Spanish Grammar Book Final

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Grammaro Booko :

Grammaro Booko THE WILMS


T.O.C Imperfect Preterite Por vs. Para Stressed Possessive A djectives and Pronouns DOP y IOP Ud y Uds Mandatos Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence, verbs of emotion, doubt, disbelief, and denial, and conjunction Familiar Tú Commands Nosotros Commands Past Participles used as Adjectives Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Conditional Tense Past Subjunctive


Imperfect *Another past tense Uses: Ongoing action (was/were) Repeated Action (used to) No definite beginning or end time/date/age/feelings/descriptions Interrupted activity ( cuando ) - ar -er -ir cantar tener salir cantaba tenía salía cantabas tenías salías cantaba tenía salía cantábamos teníamos salíamos cantabais teníais salíais cantaban tenían salían Irregulars ser ir ver era iba ve ía eras ibas ve í as era iba ve í a éramos ibamos ve íamos erais ibais ve í ais eran iban ve ían


Preterite -ar -er/-ir - é - í - aste - iste - ó - ió - amos - imos - aron - ieron Andar Anduve - Estar Estuve - Poder Pud - Poner Pus- Quiere Quis - Saber Sup- Tener Tuv - Venir Vin- -e - imos - iste - isteis -o - ieron Conducir Conduj - Producir Produj - Traducir Traduj - Decir Dij - Traer Traj - Dar (give) / Ver (see) di / vi dimos / vimos diste / viste dio / vio dieron / vieron Ir (go) / Ser (be) fui fuimos fuiste fue fueron Hacer (do /make) hice hicimos hiciste hizo hicieron Dormir Dormí Dormimos Dormiste Durmió Dumieron Leer Leí Leimos Leiste Leyó Leyeron

Por vs. Para:

Por vs. Para Por Para -motion or general location -duration of an action -object of a search -means by which something is done -exchange or substitution -unit of measure -destination -deadline/specific time in future -purpose or goal + infinitive (in order to) -Purpose + (noun/verb) (for, used for) -recipient of something (for) -comparisons/opinions (for, considering) -employment (for) Para usually comes before an infinitive Both mean for, but not interchangeable

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Ud . y Uds. Mandatos:

Ud . y U ds. Mandatos DOP + IOP + “se” can attach to an affirmative DOP + IOP + “se” must go before the neg. command Affirmative Negative Tú - drop the ‘s’ Los Irregulares = di, haz , ve pon , sal se, ten, ven Ud ./Uds. – put in “ yo ” form + change to opposite vowel Los Irregulares = TVDISHES Tú – put in “ yo ” form + change to opposite vowel, + add an ‘s’ Los Irregulares = TVDISHES Ud ./Uds. – same as above TVDISHES: Tener , Venir , Dar, Ir , Ser , Haber, Estar , and Saber

Present Subjunctive:

Present Subjunctive 1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative. 2. Then drop the -o ending. 3. Finally , add the following endings: - ar verbs: -e, - es , -e, - emos , - éis , en - er and - ir verbs: -a, -as, -a, - amos , - áis , -an ONLY DIFFERENCE FROM UD> AND UDS> COMMANDS IS TU FORM

Verbs of Will and Influence :

V erbs of Will and Influence Verbs of Will and Influence Sugerir (e- ie ) -to suggest Aconsejar –to advise Importar – to be important Insistir (en) -to insist on Mandar - to order Prohibir – to prohibit Recomendar (e- ie ) – to recommend Rogar (o- ue ) -to beg, to plead

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion:

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion When the main clause of a sentence expresses an emotion or feeling, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. Verbs of expressions and emotion alegrarse (de) to be happy tener miedo (de) to be afraid (of) esperar to hope; to wish es extraño it’s strange gustar to like es un lástima it ’ s a shame molestar to bother es ridículo it’s ridiculous sentir ( e:ie ) to be sorry es terrible it ’ s terrible soprender to surprise es triste it’s sad temer to be worried ojalá ( que ) I hope (that)

Subjunctive with verbs doubt, disbelief, and denial :

Subjunctive with verbs doubt, disbelief, and denial The subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause when there is a change of subject and the main clause implies negation or uncertainty. Expressions of doubt, disbelief, or denial dudar to doubt no es seguro it’s not certain negar ( e:ie ) to deny no es verdad it ’ s not true no creer not to believe es impossible it’s impossible no estar seguro /a (de) no to be sure (of) es improbable it’s improbable no es cierto it’s not true (no) es posible it’s (not) possible (no) es probable it’s (not) probable Expre ssions of Certainty no dudar not to doubt estar seguro /a (de) to be sure (of) no cabe duda de there is no doubt es cierto it’s true no hay duda de there is no doubt es seguro it’s certain no negar ( e:ie ) not to deny es verdad it’s true es obvio it’s obvious -> Use the indicative in a subordinate clause when the main clause expresses certainty.

