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TERMINOLOGY Analysis: The examination and evaluation of the relevant information to select the best course of action from among various alternatives. Test: A procedure for critical evaluation; a means of determining the presence, quality, or truth of something.

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Scoring: It means to evaluate and assign a grade. Report: A document containing information organized in a narrative, graphic, or tabular form, prepared on ad hoc, periodic, recurring, regular, or as required basis.  


INTRODUCTION: Administering the written test is perhaps the most important aspect of the examining process. The atmosphere the test administrator creates in the test room and the attitude the test administrator displays in performing his/her duties is extremely important

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The test administrator's manner, bearing, and attitude may well inspire confidence in competitors and put them at ease while participating in the testing process.


ADMINISTERING A TEST: A teacher's test administration procedures can have great impact on student test performance. Before the test After Distributing Test Papers During the Test After the Test


TYPES OF SCORE Raw Scores : A Raw Score is simply the number of questions a student answers correctly for a test.


Uses : A raw score provides an indication of the variability in performance among students in a classroom.

Limitations: :

Limitations : A raw score by itself has no meaning. It can be interpreted only by comparing it with some standard such as total number of items for a test or with raw scores earned by a comparison group.

Percentile Rank :

Percentile Rank A percentile is a measure that tells us what percent of the total frequency scored at or below that measure.  A percentile rank is the percentage of scores that fall at or below a given score.

Advantages: :

Advantages : Lay people easily understand them Easy to interpret


Limitations : Percentile differences are not equal

Stanine (Standard nine):

Stanine (Standard nine) Standard nine) : Stanine scores express test results in equal steps that range from 1 (lowest) to 9 (highest). The average is a score of 5. In general, stanine scores 1,2 & 3 are below average, 4,5 & 6 are average and 7, 8 & 9 are above average

Standard Scores:

Standard Scores The standard scores indicate a student’s relative position in a group. It expresses test performance in terms of standard deviation units from the mean The mean is the arithmetical average. The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of scores in a group.

Types of standard Scores :

Types of standard Scores Z – Score If a mean and standard deviation can be calculated for a given set of raw scores, each raw scores can be expressed in terms of its distance from the mean in standard deviation units or z – scores.

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Z – Score = Raw Score –Mean/Standard deviation Note : Z – score is always minus when the raw score is smaller than the mean.

T Scores::

T Scores: any set of normally distributed standard scores that has a mean of 50 and SD of 10. Multiplying the z – score by 10 and adding the product to 50 can obtain T Scores.


Advantages only positive integers are provided Interpretation is relatively simple once the concept of T – Score is grasped.


GRADING Grading refers to the process of using symbols, such as letter to indicate various types of students progress (Nitko 2001).

Common Methods of Grading ::

Common Methods of Grading : Letter grades : There is a great flexibility in the number of grades that can be adopted i.e. 3 – 11.

Limitations: :

Limitations : Meaning of grades may vary widely Do not describe strengths/weakness of students

Strengths: :

Strengths : Easy to use Easy to interpret theoretically Provide a concise summary

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Number/Percentage grades (5, 3, 2, 1, 0) or (98%, 80%, 60% etc.) It is same as letter grades. Only difference is that instead of letters numbers of percentage is used.

Strengths: :

Strengths : Easy to use Easy to interpret theoretically Provide a concise summary May be combined with letter grades More continuous than letter grades

Limitations: :

Limitations : Meaning of grades may vary widely Do not describe strengths/weaknesses of students Meaning may need to be explained or interpreted.

Two category grades:

Two category grades It is good for courses that require mastery of learning.

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Strengths : Less emotional for students. Limitations : Less reliable Does not contain enough information about student’s achievement Provides no indication of the level of learning.

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CHECK LIST AND RATING SCALE They are more detailed and since they are too detailed it is cumbersome for teachers to prepare

Strengths :

Strengths Present detailed lists of students’ achievements Can be combined with letter grades Good for clinical evaluation

Limitations: :

Limitations : May become too detailed to easily comprehend Difficult for record keeping.

Advantages of Grades :

Advantages of Grades Grades are divided in to 5 – 7 divisions to which student’s performance is assigned as compared to 101 (0 – 100) divisions of conventional marking. It is a convenient method. Chances of errors are minimized

Disadvantages of Grades: :

Disadvantages of Grades : The assigned grades varies from teacher to teacher 2. Do not indicate students strengths or weaknesses 3. Foster unfair competition among students.

