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Making PowerPoint Slides:

Making PowerPoint Slides Avoiding the Pitfalls of Bad Slides

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Why do we learn the skills of presentation?

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EFFECTIVE PRESENTATIONS

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Communication – A Dynamic process “Communication is a dynamic process of action and interaction between two or more than two individuals towards a desired goal through certain signs and symbols.”

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Effective Presentation Strategies Whether formal or informal, a presentation is effective only if it is able to make the desired impact. Presentation involves a pre-planned and organized structure. All speakers who make presentations are familiar with the subject matter but only few excel in the art of making presentation.

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Effective Presentation Strategies If the speaker overcomes his fear and nervousness and also inculcates in him the qualities of a good speaker, he would be able to keep the audience engrossed in listening to what he wishes to state.

PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS:

4/1/2011 7 PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS Basics Defining Purpose Analysing Audience and Locale Organizing Contents Preparing outline Understanding Kinesics and Para linguistics Using Appropriate Visual Aids

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Defining Purpose The person proposing to make a presentation must know his proper sphere and the purpose he wants to fulfill through his presentation. The purpose of the presentation determines the content and the style of presentation. broadly speaking there may be 2 purposes of making presentation- To entertain To motivate

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Defining Purpose Besides content and style, the amount of audience interaction also affects your presentation. For instance- when your purpose is to provide information or to analyze a situation, you and the audience generally interact in a limited manner.

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Defining Purpose When your purpose is to persuade people to take a particular action, or to collaborate with them in solving a problem, or making a decision, the interaction would be more.

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To Inform The purpose of a presentation may be simply to provide information. Such presentation is to be based on facts and figures. You generally begin by providing facts and figures that increase your audience’s understanding of the subject.

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To Motivate The purpose of a presentation may simply be to persuade. It may be to popularize an idea or product. In such presentation, the presenter has to proceed with certain arguments and suggestions. He will have to offer certain conclusions and recommendations

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To Entertain Sometimes oral presentations are made in order to entertain. The speaker may use certain strategies such as use of humor, narration of anecdotes, short quizzes in order to break monotony of the presentation. Depending upon the purpose- to inform, to analyze, or to persuade- you would need a lot of’ on the spot’ thinking skills and in depth knowledge of the subject.

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To Entertain You should be flexible enough to adjust to new input and unexpected reactions.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 15 Audience and Locale All audiences have one thing in common, they are at the receiving end. The nature of your audience has a direct impact on the strategy you devise for your presentation. It is necessary to know about the mental level and cultural background of the audience beforehand. He should know the size of the audience, their age, sex, interest and nature.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 16 Audience and Locale By having some prior information about their character, the speaker can decide and plan his presentation techniques. If you are going to speak before an unknown group, ask your host and organizer to help in analyzing the audience. Whether you present locally or in a foreign country, you can expect at least some members to have linguistic or cultural backgrounds different from your own.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 17 Audience and Locale Those who are not very conversant with English or with your accent will appreciate relatively slow speech and visual aids designed to aid their understanding. Pause occasionally for questions or to ask the audience’s opinion. Estimate the interests of your audience’s likes and dislikes, determine their degree of knowledge of the topic, know whether there is hostility toward the topic or toward you.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 18 Audience and Locale Nature of audience has a direct impact on your strategy. Try to find out their background (age, sex, education, status), need, interest and attitude. Share information rather than dictate Concentrate more on ideas Maintain eye contact with your audience to assess whether your listeners are excited, resistant, hostile or dull.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 19 Audience and Locale Always begin with a smile and greet them in pleasant tone; by doing so you offer them a warm welcome that helps them and you to relax . To rouse the interest of the audience , the presenter should start his presentation with an anecdote or with a quotation. He may put up question to grip their attention. He should be clear and concise to avoid ambiguity and vagueness. Be meticulous in choice of words, to make your presentation more effective.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 20 Audience and Locale Pay attention to the modulation of voice because a speech delivered in a level pitch leads to dullness or monotony. Difficult and serious ideas should be presented at low speed. Words should be articulated clearly and pleasantly. Use visual aids to great effect to hold audience’s attention and promote understanding. Speak with confidence and conviction. Make your points crystal clear and easy to understand. Seek audience’s feed back.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 21 Audience and Locale The personal appearance of the speaker contributes a lot in making the speech effective. He should dress up appropriately. His postures should not be awkward because right posture and pleasant facial expressions help the speaker to convey easily his message to his audience. Unnecessary body movements should be avoided.

