nanotechnology

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whayt is nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology:

Nanotechnology The NeXt Really BIG SMALL Thing

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What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is the creation of USEFUL/FUNCTIONAL materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer length scale and exploitation of novel phenomena and properties (physical, chemical, biological) at that length scale FIELD OF APPLIED SCIENCE WHOSE THEME IS THE CONTROL OF MATTER ON AN ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCALE Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of objects on the atomic level. Products will be built with every atom in the right place, allowing materials to be lighter, stronger, smarter, cheaper, cleaner, and more precise. In order for this science to be realized, positional control must be achieved, and self-replication is necessary to reduce costs.

HOW SMALL:

HOW SMALL Nanobatteries are 200 nm in diameter 2 billion could fit on the surface of a nickel ™

Some Nanohistory:

Some Nanohistory The first one to coin the term is K. Eric Drexler, one time student of Feynman's First described by Nobel lauriate physicist Richard Feynman In 1959 he gave  a lecture called "There's plenty of room at the bottom" in which he suggested that the laws of physics would allow people to use small machines to make smaller machines eventually onto the atomic level

K. Eric Drexler view :

K. Eric Drexler view One way to work is to patiently experiment with chemical synthesis. The idea is to build molecules of increasing complexity by allowing atoms to assemble or rearrange in natural ways Use of chemical reactions to power internal nanomechanical operations The biological strategy of storing information in polymers can be adopted To transmit a program by using broadcast communications. This would enable the nanites to be easily controlled and, if things got out of hand, the transmitter could just be turned off A nanite is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers Nanites could be programmed to replicate themselves, or to work synergistically to build larger machines or to construct nanochips

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SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE ALLOWED TO VIEW THE WORLD FROM AN ATOMIC PERSPECTIVE REVEALED THE TOPOGRAPHY OF SURFACES ATOM BY ATOM THIS TECHNOLOGY EVOLVED TO ALLOW MANIPULATION OF INDIVIDUAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES With the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope, scientists were allowed to not only take photographs of single atoms but also to move atoms one by one.

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1 ST GEN 2 ND GEN 3 RD GEN 4 TH GEN PASSIVE NANOSTRUCTURES ACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURES SYSTEM OF NANOSYSTEMS MOLECULER NANOSYSTEMS GENERATIONS OF NANOTECH

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ADVANTAGES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 1 Revolution in computer h/w right down to molecular gates & wires We could inexpensively make very strong and very light materials 2 3 Improved surgical instruments with high precision and deftness Products could be much lighter, stronger, and precise 4 5 Allows to work on macroscopic scale

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Energy Optimization Positional control Space exploration Rapid and cheaper development PURPOSE Bottom-up production organic electronic components

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AT NANO LEVEL 1 MIND BENDING PRINCIPLE OF QUANTUM PHYSICS APPLY CHARACTERSTICS OF MATERIAL CHANGES 2 3 CARBON BECOMES 100 TINES STRONGER THAN STEEL ALUMINIUM BECOMES EXPLOSIVE 4 5 GOLD MELTS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

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BENEFITS Atom computers Military applications Space Medical uses

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COMPUTERS 1 We’ll be able to store more than 10 21 bits in the same volume Pervasive, self-configuring networks 2 3 Computers of the future will use atoms instead of chips for memory. Parallel computers that can deliver a billion instructions /sec. 4 5 Nano sized polarizers that significantly increase contrast ratio in LCD

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Medical uses 1 Improved surgical instruments with high precision Shrinking machines down to the size where they can be inserted into the human body in order to detect and repair diseased cells 2 enable better drug delivery 3 More effective anti-virals and antibiotics 4

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SPACE 1 reduced costs and increased capabilities of space ships,space flight remarkably light and strong materials for space ships 2 G Greater safety margins (use of diamondiod fibres) 3 . Nanosatellites will be 90% lighter 4 5 Nano sensors and nano rovers with enhanced monitoring and efficient control

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MILITARY APPLICATIONS 1 Very high sensitivity, low power sensors for detecting chem/bio/nuclear threats Light weight military platforms, without sacrificing functionality, safety and soldier security 2 Reduce fuel needs and logistical requirements 3 Reduce carry-on weight of soldier gear - Increased functionality per unit weight 4

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EXAMPLE PRODUCTS

NANO FILTERS:

NANO FILTERS Much water today is wasted because it is almost but not entirely pure. According to a World Bank document, water is a major concern of the U.N. Almost half the world's population lacks access to basic sanitation, and almost 1.5 billion have no access to clean water.

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Physical filters with nanometer-scale pores can remove 100% of bacteria, viruses, and even prions. The ability to recycle water from any source for any use can save huge amounts of water effective water filter also permits the generation of quite "dirty" waste streams from agricultural and industrial operations.

Intelligent Nano Coatings:

Intelligent Nano Coatings “Intelligent” nanocoatings for windows that reflect solar heat in the summer and transmit it in winter.

HI-TECH Lens:

HI-TECH Lens Contact lens that let you check your blood sugar level by looking in a mirror. Coming in about five years.

The promise of nanotechnology:

The promise of nanotechnology More powerful computers and information storage devices Fast chemical analyses using minute quantities of materials New approaches for medical diagnosis, treatment , and drug delivery New catalysts for cleaner, more efficient chemical and energy industries New materials 100 times as strong as current materials New technologies for energy production and conversion (fuel cells, solid-state lighting, photovoltaics) Nanochannel sensors DNA delivery Nanoscale “vacuum tube”

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No internationally agreed protocols for toxicity testing of nanoparticle No standardized protocols for evaluating environmental impact of nanoparticles . Need some sanity in issuing patents CHALLENGES Educating future generation scientists and engineers

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Nanites could be used to develop Nanoweapons GREY GOO “ UNKNOWN RISKS” RISKS As engines of destruction, nanotechnology and AI systems will lend themselves to more subtle uses than do nuclear weapons. A bomb can only be used to blast things but nanomachines and AI systems could be used to infiltrate, seize, or control a territory or a world

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION Nanotechnology helps to understand the world around us, and will provide inspiration and drive for many generations of scientists. Thus the future generation is going to continue the fantastic voyage with Nano technology in advanced level making life easier.

References:

References http://www.cjmag.co.jp/online/0597wnanites.html http://www.imm.org/SciAmDebate2/whitesides.html http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=5148 http://www.def-logic.com/articles/nanomachines.html http://www.ewh.ieee.org/r10/bombay/news3/page4.html http://www-lmr.usc.edu/~lmr/html/research.html http://ipga.phys.ucl.ac.uk/research/bun/index1.htm http://www.capemalta.net/news/Feature%205%20-%20NANOROBOTS.html http://bionano.rutgers.edu/or.html http://discuss.foresight.org/critmail/sci_nano.88-94/2779.html

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