Scoring Essay type Questions : :

Scoring Essay type Questions : Evaluating essay response the evaluator should: Evaluator should use appropriate method to minimize bias Pay attention to the significant and relevant aspects of the answer Be careful not to let personal idiosyncrasy affect assessment Apply uniform standard to all the papers

Method of grading essay type question ::

Method of grading essay type question : Analytical grading : (Point method) In this method of the ideal answer to a question is specified in advance, although need not be in the amplitude the ideal or model answer is broken down into specific point.


ADVANTAGES: It can yield very reliable scores The preparation of detailed answer may bring to the teachers. The sub division of the model answer can make it easier to discuss with the students the marks awarded to them.


LIMITATIONS : It is very laborious and time consuming In attempting to identify the elements, undue attention may be given to the specific aspect.

Global grading: :

Global grading: In this method the ideal answer is not sub divided into the specific points and component points. The examiner is interacted to read the responses rapidly from a general impression and using some standard and standard assign

Sequential Grading:

Sequential Grading In order to bring more objectivity more answers can be scored beautifully. This is the same teacher valuing answer of a particular question.

Computer Software :

Computer Software The “Software” learns a specific subject area by scanning appropriate documents. Then, the software is fed graded essays to set up the grading standards.

Scoring Objective Tests:

Scoring Objective Tests Hand graded : Due to human effort, mistakes may occur. Having two graders grade exams help to catch 90% of those simple mistakes in grading.

Machine Scoring : :

Machine Scoring : As accurate as the answer code given to the computer. Some testing publishers will only release or sell their products to individuals who have undergone special training or have a particular degree in a related field.

Avante International Technology (Biometric) :

Avante International Technology (Biometric) The first test scoring system to achieve less than 1 error in 1.5 million marks during testing by an independent testing laboratory responsible for testing election equipment and ballots. The same error-free tabulation method is adapted for test scoring and grading, and survey tabulation.




Definition Item analysis is a process that examines students’ response to individual test items/questions in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole.

Benefits of item analysis: :

Benefits of item analysis : Provides a basis for efficient classroom discussion of the test results Provides data for remedial work Provides a basis for the general improvement of classroom instruction Provides a basis for increased skill in item construction

Procedures involved in an item analysis :

Procedures involved in an item analysis Qualitative : Qualitative item analysis procedures include proofreading of the exam prior to administering it for typographical errors, for grammatical cues and for appropriateness of the reading level of the material, conducting small group discussions of students after the exam and some time with the experts.

Quantitative: :

Quantitative : Item difficulty index (p) Item difficulty index portrays the “easiness” of an item because the higher the percentage, the easier the item. Item difficulty index is symbolized by p .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Item difficulty = R/T R = number of students who correctly answered the item T = number of students included for the analysis.

Item Discrimination Index (D) :

Item Discrimination Index (D) The item discrimination index of a test refers to the degree, which the item discriminates between high achieving students and low achieving students in terms of the scores of the total test

PowerPoint Presentation:

The formula to determine item discrimination index is : D = R u - R 1/ ½ T Ru = number of students in the upper group who got the item right.  R1 = number of students in the lower group who got the item right.   ½ T = One half of the total number of students included in the analysis.


EXAMPLE : After you have notified the doctor about leg pain in a postpartum mother, your most APPROPRIATE action would be to Massage her leg to increase circulation Have her walk around to decrease the stiffness Ask her to remain in bed Apply heat to the affected area.

Distractor Power :

Distractor Power The kind of statistic is Distractor Power. It provides information about effectiveness of the distractors

Simplified item analysis procedures :

Simplified item analysis procedures Conduct test/exams and score them. (Suppose we have conducted test on 21 students). Arrange all answer sheets in order of merit (From higher to the lower score).

PowerPoint Presentation:

Calculate 27% of the answer sheet. For a group of 21 students it will be approx. 6. Select 6 papers within the highest total score and the 6 papers with the lowest total score. Put aside 9 papers. They will not be used.

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Compute the difficulty index of each item. Compute the discriminating index of each item. Evaluate the effectiveness of distracter




GOALS Accurate and useful reporting of assessment results enables teachers, students, parents and the public to understand why various assessment instruments are being applied and how the results will be used as part of the institute improvement process


JOURNAL : Developing and scoring essay tests.

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