Cold war

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THE COLD WAR 1945-1991

Slide 2: 

The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world-wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.[George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

Slide 3: 

After the War

Slide 4: 

Pursuit of The Dream

POST-WAR AMERICA : 

POST-WAR AMERICA Coming out of 4 years of war and 12 years of depression WHAT WOULD 1946 BRING? POST-WAR RECESSION $$$$$$$$

1948 ELECTION:TRUMAN vs. THOMAS DEWEY : 

1948 ELECTION:TRUMAN vs. THOMAS DEWEY Republicans sense victory Polls show a Dewey victory TRUMAN WINS & DEMS. CONTROL CONGRESS

TRUMAN’S “FAIR DEAL” : 

TRUMAN’S “FAIR DEAL” GI Bill Expand Social Security Tax Cut Raise Minimum Wage $ for Education $ for Farms $ for Slums

Slide 8: 

BY 1950, THE ECONOMY RECOVERS AND BECOMES TOPS IN THE WORLD! Growing Middle Class Women in the workforce Industry growing Suburbs “Baby Boom”

Slide 9: 

PERIOD OF GREAT TENSION BETWEEN CAPITALISM AND COMMUNISM, SHORT OF ACTUAL WAR THE COLD WAR

Slide 10: 

A Summary

ORIGINS : 

ORIGINS WW I INCURSION BUFFER STATES 22 MILLION DEAD IN WW II …USSR VACCUM OF POWER IN EUROPE

Slide 12: 

Y A L T A

Slide 13: 

YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

YALTA1945 : 

YALTA1945 FDR, Churchill, Stalin Meet to discuss post-war Europe Each man comes to the meeting with his own agenda*

Yalta:What each man wants . . . : 

Yalta:What each man wants . . . ROOSEVELT WANTS -the USSR to enter the war against Japan -to establish a United Nations

Yalta:What each man wants . . . : 

Yalta:What each man wants . . . CHURCHILL WANTS -reparations -full representation for Britain in the U.N.

Yalta:What each man wants . . . : 

Yalta:What each man wants . . . STALIN WANTS -reparations -to secure Soviet frontiers in Eastern Europe

ARMS RACE : 

ARMS RACE

Slide 19: 

Cold Warriors

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YALTA CALLED FOR FREE ELECTIONS IN EUROPE STALIN MOVES TROOPS INTO EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND REFUSES FREE ELECTIONS Greece and Turkey US RESPONSE: THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE

THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE : 

THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE US foreign policy based on the containment of communism How to do this? -economically / militarily

Slide 22: 

Truman Doctrine … 1947 Civil War in Greece. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.

Slide 23: 

The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

Slide 24: 

IRON CURTAIN

“ CONTAINMENT “ X (GEORGE KENNAN ) : 

“ CONTAINMENT “ X (GEORGE KENNAN ) COMMUNIST AGGRESSION IS EVERYWHERE GREECE , TURKEY , IRAN, MID-EAST,CHINA BERLIN BLOCKADE & BERLIN AIRLIFT WW III

Slide 26: 

GIVE`M HELL HARRY

Truman and The Cold War : 

Truman and The Cold War

COLD WAR EUROPE : 

COLD WAR EUROPE

GERMANY DIVIDED INTO 4 OCCUPATION ZONES : 

GERMANY DIVIDED INTO 4 OCCUPATION ZONES

Slide 32: 

Marshall Plan [1948] “European Recovery Program.” Secretary of State, George Marshall The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].

THE MARSHALL PLAN : 

THE MARSHALL PLAN Economic plan to rebuild Europe US to offer European nations money ($13billion), supplies, food, etc. USSR & Eastern European countries refuse aid

Slide 34: 

Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. Divided Germany

BERLIN ALSO DIVIDED : 

BERLIN ALSO DIVIDED

Slide 36: 

Post-War Germany

Improve your knowledge : 

Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones. Divided Berlin

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1949: English, French, American sectors join to form a single democratic country. USSR responds by blockading all access to West Berlin

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Drop in supplies to aid the people of West Berlin Food, clothing, medicine, etc. THE BERLIN AIRLIFT

Slide 42: 

AFTER 10 MONTHS THE SOVIETS TAKE DOWN THE BLOCKADE AND ALLOW ACCESS TO WEST BERLIN

Slide 43: 

Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)

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The U.S. realizes it needs a military presence in Europe, especially Germany, to prevent Soviet expansion N.A.T.O.

Slide 45: 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain

Slide 46: 

Communist countries come up with their own alliance WARSAW PACT

Slide 47: 

Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Rumania

Slide 48: 

SURROUNDED

The Cold War 1945-1991 : 

The Cold War 1945-1991

Slide 50: 

Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program

What is Communism? : 

What is Communism? This is the symbol of Communism – The Hammer and the Sickle Hammer for the Workers Sickle for the Peasants – the farm labourers Who are these guys ?

What is Communism? : 

What is Communism? ‘Those Guys’ wrote the ‘Communist Manifesto’ in 1847. It’s a short book – but billions of people have read it…. This is Karl Marx, the ‘Father of Communism’. People who believe in his ideas are called ‘Marxists’ This is his good friend, Frederick Engels.

Slide 54: 

Communism v. Capitalism

The Atomic Bomb : 

The Atomic Bomb The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock.Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.

First Soviet Atom Bomb1949 : 

First Soviet Atom Bomb1949

Slide 57: 

Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Rumania

Slide 58: 

Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!

Mao Zedong : 

Mao Zedong

KOREAN WAR : 

KOREAN WAR

Slide 62: 

The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory”

Slide 64: 

INCHON

EISENHOWER & DULLES : 

EISENHOWER & DULLES BRINKMANSHIP MASSIVE RETALIATION HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION SUEZ CRISIS EISENHOWER DOCTRINE U-2 DEBACLE & GARY POWERS SPUTNIK

Slide 66: 

The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957

Slide 68: 

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Nikita Khruschev : 

Nikita Khruschev

Slide 70: 

Nixon-Khrushchev“Kitchen Debate”(1959) Cold War ---> Tensions <--- Technology & Affluence

Slide 71: 

The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?” The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

Slide 72: 

HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION

Slide 73: 

SPUTNIK

SPUTNIK : 

SPUTNIK

Slide 75: 

Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

DOMESTIC COLD WARRIORS : 

DOMESTIC COLD WARRIORS WITCH HUNTING JULIUS & ETHEL ROSENBERG CHAMBERS & ALGER HISS PUMPKIN PATCH PAPERS !!! … NIXON HOLLYWOOD SEVEN

Slide 80: 

THE GREAT PUMPKIN

U.S. REACTIONS : 

U.S. REACTIONS HUAC BLACKLISTING SMITH ACT MCCARRAN ACT RED BAITING

McCARTHYISM : 

McCARTHYISM RED NIGHTMARE ARMY - McCARTHY HEARINGS

RED NIGHTMARE : 

RED NIGHTMARE

Slide 86: 

U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.

Slide 87: 

Khruschev Embraces Castro,1961

Slide 88: 

Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)

Slide 89: 

Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

Slide 90: 

The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) CheckpointCharlie

Slide 91: 

Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

Slide 92: 

Ich bin ein Berliner

Slide 93: 

THE MISSLES OF OCTOBER

Slide 94: 

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

Slide 95: 

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

Slide 96: 

Vietnam War: 1965-1973

Slide 97: 

The Real Cold War

PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE : 

PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE U.S. U.S.S.R.

Slide 99: 

THE END

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