Subjunctive with Conjunctions:

Subjunctive with Conjunctions Conjunctions are words/phrases that connect clauses. Certain ones introduce adverbial clauses, which describe how, why , when, and where action takes place; require subjunctive. Conjunctions that require the subjuncti ve a menos que unless en case (de) que in case (that) antes(de) que before para que so that con tal (de) que provided that sin que without Conjunctions used with subjunctive or indicative cuando when hasta que until después (de) que after tan pronto como as soon as en cuanto as soon as

The Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses :

-> Use subj. when adj. clause refers to a noun that doesn’t exist or it’s existence is uncertain -> Use indicative when adj. clause refers to a noun that is known, certain, or definite. Indicative -> 1. Necesito el libro que tiene información sobre Venezuela. Subjunctive -> 1. Necesito un libro que tenga información sobre Venezuela . -> The personal a is not used w/ direct objects that are hypothetical people; but, a lguien + nadie are always preceded by the personal a when they function as direct objects. -> If the person responding to a question where the speaker is uncertain knows the information, the indicative is used. The Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses

Familiar Tú Commands :

Familiar Tú Commands *Used when giving an order to someone you normally address with tú. -> Affirmative tú commands usually have the same form as the usted / él / ella of the present indicative. Infinitive Affirmative tú cuidar cuida tocar toca temer teme volver vuelve insistir insiste pedir pide Infinitive Neg. Tú cuidar no cuides tocar no toques temer no temas volver no vuelvas insistir no insistas pedir no pidas -> Negative tú commands have the same form as the tú form of the present subjunctive decir di hacer haz ir ve poner pon salir sal ser sé tener ten venir ven Irregulars:

Nosotros Commands :

Nosotros Commands -> Both affirmative and negative use the 1 st -person plural form of the present subjunctive. Ex: 1. Crucemos la calle. No crucemos la calle. However, for the negative command, the subjunctive is used. Affirmative : 1. Vamos a la pescadería. 2. Vamos a tomar un café Negative : 1. No vayamos a la pescadería. 3. No vayamos a tomar un café. -> Object pronouns are attached to the affirmative. Ex: 1. Firmemos el cheque. Firmémoslo. -> When nos or se is attached to an affirmative, the final –s of the command verb is dropped.

Past Participles used as Adjectives:

Past Participles used as Adjectives - ar -> -ado - er /- ir -> - ido Abrir abierto Decir decho Describir descrito Descubrir descubierto Escribir escrito Hacer hecho Morir muerto Poner puesto Resolver resuelto Romper roto Ver visto Volver vuelto The past participles of – er and – ir verbs whose stems end in –a , -e , or –o carry a written accent mark on the i of the – ido ending. Caer Ca ído Creer Cre ído Leer Le ído O ír O ído Re ír Re ído Sonre ír Sonre ído Traer Tra ído Examples: La puerta est á cerrada . El restuarante está abierto .

Present Perfect :

Present Perfect This is used to talk about what someone has done and is formed w/ the present tense of haber and a past participle. he hemos has - ha han Example: Tú no has cerrado la puerta . Yo ya he leído esos libros . -Agrees w/ the noun when it functions as an adjective, but not when it is part of the present perfect tense. Ex: Clara ha abierto las ventanas . Las ventanas están abiertas . -Used to talk about what has occurred . Ex: He trabajado cuarenta horas . -To say that someone has just done something, acabar de + (infinitive). Ex: Juan acaba de llegar . -Haber and the past participle cannot be separated. Ex: Siempre hemos vivido en Bolivia. -The word no and reflexive pronouns are placed before haber . Ex: Ellos no lo han arreglado . -In English, to have can be either a main verb or an auxiliary verb. As a main verb it corresponds to tener ; as auxiliary, to haber . Ex: Tengo muchos amigos; He resuelto mi problema . -The present perfect of hay is ha habido . Ex: Ha habido un accidente en le calle Central.

Past Perfect :

Past Perfect Used to talk about what someone had done or what had occurred before another past action, event, or state; uses the imperfect of haber plus the infinitive . hab ía hab íamos hab ías - hab ía hab ían -The past perfect is often used with the word ya (already). Ya cannot be placed between haber and the past participle.

Future Tense :

Future Tense - é - emos - ás - - á - án Infinitive + -Future endings are same for all verbs Irregulars : decir dir - hacer har - poder podr - poner pondr - querrer querr - saber sabr - salir saldr - tener tendr - venir vendr -

Conditional Tense :

Conditional Tense Expresses what you would do or what would happen. - ía - íamos - ías - - ía - ían -Conditional endings are same for all verbs Irregulars : decir dir - hacer har - poder podr - poner pondr - querrer querr - saber sabr - salir saldr - tener tendr - venir vendr -

Past Subjunctive :

Past Subjunctive ra ramos ras - ra ran *Nosotros form always has a written accent Ex: estudi á ramos formed w/ Uds. form of the preterite. The drop the – ron ending and add the past subj. ending. dar die- decir dije - estar estivie - hacer hicie - ir / ser fue - poder pudie - poner pusie - querer quisie - saber supie - tener tuvie - venir vinie - Irregulars: - ir endings: preferir prefirie - repetir repitie - dormir durmie - conducir conduje - creer creye - destruir destruye - o ír oye - -generally describes actions/events that have already happened.