Coated Fabrics by Vignesh Dhanabalan

Category: Education

Presentation Description

A brief intro on Coated fabrics


Presentation Transcript

Coated Fabrics:

Coated Fabrics By Vignesh Dhanabalan Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected]


Why Coating..? Tension membrane structures Water proof fabrics * Decoration * Functional Attractive Designs Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Fire Hose

Different coating resins and adhesives:

Different coating resins and adhesives Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Polyurethanes Polyvinylchloride Rubber Starch Cellulose Fillers Pigments PU coated head caps PVC for abrasion resistance Neoprene for water proofing


Polymer Advantages Disadvantages Products PVC Versatile material Good inherent FR Good oil, solvent resistance Heat and RF weld able for good watertight seams Cracks when cold Moderate heat and age resistance Plasticizers migration Tarpaulins covering, large tents, and architecture uses. Seat upholstery Lather cloths Protective clothing Leisure products, banner, bunting, PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride Very good FR Low gas permeability Heat weld able,clear,high gloss Hard and brittle Blends with acrylics to improve FR in coating PU Polyurethane Tough good extensibility God weathering abrasion resistance Moderate FR Relatively expensive Limited hydrolysis resistance Waterproof protective clothing Aircraft life jackets Silicon Odorless, inert, good resistance to chemical and micro-organism High tear resistance and puncture resistance Low toxicity, water repellant Some breath ability Temp service range from – 60 to 200 o C Attracts oily soiling Seaming is difficult due to release properties Expensive Difficult to print or apply artwork Lightweight covering, tarpaulins, Sacks FIBCs, bulk bags Airbags Food, medical application Gaskets, seats Parachutes Oven curtains


Natural rubber Excellent stretch and flexibility Working temp upto 70 o C Many properties obtained by blending Moderate sunlight and oxidative resistance Moderate solvent and oil resistances Carpet backing Tyres Life crafts Conveyer belts Protective clothing Escape churtes Styrene butadiene rubber Similar to natural rubber but somewhat better resistances to abrasion flexing and microrg Similar to natural rubber Carpet backing Nitrile rubber Good oil resistance, which increases with acrylonitrile content. Better resistance to sunlight and heat. Limited fire resistances Oil resistance clothing, belts and items handling oily or greasy product Butyl rubber Low permeability to gases, better resistances to heat and chemical, oxidation. Solvent resistance limited, FR resistances, seaming difficult Air cushion, pneumatic spring, protective clothing for chemical and acid. Light weight jacket, life rafts PTFE Excellent resistance to acid, alkalies,chemicals , Solvent, oil, oxidation and weathering Non sticks properties Temp service upto 260 o C Very expensive Architecture application calendar belts Food and medical uses Gaskets, seals

Pros and Cons of different coated fibers:

Pros and Cons of different coated fibers Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Fabrics Pros Cons Cotton Excellent coating adhesion No bonding agent Low thermal shrinkage Low shrinkage/weight ratio Absorbs moisture Vulnerable to mildew rotting ,insects Polyester Strong with HT, low shrinkage Relative inexpensive Resistance to mildew, rotting and insects. Good overall properties as considered price Low moisture absorbency Limited resilience. Nylon Strong with HT variant available Good elasticity and thermal absorbancy Resistance to mildew rotting and insects Fabrics may sag due to moisture absorption Relative inexpensive Polyethylene / Polypropylene Light weight Inexpensive Chemically inert resistance to mildew rotting and insects. Adhesive difficult to some substances Aramid High tensile strength High melting point Excellent strength per weight ratio Expensive degraded by UV or sunlight Glass High temperature resistances Zero moisture absorbency Excellent UV stability Heavy Brittle, poor flexing properties.

Application (Methodology):

Application (Methodology) Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Single layer method: In this type of coating, usually the layer, which is applied on the base fabric, is single coated. This is useful when we required a thin coating to a substrate. Multiplayer coating: In this type of coating, more than one layer is usually applied on single coated fabric. By using multiplayer coating method we can improve the serviceability, durability even other coated properties for fabric. Considerations on selection of coating material / method Number of layer Wet layer of thickness Viscosity Coating accuracy require Coating support or web Coating speed


Methodologies Direct Coating Used for fabric produced from smooth continuous filament yarns Cotton is still used in some of these industrial coating applications Influenced by the blade profile and blade angle, and by the fabric tension Spray coating Spray foam coating is a more cost effective solution. It is sprayed onto the surface to fill small cracks and crevices; it then expands approximately 30 times its original liquid volume . The main drawback of this method is the non-homogeneity and expensive cost for manufacturing but this can be used for specialized narrow web bonding for design complicated structures. Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected]


Back Liking Roller Techniques Used to apply finishes or coatings of very low viscosity. Two different finishes may be applied to the same substrate at the same time. Carpets, automotive fabrics etc. can be processed. Hot Melt Extrusion Used for thermoplastic polymers Application of resin at faster rate Used to produce light weight coverings or tarpaulins and sack material Transfer Coating Principle Mainly used for Knitted Fabric Decorative or embossed designs can be obtained


Calendar Coating Used to produce unsupported films Adapted to apply the freshly produced film Is generally uneconomical Rotary Screen Used for coating polymer on to fabric with add-ons Less Tension, Uniform application, Better penetration Well suited to lightweight nonwoven fabrics and delicate films NOVEL COATING TECHNIQUES Electrospun Coating Metal & Conductive Coating PVD/CVD Super Critical Fluid Coating