Audience and Locale:

4/1/2011 22 Audience and Locale Another important factor which may conduce to proper understanding of message is the locale i.e., the physical environment. The speaker should know about— 1. Place of presentation (whether a large auditorium or conference room) 2. A podium or table provided. 3. Public address system available. 4. Seating arrangement, room temperature and lighting 5. Visual aids available.

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Outline :

Outline Make your 1 st or 2 nd slide an outline of your presentation Ex: previous slide Follow the order of your outline for the rest of the presentation Only place main points on the outline slide Ex: Use the titles of each slide as main points

Locale:

4/1/2011 26 Locale Large, small, good/poor seating, lighting etc. Know the physical setting Feel comfortable with the location to bring out your best.

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 27 Organizing Contents The speaker should prepare the material at the planning stage. Prior to planning, he will choose a topic on which the presentation is to be made. In order to be effective speaker, he should collect adequate material. Then it should be given a structure, what should come first, what should follow next

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 28 Organizing Contents All the points and issues should be clearly comprehensible to the audience. The presentation is to be made in a convincing way.

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 29 Organizing Contents Before you start speaking take couple of deep breaths. Your first words should sound louder and more confident. Make eye contact with one person for a few seconds before you move on to the next.

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 30 Organizing Contents Prepare more than required. Arrange the contents of your presentation into 3 major parts:- Divide into three parts Introduction Main text (topics) Conclusion

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 31 Organizing Contents Introductory remarks Statement of the objective, giving reasons why you are making this presentation . Draw the outline of the presentation Beginning:--

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 32 Organizing Contents The introduction comprises the porch or the opening statement, the aim and the lay out. A good introduction is a vehicle to lead the audience into the main body of the speech. End your introduction by giving an overview or road map of your presentation. Beginning:--

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 33 Organizing Contents Break the main body of the presentation into short, clearly stated units/ sections. Illustrate the points with examples. Put a time limit to each of the points Prioritize the time limit. Certain points may need more time than others. Middle or Main Body:--

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 34 Organizing Contents The main body, the discussion, or the text part follows the subsequent to introduction and supports your aim or specific purpose. The major points you highlighted in your opening will be expanded upon here. Middle or Main Body:--

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 35 Organizing Contents Two things should be kept in mind while developing the main body:- The organization of presentation is clear. Presentation should be as such to hold the audience’s attention. Middle or Main Body:--

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 36 Organizing Contents The main body of the presentation can be organized in any of the following orders:-- Chronological Categorical Cause and effect Problem- Solution Middle or Main Body:--

Chronological:

4/1/2011 37 Chronological The topic in which the writer has to document time or the steps in an instruction such as the profile of your institute, the changing face of the earth, the history of sports. Middle or Main Body:--

Categorical:

4/1/2011 38 Categorical This is one of the easiest and the most commonly adopted patterns for any topics. The entire presentation can be divided into various topics and sub-topics. This can be used for topics like ‘ the role of advertising’, ‘environmental protection’. Middle or Main Body:--

Cause and Effect:

4/1/2011 39 Cause and Effect This order can be used to explain the causes and then effects of a situation. It is relevant for topics like ‘ impact of cinema on children’ ‘internet boon or bane’, While using this order, the speaker uses transitional words such as therefore, so, because, however. Middle or Main Body:--

Problem-Solution:

4/1/2011 40 Problem-Solution Here you divide the presentation into two parts. The first part describes and analyses the cause and effect of the problem. After the analysis you move on to the main objective of your presentation to suggest or propose a solution to the problem. This method can be used for the topics like ‘ population explosion. Middle or Main Body:--

