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Hazardous Chemicals:

Hazardous Chemicals Commercial hazardous chemicals Household hazardous chemicals Hazardous materials locations

Typical Hazardous Chemical Locations:

Typical Hazardous Chemical Locations Chemical plants Warehouses Tank farms Truck, shipping, airline terminals Weapons depots Hospitals Laboratories Truck, shipping, airline terminals Nuclear plants Maintenance facilities

Ethylene Oxide:

Ethylene Oxide Chemical Formula: C 2 H 4 O CAS# 75-21-8 UN# 1040 ISCS: 0155 Physical State: Colorless compressed liquefied gas Physical Properties Boiling Point: 11 ° C Flash point: Flammable gas Vapor Pressure: 146 kPa at 20 ° C Vapor Density: 1.5 Solubility in Water: very good Lower flammable limit 3%; upper flammable limit 100% Auto-ignition temperature 429 ° C Fire and Explosion : Extremely flammable. Gas/air mixtures are explosive. Risk of fire and explosion as a result of violent decomposition when heated. Exposure Harmful when inhaled; causes severe skin and eye irritation or burns; carcinogenic to humans Route of Exposure: Inhalation, skin Chemical Dangers : May polymerize due to heating, under the influence of acids, bases, metal chlorides and metal oxides with fire or explosion hazard. Decomposes on heating above 500 ° C, causing fire and explosion hazard. Reacts violently with many compounds. Metal fittings containing silver, copper, mercury, or magnesium should not be used since they may react with impurities in the gas to form explosive compounds. Physical Dangers : Gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible. Oxirane, 1-2 Epoxyethane, Dimethylene Oxide Use: Chemical intermediate for production of antifreeze, polyester resins, surfactants and specialty solvents; sterilizing agent for controlling microorganisms

Sulfur Dioxide:

Chemical Formula: SO 2 CAS# 7446-09-5 UN# 1079 ISCS: 0074 Physical State: Colorless gas with an irritating pungent odor. Physical Properties Boiling Point: -10 °C Vapor Pressure: 330 kPa at 20°C Vapor Density: 2.25 Relative Density: 1.4 at -10°C (liquid) Solubility in Water: 8.5mL/100mL, 25°C Fire and Explosion Data : Not combustible; heating will cause rise in pressure with risk of bursting. Health Hazards : Irritates eyes and respiratory tract; possible asthma-like reactions. Exposure may result in death. Effects may be delayed. Skin contact with liquid results in frostbite; severe deep burns in eyes Route of Exposure: Inhalation Chemical Dangers : Solution in water is a medium strong acid. Reacts violently with ammonia, acrolein, acetylene, alkali metals, chlorine, ethylene oxide, amines, butadiene. Reacts with water or steam causing corrosion hazard. Attacks many metals, including aluminum, iron, steel, brass, copper, and nickel in presence of water. Incompatible with halogens. Attacks plastics, rubber and coatings in liquid form. Physical Dangers : The gas is heavier than air. Sulfur Dioxide Sulfurous oxide, sulfurous anhydride, sulfur oxide Use: Preserving fruits, vegetables; disinfectant in breweries and food factories; bleaching textile fibers, gelatin, glue


Ammonia Chemical Formula: NH 3 CAS# 7664-41-7 UN# 1005 ISCS: 0414 Physical State: Colorless , compressed liquefied gas, with pungent odor Physical Properties Boiling Point: -33 ° C Relative Density: 0.7 at -33 ° C Vapor Density: 0.59 Solubility in water 54 g/100mL, 20 ° C Vapor Pressure, 1013 kPa at 26 ° C Explosive Limits, vol% in air: 15-28 Auto-ignition temperature: 651 ° C Fire and Explosion : Flammable; gas/air mixtures are explosive. Health Hazards Corrosive to eyes, skin, respiratory tract. Inhalation results in burning sensation, labored breathing; skin burns; contact with liquid causes frostbite; severe deep burns to eyes; harmful concentration of this gas in air will be reached very quickly on loss of containment Route of Exposure: Inhalation Chemical Dangers : Shock sensitive compounds are formed with mercury, silver and gold oxides. The substance is a strong base; it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive. Reacts violently with strong oxidants and halogens. Attacks copper, aluminum, zinc and their alloys. Dissolves in water evolving heat. Physical Dangers : The gas is lighter than air. Use: Manufacture of nitric acid, explosives, synthetic fibers, and fertilizers.