Testing standards:

Testing standards Tests Standards 1 Abrasion resistance ASTM D-3389, BS 3424 2 Flexibility IS 7016, ISO5979 3 Stiffness IS 649 4 Air permeability BS 3424 5 Water vapor permeability x ASTM E 96-80 6 Water repellency Spray rating IS390, AATCC 22-1996 7 Cone test IS 7941 8 Coating adhesion BS 3424, ASTM D-751, IS 7016 9 Color fastness to dry and wet fastness BS 3424, IS 1259 11 Penetration to chemical hazard ASTM F 739-96 12 Electrical resistivity AATCC 76-1995 13 Penetration to blood borne pathogens ASTM F 1671-97b Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected]

Evaluations of Coated material:

Evaluations of Coated material Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected]

Application (End Use):

Application (End Use) Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Breath ability Soft to handle Wind proof Good insulation properties Resistance to UV radiations Resistance to influence of acids, alkalis, gases . Criteria’s to meet from a coated fabric


FABRIC COATING END USE Cotton sheeting Olearesinous compound Oilcloth, rainwear, and linoleum. Nylon sheeting Vinyl resins Impermeable fabric for paulins & inflated structure Cotton sheeting Vinyl resins Rains wear, light duty, upholstery. Cotton sheeting Phenolic resins Rigid plastic laminates for electrical assemblies. Cotton sheeting Melamine formaldehyde resins Rigid plastic laminates for electrical assemblies. Cotton sheeting Rubber compound Rain coats, friction tape, gasketting , and diaphragms. Cotton sheeting Vinyl resins Luggages , handbags, upholster. Cotton mele skin Vinyl resins Luggages , handbags, upholster. Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Fabrics with different coating material and their end use


Cotton dill Vinyl resins Luggages, handbags, upholster. Duck and canvas Rubber compound Pontoons, inflatable, lifeboats. Duck and canvas Vinyl resins Tents and awnings Burlap and jute Rubber compound Ventilating ducting for mines and tunnels. Knit cotton Vinyl resins Upholstery, handbags, garments. Knit cotton Rubber compound Rubber and boots, diaphragm. Knit and woven rayon Vinyl resins Raincoats, shower curtains, baby pants. Non woven cotton Vinyl resins Paulins use covering, upholstery. Glass fabric Vinyl resins Paulins and tapes. Glass fabric Epoxy resins and polyesters --------------------------- Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Cont.…..

Commercial Products using Coated fabrics:

Commercial Products using Coated fabrics Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Build Tech – Teflon Coated material Gelatin coated Vascular graft on (Dacron / PTFE) Automotive Textiles – Silicon elastomer Ethylene vinyl alcohol coated carry bags ( Packtech ) PTFE coated polyester needle felt filter fabric

Detection of Coating by Infrared spectroscopy:

Detection of Coating by Infrared spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Infrared radiation is absorbed by matter in the form of bands which have a discrete frequency. (1-1000 µm) The nature of the absorption is related to the types of atoms present and their arrangement in the molecule. The modern machines used can store, retrieve and compare spectra to enable manufactures to check quality, identity and characteristics of the polymer they use Disadvantages: - Is invaluable in detecting characteristic peaks to identity the differences between chemically similar hydrocarbon polymers Also sensitive enough to show the differences between polyester and polyether urethanes. Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected]


Summary Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Coating is not a new concept and it has ben in practice for many centuries. Coating material has been more used for imparting functional value than its counter part decoration. No material is available in nature that can satisfy the need of the hour. To overcome these limitations we go in for coating (Multiple combination) to provide the best possible results. The global demand for coated fabrics ranges around 13-14B USD in 2011 and is expected to grow at a higher pace. Indian market which has a value of 600 million USD growing at 10-15% per annum. There are lot many grey areas where coated fabrics are yet to fulfill. In coming future composite material are to rule the customer world with the help of coated fabrics

Vignesh Dhanabalan M.Tech Technical Textiles :

Vignesh Dhanabalan M.Tech Technical Textiles [email protected]


Bibliography Vignesh Dhanabalan - [email protected] Smith William.C , smart textile coating and laminates , wood head publications, ISBN 978-1-84569-379-4, 2010. Chapman and Hall, surface coating and raw material vol 1, 1993. Wellington Sears handbook of industrial textiles, Sabit Adanur  - 1995  Bohin ; Fabrice (Lyons, FR); Pouchelon ; Alain ( Meyzieu , FR), ‘ silicon coated fabric’, U.S.Patent.No-6369184, 9 Apr 2002.. Bruchmann ; Bernd (Ludwigshafen, DE); Renz ; Hans ( Meckenheim , DE); Mohrhardt ; Gunter (Speyer , DE), ‘ one component and two component polyurethane coated fabr ic ’ , U.S.Patent No-5744569, 28 apr , 1998. Galliot.C , Luchsinger.R.H , The shear ramp: a new test method for the investigation of coated fabric shear behavio r, empa - swiss federal laboratories for materials science and technology, center for synergetic structures, ueberlandstrasse 129, ch-8600 duebendorf , Switzerland . Donald H.Backley , Elsevier Publication, 1981. Heimann.B.Robert , Plasma spray coating, Wiley –VCH, ISBN – 3-527-29356-6, Edition 1995.