Inspirational Feedback

Category: Education

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using feedback to improve self quality


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for the Next 90 Minutes Identify the characteristics of effective feedback. How to effectively give negative feedback without building resistance. How to structure feedback so subjects remember the information. How to use the principles of motivational interviewing in your feedback to encourage subject learning. Creating targeted feedback that builds self-confidence and promotes greater cooperation in the classroom or workplace. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 2

Traditional approach (1):

Traditional approach (1) Change is motivated by discomfort. If you can make people feel bad enough, they will change. People have to “hit bottom” to be ready for change Corollary: People don’t change if they haven’t suffered enough

Traditional approach (2):

Traditional approach (2 ) If the stick is big enough, there is no need for a carrot. You better! Or else!

Traditional approach (3):

Traditional approach (3) Someone who continues to use is “in denial.” The best way to “break through” the denial is direct confrontation.

Another approach: Motivating (1):

Another approach: Motivating (1) People are ambivalent about change People continue their bad habit because of their ambivalence Resolving ambivalence in the direction of change is a key element of motivational interviewing

Another approach: Motivating (1):

Another approach: Motivating (1) Motivation for change can be fostered by an accepting, empowering, and safe atmosphere

Why don’t people change?:

Why don’t people change?

What Does This Look Like: Identifying the characteristics of effective feedback.:

What Does This Look Like: Identifying the characteristics of effective feedback. Looks really do matter… 10

What is Purpose of Feedback:

What is Purpose of Feedback Promote learning Offering new information to replace outdated or incorrect information. Promote Behavior Change To reinforce what is done well by a subject. Help subject change unproductive behavior. Promote Trust To offer information in respectful fashion that promotes the value of the person and reinforces learning. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 11

What is Purpose of Feedback:

What is Purpose of Feedback Feedback is about Providing the subject insight about the information, skills, & behaviors desired in the organization (college or university) to accomplish the mission (learning the material and/or changing behavior) to achieve the goals (graduation) and find employment. Creating an environment where the subject feels safe to ask for help and information. Creating a respectful learning environment.

Two Basic Forms of Feedback:

Two Basic Forms of Feedback Formative Gives information to instructors & subjects about how subjects are doing relative to course learning or behavior change goals. The formative assessment “script” reads like this: What knowledge or skills do I aim to develop? How close am I now? What do I need to do next? Perry C. Francis, Ed.D.

Two Basic Forms of Feedback:

Two Basic Forms of Feedback Summative Provides the subject with information about how he/she did mastering the information or making the requested change in behavior. For example, did the subjects learn what they were supposed to learn after using the instructional module . Summative feedback/evaluation is typically quantitative, using numeric scores or letter grades to assess learner achievement . Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 17


Examples… Formative Feedback Enrique, let me give you some ideas on how to improve your paper… Two specific examples where it can be improved Four specific examples where Enrique was doing well Summative Feedback Enrique, your earned a B- on your paper. Let me point out specifically the two areas that lowered your grade and several areas that you did well on… Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 18

When Feedback Goes Wrong:

When Feedback Goes Wrong Creates defensiveness in subjects Impacts classroom climate Inhibits learning Poor course/instructor evaluations

Effective Feedback:

Effective Feedback Effective feedback is specific, not general. Effective feedback always focuses on a specific behavior or actions, not on a person or their intentions. The best feedback is sincerely and honestly provided to help. People will know if they are receiving it for any other reason. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 21

Effective Feedback:

Effective Feedback Successful feedback describes actions or behaviors that is under the control of the individual. Feedback that is requested is more powerful. Build in permission to provide feedback, even if permission is not necessary. Say , “I'd like to give you some feedback about the presentation, is that okay with you ?” Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 23

Effective Feedback:

Effective Feedback Effective feedback involves the sharing of information and observations. It does not include advice unless you have permission or advice is requested. Effective feedback is well timed. Whether the feedback is positive or negative, provide the information as closely tied to the event as possible . Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 25

Effective Feedback:

Effective Feedback Effective feedback involves what or how something was done, not why. Asking “ why ” is asking people about their motivation and that provokes defensiveness . Check to make sure the other person understood what you communicated Use a feedback loop , such as asking a question or observing changed behavior . Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 27


Examples… Ineffective Feedback Mr. Smith, you are talking over everyone else during class discussion…why are you doing that… you know the class discussion rules. Effective Feedback Mr. Smith, I have noticed that when you participate in class discussion, you are talking over everyone else. It would be helpful to the whole class if you waited until others have stopped speaking. Additionally, what you have to say is very good…on target, and matches the class readings. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 29

Effective Feedback:

Effective Feedback Effective feedback is as consistent as possible . If the actions are great today, they’re great tomorrow. If the classroom behavior merits discipline, it should always merit discipline . Effective feedback is offered privately . Never single anyone out for embarrassment Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 30

Structuring Feedback: How to structure feedback so subjects remember the information. & How to effectively give negative feedback without building resistance from subjects.:

Structuring Feedback: How to structure feedback so subjects remember the information. & How to effectively give negative feedback without building resistance from subjects . The Order Really Does Matter… Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 32