Hydrogen Fluoride:

Chemical Formula: HF CAS# 7664-39-3 UN# 1052 ISCS: 0283 Physical State: Clear, colorless liquid, strong irritating odor Physical Properties Boiling Point 20 °C Vapor Pressure: 122 kPa at 25 °C Vapor Density 0.7 Solubility in water: very good Fire and Explosion : Noncombustible, but many reactions may cause fire or explosion. Health Hazards Corrosive to eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Exposure above the OEL may result in death. Effects may be delayed. Inhalation of gas or vapor may cause lung edema; substance may cause hypocalcaemia. Route of Exposure: Inhalation, skin – may be absorbed!, ingestion Chemical Dangers : The substance is a strong acid and reacts violently with bases and is corrosive. Reacts violently with many compounds causing fire and explosion hazard. Attacks metals, glass, some forms of plastic, rubber, and coatings. Hydrogen Fluoride Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous Use: Catalyst, especially in the petroleum industry; manufacture of fluorides; for separating uranium isotopes; in fluorination processes.

Fungicide, Methylisocyanate:

Fungicide, Methylisocyanate Chemical Formula: CH 3 NCO Use: Intermediate in the manufacture of insecticides and herbicides Chemical/Physical Properties Liquid Vapor Pressure 26 mm Hg at 34.4 ° C Vapor Density >1 Physical Hazards Fire and Explosion Data: Flashpoint 35 º C Burning material releases toxic nitrous oxide and sulfur dioxide gases; product forms explosive mixtures with air Reactivity Conditions to avoid : heat, direct sunlight, presence of water Heath Hazards Poison–fatal if inhaled or absorbed through the skin; flammable liquid Route of Entry: Inhalation, skin, ingestion Methylisocyanate Incident at Bhopal, India Cause: Water in the methyisocyanate tanks 8000 people immediately killed, 16,000 after 10 years 40 tons of MIC released that covered 20 Km 2 Over 500,000 people suffered effects of gas Ground-Water hazard for 10 years

Hazardous Household Chemicals:

Products Hazardous Ingredients Dangers Aerosol sprays butanol, butane, propanol flammable, irritant, explosive Ammonia-based cleaners ammonia, ethanol irritant, toxic, corrosive (forms poison gas when mixed with bleach) Batteries sulfuric acid, lead corrosive, toxic Brake fluid glycol ethers, heavy metals flammable, toxic Floor/furniture polishes diethylene glycol, petroleum flammable, toxic distillates, nitrobenzene Latex paint resins, glycol, ethers, esters flammable Oil-based paint ethylene, aliphatic hydro- flammable, toxic carbons, petroleum distillates Turpentine n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl flammable ketone, petroleum distillates Transmission fluid hydrocarbons, mineral spirits flammable, toxic Oil (automobile) hydrocarbons, benzene, flammable, toxic heavy metals Hazardous Household Chemicals

Chemical Weapons:

Chemical Weapons Chemistry and chemicals Military engineering


Nomenclature Common name: Phosgene U.S. Military designation: CG Chemical abstract service # 75-44-5 UN # 1076 Cl-C-Cl O

Classes of Chemical Agents:

Classes of Chemical Agents Chemical Agents Toxic Incapacitating Choking Nerve Blood Blister CG Cl GA GF GB VX GD A232 AC CK HN HD/H L CX BZ

Choking Agents:

Choking Agents

Phosgene Chemical Properties:

Phosgene Chemical Properties Military designation: CG Chemical name: Carbonyl chloride Chemical Abstract Service #: 75-44-5 UN #: 1076 Rate of hydrolysis: Rapid, destroyed by rain Hydrolysis products: HCl + CO 2 Cl-C-Cl O

Phosgene Physical Properties:

Phosgene Physical Properties Boiling point, 7.6 ° C Vapor density, 3.4 (very heavy compared to air) This agent is a non-persistent gas at room temperature. Respiratory protection is required

Blood Agents:

Blood Agents Common Name Hydrogen Cyanide Cyanogen CA CK Chloride Volatility/Persistency Non-Persistent Rate of Action Rapid Route of Entry Respiratory Odor Bitter almonds or peach kernels Symptoms Gulping or gasping for air Reddish skin & lips (purple lips for dark-complexioned) Unconsciousness, death Protection Respiratory (Skin) First Aid • Mask • Antidote available to medical personnel Decontamination Remove from area

Cyanogen Chloride Chemical Properties:

Cyanogen Chloride Chemical Properties Military designation: CK Chemical name: Cyanogen chloride Chemical abstract service#: 506-77-4 UN #: 1589 Rate of hydrolysis: Very slow Hydrolysis products: HCl and CNOH Cl-CN

Cyanogen Chloride Physical Properties:

Cyanogen Chloride Physical Properties Odor: biting and extremely irritating Vapor density: 2.1 (compared to air) Boiling point 12.8 º C This agent is a non-persistent gas at room temperature. Respiratory protection is required .