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 41 Organizing Contents Give a summary of the whole If required, refer to the points made in the beginning or in the middle for the sake of emphasis. Make final remarks and end on a positive note. Remember not to introduce new ideas at final stage. End:--

Organizing Contents :

4/1/2011 42 Organizing Contents Plan to devote about 10% of your total time to the ending. When developing your conclusion give a signal such as to sum up, to conclude, to review. Restate your main points, laying stress on important points. After summarizing the key points of your presentation conclude with quotation, or some encouraging words. End or Conclusion:--

Signal :

4/1/2011 43 Signal Don’t stop abruptly Phrases : One last thought, let me conclude by saying To sum up In the end Manner : Change in voice, pacing etc.

Preparing Out line:

Preparing Out line Use an outline to avoid unnecessary length and rambling of the content. An outline can help the speaker to keep the presentation and audience centered and finish within allotted time.

Guidelines for Effective Outline:

Guidelines for Effective Outline Give headings in complete sentences or lengthy phrases. Note down sub-headings also. Write down the transitional sentences or phrases such as ‘in conclusion’, ‘in addition’, ‘to sum up’, ‘on the contrary’, ‘therefore; etc. Certain tone and body language can be useful for making the presentation effective.

Visual Aids:

Visual Aids Things are retained longer in the memory than those merely heard, visual aids make presentation more effective. If the presentation is made with the help of the visual aids the listeners feel stimulated and they take more interest in the presentation. Maps, pictures, charts, slides, blackboard are some visual aids which not only grip the attention of the audience but also makes it understandable.

Visual Aids:

Visual Aids Too many visuals, crowded visuals, vague confusing visuals will cripple the effect of presentation. The speaker should use the most appropriate visual in accordance of his presentation.

Instructions (Visual Aids):

Instructions (Visual Aids) Everyone in the audience is able to see the visual aid. visual aid must fit well and be an essential part in the presentation. Integrate the aid with the oral presentation and use it when you reach the relevant points. Proper emphasis must be laid on the visual aid

Instructions (Visual Aids):

Instructions (Visual Aids) Stand on one side and use a pointer, if necessary, while interpreting. The speaker must look at the audience more than the visual aid. If the speaker is using slides they must be clearly numbered in the correct sequence. Any confusion in their order will simply damage the presenter’s image.

Instructions (Visual Aids):

Instructions (Visual Aids) The speaker should use pictures, drawings and colours for interest. A picture is worth a thousand words. A slide should carry only essential information. The content of the information on the slide should be kept limited to 25 words or equivalent in figures.

Instructions (Visual Aids):

Instructions (Visual Aids) The black board should be clean. Write on it rapidly and legibly in large letters. Do not talk about the visual aid after you have put it aside. Don’t make over use of visual aids. It should not be very light that the audience finds it hard to see. Be familiar with the basic operations of the electronic devices which you would use for your presentation.

Instructions (Visual Aids):

Instructions (Visual Aids) If you are going to deliver a lecture to illiterate people, don’t go for table or complex tables. For Eg:- if you are talking about the working of the heart, show them some pictures, name all the parts, use a pointer to make it clear.

Nuances of Delivery:

Nuances of Delivery The power of speech may turn a dull topic into interesting one, poor delivery may spoil the entire presentation however significant it is. Your manner of presentation, your vocal inflections, your perfectly timed pauses, your facial expressions and your gestures hold the attention and interest of your audience. Having something to say is not enough; you must know how to say it.

Nuances of Delivery:

Nuances of Delivery There are a variety of delivery methods but a speaker should choose those which are easier to handle. Extemporaneous Manuscript Impromptu Memorization

Extemporaneous:

Extemporaneous Extemporaneous delivery can be more effective if the speaker has sufficiently rehearsed the presentation. There is no need to cram the presentation, but it can sound spontaneous to the audience as you speak while thinking.

Advantages :

Advantages As you have enough time for presentation, you work hard on the theme. The language does not bind you. You can be flexible in choice of words. Appropriate selection of quotations, illustration and statistics help you to substantiate your point.

