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WASTE DISPOSAL & SCRAP DISPOSAL Prepared by: Saurabh Patel Guided by: Mrs. Riddhi Madhu Mr. Vijendra Chauhan Mr. Suman Acharyya MATUSHREE V.B.MANVAR COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DUMIYANI. 1

Purpose :

Purpose A number of methods for safe disposal of pharmaceuticals are described. These are methods which involve minimal risks to public health and the environment. 2


GENERATION OF SCRAP\REJECTS Generated at various stages of manufacturing 1) Rejects during shifting, milling, weighing, filtering & transfer operations. 2) During compression, encapsulation, coating & packing stages. 3) Rejected printing packing materials. 4) Expired or damaged goods. 5) Excess sample in QC after test. 6) Product sample from R&D at development stage. 3

Types of Health Care Wastes :

Types of Health Care Wastes 1)Communal waste eg . Cardboard boxes, paper, food waste, plastic and glass bottles. 2)Biomedical wastes eg . Cultures, tissues, 3)Anatomical waste eg . Recognizable body parts. 4)Sharps eg . Needles, scalpels, blades, broken glass. 4

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5)Pharmaceutical waste eg . Expired or no longer needed medicines or pharmaceuticals. 6) Genotoxic waste eg . Wastes containing genotoxic drugs and chemicals (used in cancer therapy). 7)Chemical waste eg . Laboratory reagents, solvents, expired or no longer needed disinfectants, and organic chemical wastes. 8)Pressurized containers eg . Aerosol cans, gas cylinders 5

Disposal methods:

Disposal methods 1) Return to donor or manufacturer Wherever practical the possibility of returning unusable drugs for safe disposal by the manufacturer should be explored; particularly drugs which present disposal problems, such as antineoplastics . For unwanted, especially those that arrive past or unreasonably near their expiry date it may be possible to return them to the donor for disposal. 6

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2) Landfill Landfill means to place waste directly into a land disposal site without prior treatment or preparation. Landfill is the oldest and the most widely practiced method of disposing of solid waste. 7

3)Waste immobilization: encapsulation :

3)Waste immobilization: encapsulation Encapsulation involves immobilizing the pharmaceuticals in a solid block within a plastic or steel drum. Drums should be cleaned prior to use and should not have contained explosive or hazardous materials previously. They are filled to 75% capacity with solid and semi-solid pharmaceuticals, and the remaining space is filled by pouring in a medium such as cement or cement/lime mixture. 8

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Once the drums are filled to 75% capacity, the mixture of lime, cement and water in the proportions 15:15:5 (by weight) is added and the drum filled to capacity. Steel drum lids should then be bent back and sealed, ideally by spot welding. The sealed drums should be placed at the base of a landfill. 9

4)Waste immobilization: inertization :

4)Waste immobilization: inertization Inertization involves removing the packaging materials, paper, cardboard and plastic, from the pharmaceuticals. The pharmaceuticals are then ground and a mix of water, cement and lime added to form a homogenous paste. The paste is then transported in the liquid state to a landfill and decanted into waste. 10

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The paste then sets as a solid mass dispersed within the solid waste. The main requirements are a grinder or road roller to crush the pharmaceuticals and supplies of cement, lime and water. The approximate ratios by weight used are as follows: pharmaceutical waste: 65% lime: 15% cement: 15% water: 5% 11

5) Sewer :

5) Sewer Some liquid pharmaceuticals, e.g. syrups and intravenous (IV) fluids, can be diluted with water and flushed into the sewers in small quantities over a period of time without serious public health or environmental affect. Fast flowing watercourses may likewise be used to flush small quantities of well-diluted liquid pharmaceuticals, eg . Antiseptics. 12

6) Burning in open containers :

6) Burning in open containers Pharmaceuticals should not be destroyed by burning at low temperature in open containers, as toxic pollutants may be released into the air. It is strongly recommended that only very small quantities of waste pharmaceuticals be disposed of in this way. 13

7) Novel high temperature incineration :

7) Novel high temperature incineration Industries which use high temperature technology, thermal power stations usually have furnaces that operate at temperatures well in excess of 850°C. Eg . Cement kilns are particularly suited for the disposal of expired pharmaceuticals, chemical waste, used oil, etc at about 1450°C. 14

8)Chemical decomposition :

8)Chemical decomposition If an appropriate incinerator is not available, the option of chemical decomposition can be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, followed by landfill. Chemical inactivation is tedious and time consuming, and stocks of the chemicals used in treatment must be made available at all times. For disposal of a small quantity of antineoplastic drugs this method may be practical. However for large quantities, for example, more than 50 kg of antineoplastic , chemical decomposition is not practical. 15

Procedure :

Procedure Solids, semi-solids and powders should be removed from their outer packaging but remain in their inner packaging and placed in clean plastic or steel drums, for treatment according to the encapsulation method. Removing outer packaging dramatically reduces the volume for disposal for methods such as encapsulation. Small quantities of pharmaceuticals still within their packaging may be discharged into a landfill. Outer packaging should be disposed of as nondrug, non-chemical materials by recycling or burning. 16

The separation of materials should be as follows: :

The separation of materials should be as follows: Tablets and capsules in plastic/foil blisters should be removed from all outer packaging but not from blisters; Tablets and capsules in bottles should be removed from outer packaging but not bottles; Tablets and effervescent in tubes should be removed from outer packaging but not from tubes. 17


RECORDS 1. Procedures for scrap which can be disposed, 2. Date of destruction, 3. Name of the product to be destroyed, 4. Type of destruction, 5. Place of destruction, 6. Cause of destruction, 7. Quantities destroyed, 8. Safety precautions, etc. 18


REFERENCES 1)Sidney H. Willig , GMP for Pharmaceuticals, Fifth Edition, Marcel Dekker 2005, pg no. 231-233. 2) Rambabu Cherukuri , Ananth Vannemsetty , A Consise Text Book of QC & QA, pg no. 254-270. 3)http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/medicalwaste/unwantpharma.pdf 19

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