or present participle: implying 1 . strongly suggest the truth or existence of (something not expressly stated).

Vivid Verb Definitions:

Vivid Verb Definitions ex·plore ikˈsplôr verb verb: explore ; 3rd person present: explores ; past tense: explored ; past participle: explored ; gerund or present participle: exploring 1 . travel in or through (an unfamiliar country or area) in order to learn about or familiarize oneself with it.

Vivid Verb Definitions:

Vivid Verb Definitions illustrate [ ˈɪləˌstreɪt ] Verb 1. to clarify or explain by use of examples, analogy, etc. 2. to be an example or demonstration of

Vivid Verb Definitions:

Vivid Verb Definitions suggest [ səˈdʒɛst ) 1. to put forward (a plan, idea, etc.) for consideration 2. to evoke (a person, thing, etc.) in the mind of someone by the association of ideas 3. to give an indirect or vague hint

Analogies: Synonyms for claim practice:

Analogies: Synonyms for claim practice Justify: :: allege:claim Deny: Refuse:: : Make Clear Give Proof: :: Examine: Investigate Examine: Investigate:: :: Explain systematically

Synonyms practice:

Synonyms practice Complete each sentence by using a vocabulary word. 1. The theory was through several rigorous experiments . 2. Lance Armstrong allegations of doping throughout his athletic career . 3. The student her friend’s actions by standing up for her .   4. The Legislator publicly smoking cigarettes . 5. In order to understand my Latin homework, I went to have Mr. Goff some of the more complicated ideas .