Structuring Feedback:

Structuring Feedback When people are given both positive and negative feedback, what do they remember? Both the Positive & Negative Equally Mostly the Negative feedback Mostly the Positive feedback My subjects generally don’t listen when I speak! Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 33

Structuring Feedback:

Structuring Feedback People will mostly remember the NEGATIVE feedback. People generally do not deeply consider praise. People remember criticism in significant detail. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 34

Structuring Feedback:

Structuring Feedback Remember, even if you offer equal amounts of positive and negative feedback to a subject, it will still feel negative over all. Concept of “hedonic asymmetry” Brain is optimized to identify and respond to bad experiences first and seek to resolve them (survival). Good news can wait once threat is averted. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 35

Structuring Feedback:

Structuring Feedback The 90/10 rule… People generally focus on the 10% of their lives that are going wrong and overlook the 90% of their lives that are going normal or well. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 36

The Feedback Sandwich:

The Feedback Sandwich Many have been taught to sandwich negative criticism between positive remarks. Problems with the Feedback Sandwich: The criticism blasts the first positive comments out of the receiver’s brain. The receiver then thinks hard about the criticism which drives it into memory. The receiver is now on guard for more criticism and cannot hear the positive comments that end the cycle. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 37

A Better Structure for Feedback:

A Better Structure for Feedback Briefly present a few negative remarks followed by a long list of positive remarks. This can be hard…coming up with positives can take work Provide as much detail as you can Reason: Positive feedback is harder to remember. People generally scrutinize & remember criticism and gloss over positive remarks. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 38

Order a Different Sandwich…:

Order a Different Sandwich… Go from this… “You have a great writing and presentation style…at the same time, I can really see some areas for improvement. Suggestion # 1 Suggestion # 2 I also think the content of what you presented is good.” Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 39

Order a Different Sandwich…:

Order a Different Sandwich… To this… “Let’s take a look at your written report & presentation…two areas to focus on are… Specific Example 1 & 2 Some strong areas were… Great attention to the details of the report, for example… Your presentation brought home the fact about… You matched the learning goals with the points in the presentation… You sustained eye contact with your audience.” Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 40

Structuring Negative Feedback:

Structuring Negative Feedback When giving negative feedback Be clear!! Focus on things that can be changed or controlled by the receiver. Present a clear and constructive way to change the behavior or acquire new knowledge. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 41

Presenting Positive Feedback:

Presenting Positive Feedback Generally when people are receiving positive praise & feedback… Heart rate slows Blood pressure lowers Adrenaline levels decrease Muscles relax It also becomes less memorable. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 42

Presenting Positive Feedback:

Presenting Positive Feedback To make positive feedback more memorable: Give positive feedback that is unexpected. Give feedback that creates positive, esteem boosting nicknames. Give feedback that rhymes or has prose (supports memory). Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 43





TIMING . Make sure the time is right. The sooner the better, but if you're upset about the situation - or your employee is - take a "time-out."


CHOOSE YOUR WORDS . Saying, "You need to do..." or "You're not doing this properly," can put the receiver on the defensive from the get-go. Instead, say "I noticed that..." or "I understand that..." Beginning feedback phrases this way discusses the action or behaviour that needs to be changed, not the person.


START WITH THE POSITIVE Positive feedback acknowledges good contributions and work well done. Give specific examples of what the receiver did well. Let the receiver know the positive impact their contributions had on the department or organization so they understand the results - this also lets them know that you see it and appreciate it.


BE DESCRIPTIVE AND TALK ABOUT THE FACTS. . Discuss what happened, not how you feel about what happened. Focus on the situation, describe it, and stay objective. Give a reason why it's an issue and state the impact it had on the rest of the staff, the organization, or the customer.


COLLABORATE TO COME UP WITH IDEAS FOR IMPROVEMENT It's not up to you to come up with all the solutions by yourself - although you can offer suggestions that you think would be helpful. Make a point of involving the recipient in this crucial part of the feedback process. This way, the recipient has some involvement in decision-making, which will result in a greater commitment to see that it's implemented.

A Different Tool for Giving Feedback: How to use the principles of motivational interviewing in your feedback to encourage subject learning:

A Different Tool for Giving Feedback: How to use the principles of motivational interviewing in your feedback to encourage subject learning The Use of Motivational Interviewing Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 52

Motivational Interviewing & Feedback:

Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Counseling technique used to help people identify personal reasons for undertaking the hard work of behavior change. Based on the stages of changes model of behavior change ( Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982) . Pre-comtemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, & Maintenance Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 53

What is MI for Feedback:

What is MI for Feedback A client-centered, semi-directive method of engaging intrinsic motivation to change behavior by developing discrepancy and exploring and resolving ambivalence within the client . The core approach to MI is focused on the “helper” being in a stance of trying to connect and find the right stance or approach for each given situation. MI discusses three key stances which can be used. These are…. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 54

What We Can Learn From MI :

What We Can Learn From MI Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 55

Motivational Interviewing & Feedback:

Motivational Interviewing & Feedback Overview of Motivational Interviewing Express Empathy Develop Discrepancy Avoid Argumentation Roll with Resistance Support Self-Efficacy Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 56

To Review:

To Review Review the criteria used for the feedback. Engage the subject in his/her own self-evaluation. Offer your feedback… Structure with a few negative and several specific positive. Check for Understanding. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 57

To Review:

To Review If met with resistance… Express understanding and role with resistance. Avoid argumentation Identify discrepancy Where does the subject think s/he is Where does s/he think s/he needs to be Identify, using the criteria in syllabus, a plan to get to goal. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 58

Principle 1: Express empathy:

Principle 1: Express empathy The crucial attitude is one of acceptance Skilful reflective listening is fundamental to the client’s feeling understood and cared about. Client ambivalence is normal; the clinician should demonstrate an understanding of the client’s perspective Labelling is unnecessary

Example of expressing empathy:

Example of expressing empathy I am so tired that I cannot even sleep… So I drink some wine. You drink wine to help you sleep. …When I wake up…I am too late for work already… Yesterday my boss fired me. So you are concerned about not having a job. ...but I do not have a drinking problem!

Principle 2: Develop discrepancy:

Principle 2: Develop discrepancy Clarify important goals for the client Explore the consequences or potential consequences of the client’s current behaviours. Create and amplify in the client’s mind a discrepancy between current behaviour and life goals

Example of developing discrepancy:

Example of developing discrepancy Well…as I said, I lost my job because of my drinking problem…and I often feel sick. I only enjoy having some drinks with my friends…that’s all. Drinking helps me relax and have fun…I think that I deserve that for a change… So drinking has some good things for you…Now tell me about the not-so-good things you have experienced because of drinking.

Principle 3: Roll with resistance:

Principle 3: Roll with resistance Avoid resistance If it arises, stop and find another way to proceed Avoid confrontation Shift perceptions Invite, but do not impose, new perspectives Value the client as a resource for finding solutions to problems

Example of NOT rolling with resistance:

Example of NOT rolling with resistance You do not have the right to judge me. You don’t understand me. I do not want to stop drinking…as I said, I do not have a drinking problem…I want to drink when I feel like it. But, Anna, I think it is clear that drinking has caused you problems.

Example of rolling with resistance:

Example of rolling with resistance That’s right, my mother thinks that I have a problem, but she’s wrong. I do not want to stop drinking…as I said, I do not have a drinking problem…I want to drink when I feel like it. You do have a drinking problem Others may think you have a problem, but you don’t.

Principle 4: Support self-efficacy:

Principle 4: Support self-efficacy Belief in the ability to change (self-efficacy) is an important motivator The client is responsible for choosing and carrying out personal change There is hope in the range of alternative approaches available

Example of supporting self-efficacy:

Example of supporting self-efficacy I hope things will be better this time. I’m willing to give it a try. I am wondering if you can help me. I have failed many times. Anna, I don’t think you have failed because you are still here, hoping things can be better. As long as you are willing to stay in the process, I will support you. You have been successful before and you will be again.


OARS The OARS are the skills that can be used by interviewers to help move clients through the process of change. O pen-ended questions A ffirmation R eflective listening S ummarising

OARS: Open-ended questions:

OARS: Open-ended questions “Are there good things about using?” vs. “What are the good things about your substance use?” “Are there bad things about using?” vs. “Tell me about the not-so-good things about using” “Do you have concerns about your substance use?” vs. “You seem to have some concerns about your substance use. Tell me more about them.” “Do you worry a lot about using substances?” vs. “What most concerns you about that?” Close Versus Open-ended questions:

OARS: Affirmation:

OARS: Affirmation “Thanks for coming today.” “I appreciate that you are willing to talk to me about your substance use.” “You are obviously a resourceful person to have coped with those difficulties.” “That’s a good idea.” “It’s hard to talk about....I really appreciate your keeping on with this.”

OARS: Reflective listening:

OARS: Reflective listening Reflective listening is used to: Check out whether you really understood the client Highlight the client’s ambivalence about their substance use Steer the client towards a greater recognition of her or his problems and concerns, and Reinforce statements indicating that the client is thinking about change.

OARS: Summarize:

OARS: Summarize Summarizing is an important way of gathering together what has already been said, making sure you understood the client correctly, and preparing the client to move on. Summarising is putting together a group of reflections.


Questions Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 73


References Brookhart , S. M. (2008). How to give effective feedback to your subjects. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Chickering , A. W., & Gamson , Z. F. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. Motivating Behavior Change. (2011, February). Harvard Mental Health Newsletter 27 (8). Boston: Harvard Health Publications. Nass , C. & Yen, C. (2010). The man who lied to his laptop: What machines teach us about human relationships. New York: Current. Price, M., & O'Donovan, B. (2006). Improving performance through enhancing subject understanding criteria and feedback. In C. Bryan & K. Clegg (Eds.), Innovative Assessment in Higher Education (pp. 100-109). London: Routledge , p.107. Prochaska , J. O., & DiClemente , C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy: toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research And Practice, 19 (3), 276-289. Perry C. Francis, Ed.D. 74

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