Knowledge Management simple secret of Sucessful


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"Share your knowledge. It’s a way to achieve immortality." Dalai Lama


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Seta A. Wicaksana M.Psi. Psikolog 0811 19 53 43 • Ahli Senior di Komite Kebijakan Pengelolaan Kinerja Organisasi dan SDM KPKOS Dewan Pengawas BPJS Ketenagakerjaan • Wakil Dekan II Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Pancasila • Pembina Yayasan Humanika Edukasi Indonesia • Pendiri dan Direktur Humanika Consulting • Penulis Buku “SOBAT” Elexmedia Gramedia 2016 • Trainer Psikolog Konselor Karir dan Assessor di Humanika Consulting • Pengembang Alat Tes minat bakat BRIGHT dan Sistem Tes Psikologi berbasis aplikasi HITS dan HABIT • Narasumber di Radio DFM 1034FM • Dosen Tetap Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Pancasila • Sedang mengikuti tugas belajar Doktoral S3 di Fakultas Ilmu Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Pancasila Bidang MSDM • Lulusan Fakultas Psikologi S1 dan S2 Universitas Indonesia • Lulusan sekolah ikatan dinas Akademi Sandi Negara

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"I wish we knew what we know…“

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Background The move from an industrially-based economy to a knowledge or information-based one in the 21st Century demands a top-notch knowledge management system to secure a competitive edge and a capacity for learning.

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Background • The new source of wealth is knowledge and not labor land or financial capital. It is the intangible intellectual assets that must be managed. • The key challenge of the knowledge-based economy is to foster innovation.

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Background Knowledge Influences Success: • Peter Drucker the one factor • Toffler Survival in Knowledge Age is not who can read or write but who can learn and unlearn quicker • Nonaka the cutting edge • Tom Peters sum total of value-added • Handy Drucker primary factor of productivity

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From Data to Wisdom

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Data Information and Knowledge • Data collection of facts measurements statistics • Information organized data • Knowledge contextual relevant actionable information – Strong experiential and reflective elements – Dynamic – Branches and fragments with growth – Difficult to estimate impact of investment – Evolves over time with experience Information that changes something or somebody — becoming grounds for action by making an individual or institution capable of different more effective action Drucker The New Realities

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What is Knowledge • A justified true belief Nonaka and Takeuchi • It is different from data information • Knowledge is at the highest level in a hierarchy with information at the middle level and data to be at the lowest level • It is the richest deepest most valuable of the three • Information with direction i.e. leads to appropriate actions

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Value of Data Information Knowledge H T H T T H H H T H … T T T H T p H 0.40 p T 0.60 R H +10 R T -8 n H 40 n T 60 Information Data Zero Low Medium High Very High Value Knowledge approximation only EV -0.80 Counting p H n H /n H +n T p T n T /n H +n T EVp H R H + p T R T

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Beyond Knowledge • Knowledge – the know how – actionable information – e.g. Increasing the production capacity before “lebaran” each year to handle the extra sales volume • Wisdom – the know why – e.g. why there is increasing sales volume just before “Lebaran” – inclination to adjust

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Relating Data Information Knowledge to Events Knowledge Information Data Information System Decision Events Use of information Knowledge actions Decision Support System

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Knowledge Classifications

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Procedural vs Declarative Knowledge • Declarative knowledge substantive knowledge focuses on beliefs about relationships among variables – e.g. moon is round Peter get married with Susan – roundmoon marriedPeter Susan • Procedural knowledge focuses on beliefs relating sequences of steps or actions to desired or undesired outcomes – Run a lecture: take attendance open PPT … – Flowcharts – Procedure manuals

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Explicit Vs Tacit Explicit knowledge Objective rational technical Policies goals strategies papers reports Codified Leaky knowledge Tacit knowledge Subjective cognitive experiential learning Highly personalized Difficult to formalize Sticky knowledge e.g. Emc 2 e.g. don’t dive on that island when something wrong tsunami’s coming We can convert explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge or vice versa

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General vs Specific Knowledge • General knowledge is possessed by a large number of individuals and can be transferred easily across individuals – E.g. operating MS Windows • Specific knowledge or “idiosyncratic knowledge” is possessed by a very limited number of individuals and is expensive to transfer – E.g. writing programs for MS Windows Question: How about “Installing MS Windows”