Blister Agents:

Blister Agents Common Name Mustard Lewisite Phosgene Oxime Military Symbol H L CX Volatility/Persistency Persistent Rate of Action Delayed Rapid Route of Entry • Skin • Inhalation • Eyes Odor Garlic Geraniums Irritating Symptoms Eyes: burning Inhalation: coughing Skin: blistering after 4-24 hours, pain Protection • Respiratory and Skin First Aid • Decontaminate • Ensure air passages Decontamination • Immediate removal • Flush with water or bleach

Blister Agent Poisoning:

Blister Agent Poisoning M ustard causes little pain upon exposure. Lewisite and phosgene oxime cause intense pain.

Mustard Chemical Properties:

Mustard Chemical Properties Military designation: H, HD Chemical name: Bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide Chemical abstract service #: 505-60-2 UN #: 2810 Rate of hydrolysis: Extremely slow Hydrolysis products: HCl and thiodiglycol ClCH 2 CH 2 SCH 2 CH 2 Cl

Mustard Physical Properties:

Mustard Physical Properties Vapor density: 5.5 Boiling point: 217 ° C This agent is a very persistent liquid at room temperature Respiratory and skin protection are required .

Nerve Agents:

Nerve Agents Common Name Tabun Sarin Soman Military Symbol GA GB GD Volatility/Persistence Semi-Persistent Persistent Rate of Action Extremely rapid Route of Entry • Respiratory • Skin Odor Fruit Camphor Sulfur Symptoms • Pinpointing of Pupils • Salivation • Vomiting/Diarrhea • Twitching • Difficulty in Breathing • Loss of Consciousness Protection Respiratory and Skin First Aid • Atropine • 2-Pam chloride Decontamination • Remove Agent • Flush With Water or Dilute Bleach

Sarin Chemical Properties:

Sarin Chemical Properties Military designation: GB Chemical name: Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate Chemical abstract service #, 107-44-8 UN #, 2810 Rate of hydrolysis: Hours to days, acid dependent Hydrolysis products: Acidic = HF and organophosphorus acids Alkaline = Isopropyl alcohol and polymers

Sarin Physical Properties:

Sarin Physical Properties Odor: None when pure (fruity if impure) Vapor density, 4.86 Boiling point, 158 º C This agent is a non-persistent vapor at room temperature. Both respiratory and skin protection are required.

Chemical Agent–Relative Toxicity:

Chemical Agent–Relative Toxicity Agent LD 50 Phosgene 3.2 g/m 3 Sarin (GB) 70 mg/m 3 VX 10 mg on skin A232 <0.1 mg on skin

Iranian Soldiers Exposed to BZ:

Iranian Soldiers Exposed to BZ

Key Precursors for CW-Agents:

Key Precursors for CW-Agents Most CW-agents have limited precursors. An example for mustard is thiodiglycol: A major example for the nerve gases is DMMP: HOCH 2 CH 2 SCH 2 CH 2 OH O CH 3 P OCH 3 OCH 3

Delivery Systems:

Delivery Systems TERRORIST Liquid spilled from containers Fans Aerosol units (thermal and/or high speed fan or turbine device) Aircraft spray assemblies (agricultural and military type) Explosive assemblies MILITARY Submunitions Mortar rounds Artillery rounds Bombs Mines Hand grenades

U.S. Artillery Projectile for VX:

U.S. Artillery Projectile for VX

Color Codes for U.S. Military Munitions:

Color Codes for U.S. Military Munitions

FSU Color Codes for Military Munitions:

FSU Color Codes for Military Munitions Type Agent Band Color 3-green; 1-yellow 3-green; 1-brown • Nerve VX Sarin • Incapacitating BZ • Blister H (mustard) Distilled HD • Choking Phosgene • Blood CK, HCN • Irritating CS 2-red; 1-yellow 2-green; 1-yellow 2-green; 1-brown 1-green; 1 -brown 1-green; 1-yellow 1-red; 1-yellow

Iraqi Pesticide Sprayers:

Iraqi Pesticide Sprayers

Bomblet Assembly for GB:

Bomblet Assembly for GB 368 submunitions per unit 216 kg GB total Released at specific altitude, coverage is 110 to 200 Hectares Small size (10 to 15 cm) allows a single bomblet to be hidden easily. It is an excellent terrorist weapon

Tokyo Chemical Incident:

Tokyo Chemical Incident 20 March 1995: Sarin attack in Tokyo by the Aum Shinrikyo

Personal Protection from CW-Agents:

Personal Protection from CW-Agents Protective masks Carbon-Based Protective clothing Impermeable suits Permeable suits Underclothing Prophylaxis Treatment Atropine, Pralidoxime chloride Diazepam Skin decontamination

Decontamination of CW-Agents:

Decontamination of CW-Agents Basic solutions for hydrolysis of CW-agents include: Sodium hydroxide, chloramine B/T, calcium hypochlorite, alcoholic caustic soda Hot air and high pressure water wash Absorbent materials include: Activated carbon, diatomaceous earth, silicates, polymer fibers, clays, paper products, sawdust Strong oxidants, photo oxidants, nucleophilic agents, enzymes

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