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Technically vs Contextually Specific Knowledge • Technically specific knowledge is deep knowledge in a specific application domain – e.g information technology financial investment etc. • Contextually specific knowledge refers to the knowledge of particular circumstances of time and place in which work is to be performed – E.g. work knowledge in a particular organization

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Different Types of Knowledge How does this related to RM / ECM

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Knowledge Management Processes Capture •Externalization •Internalization Sharing •Socialization •Exchange Application •Direction •Routines Discovery •Combination •Socialization Can you relate this to our main case study

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Knowledge Discovery • Development of new tacit or explicit knowledge – from data and information – or from the synthesis of prior knowledge • 2 main ways – Combination – Socialization

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Knowledge Discovery: Combination • The process of synthesizing explicit knowledge - create new more complex sets of explicit knowledge • multiple bodies of explicit knowledge • also involve data and information • incremental – e.g. “new” proposal • radical – e.g. data mining

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Knowledge Discovery: Socialization • The process of synthesis of tacit knowledge across individuals • usually through joint activities instead of written or verbal instructions • E.g. chatting about how to find a good job • Facilitation by technologies – Groupware – Web 2.0 – forums chat-room face-book…

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Knowledge Capture • The process of retrieving either explicit or tacit knowledge that resides within people artifacts or organizational entities. • Knowledge captured might reside outside the organizational boundaries including consultants competitors customers suppliers and prior employers of the organization’s new employees. • Externalization vs Internalization

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Externalization vs Internalization • Externalization – converting tacit knowledge into explicit forms such as words concepts visuals or figurative language. • Internalization – conversion of explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge. – traditional notion of “learning”. – E.g. after reading a book you learn in your mind Discussion: How does IT help Can you relate this to our main case study

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Knowledge Sharing • the process through which explicit or tacit knowledge is communicated to other individuals. • effective transfer - so that the recipient of knowledge can understand it well enough for actions. • may take place across individuals groups departments or organizations. • Knowledge is shared internalized and not recommendations no internalization occurs based on knowledge. • Socialization vs Exchange.

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Knowledge Sharing: Socialization • focuses on the sharing of tacit knowledge among individuals groups and organizations • e.g. talking to a senior year student about how to finish your degree course with minimal amount of effort in the orientation camp. • e.g. apprenticeships Note: one may also use socialization to synthesize tacit knowledge for knowledge discovery.

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Knowledge Sharing: Exchange • focuses on the sharing of explicit knowledge. • communicate or transfer explicit knowledge between individuals groups and organizations. • e.g. passing a computer manual from one to another. Discussion: How does IT help Can you relate this to our main case study

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Knowledge Application • The process of applying explicit or tacit knowledge to carry out some tasks. • The knowledge may have been internalized exist in one’s mind or not e.g. work according to a manual. • Direction vs Routines.

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Direction • Individuals possessing the knowledge direct the action of another individual without transferring to that person the knowledge underlying the direction. • E.g. calling the help desk to solve your PC problems. • Experts ’ knowledge embedded in knowledge-base expert systems and decision support systems. • Troubleshooting systems based on the use of technologies like case-based reasoning.

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Routines • involve the utilization of knowledge embedded in procedures rules and norms that guide future behavior. • economize on communication more than directions because they are embedded in procedures or technologies. • e.g. inventory management system for automatic re-ordering. • general information systems and automation helps: – Enterprise resource planning systems – Management information systems … Discussion: How does IT help Can you relate this to our main case study

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KM Solutions Summary KM Processes KM Mechanisms KM Infrastructure KM Technologies Organization Culture Analogies and metaphors Brainstorming retreats On-the-job training Face-to-face meetings Apprenticeships Employee rotation Learning by observation …. IT Infrastructure Common Knowledge Externalization Combination Routines Socialization Exchange Direction Internalization Knowledge Capture Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Application Decision support systems Web-based discussion groups Repositories of best practices Artificial intelligence systems Case-based reasoning Groupware Web pages … Physical Environment Organization Structure Knowledge Discovery KM Systems Knowledge Capture Systems Knowledge Sharing Systems Knowledge Application Systems Knowledge Discovery Systems

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Learning and Giving for Better Indonesia

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