Advantages :

Advantages Your delivery sounds natural and spontaneous as you can maintain eye contact with the audience. It enables you to move freely.

Disadvantages :

Disadvantages If preparation is inadequate, you can get lost and find yourself uncomfortable. If you rely too much on note cards and start reading out from them instead of just consulting them for reference, your speech will lose its spontaneity.

Manuscript :

Manuscript In manuscript preparation, the written material is read out aloud verbatim. This method is used whenever a complex technical presentation is made . Once the manuscript of presentation is prepared, the reader should do a lot of practice.

Manuscript :

Manuscript In verbatim reporting, the reader and listener contact is often interrupted. Verbatim reporting becomes dull and monotonous.

For effective presentation:

For effective presentation Practice enough so that you can maintain eye contact with the audience. Be familiar with the text. Learn right pronunciation of the terms. Use proper pause and voice inflection

Advantages:

Advantages Its an accurate record of whatever you have to say. There is no chance of tampering with the facts and figures. The materially is systematically organised

Disadvantages:

Disadvantages Since you read from the manuscript you get less time to make eye contact. Since you are reading to the audience, you cannot talk to them. There is no scope for non-verbal communication.

Disadvantages:

Disadvantages In the absence of effective reading skill, you fumble over words, lose your pace, and miss punctuation marks. This makes the speech uninteresting.

Impromptu:

Impromptu Impromptu speech means, a speech delivered without any preparation beforehand. Avoid speaking unprepared unless you have spoken countless times on the same topic or are extremely good public speaker. When you are asked to speak “off the cuff” take a moment to think enough what you will say. Be brief as possible.

Impromptu (Advantages):

Impromptu (Advantages) You sound very natural, because you do not get enough time for preparation. You get a chance to express your thoughts irrespective of what others think. You are spontaneous as you say what you feel, not what you ought to say.

Impromptu (Disadvantages):

Impromptu (Disadvantages) The presentation lacks organized development of ideas. There is no supplementary material to substantiate the speech. Chances of rambling are very high. The presentation may turn out to be a failure if you have inadequate proficiency in the language.

Memorization:

Memorization This method can be the most effective method of presentation. It needs extra-ordinary power to memorize because if the presenter forgets his lines, his speech will sound unnatural. Avoid to memorize long speeches.

Memorization (Advantages):

Memorization (Advantages) It is easy for the speaker to maintain eye contact with the audience. The speaker can easily move and make use of appropriate non-verbal communication. It is possible to finish the speech in allotted time.

Memorization (Disadvantages):

Memorization (Disadvantages) Memorization requires too much of time. There are chances of making it dull and monotonous because you go exactly by whatever you have memorized. No flexibility or adaptation is possible. The speaker gets flustered(nervous) if he forgets a word or sentence.

The best speech:

The best speech Extemporaneous is the best because of its flexible nature and effectiveness. It is better to use this mode to make your presentation more lively, effective and lively.

Attention Getters:

4/1/2011 72 Attention Getters Story Rhetorical Question Quotation Unusual Statement Humor

Slide Structure – Good:

Slide Structure – Good Use 1-2 slides per minute of your presentation Write in point form, not complete sentences Include 4-5 points per slide Avoid wordiness: use key words and phrases only

Slide Structure - Bad:

Slide Structure - Bad This page contains too many words for a presentation slide. It is not written in point form, making it difficult both for your audience to read and for you to present each point. Although there are exactly the same number of points on this slide as the previous slide, it looks much more complicated. In short, your audience will spend too much time trying to read this paragraph instead of listening to you.

Slide Structure – Good:

Slide Structure – Good Show one point at a time: Will help audience concentrate on what you are saying Will prevent audience from reading ahead Will help you keep your presentation focused

Slide Structure - Bad:

Slide Structure - Bad Do not use distracting animation Do not go overboard with the animation Be consistent with the animation that you use

Fonts - Good:

Fonts - Good Use at least an 18-point font Use different size fonts for main points and secondary points this font is 24-point, the main point font is 28-point, and the title font is 36-point Use a standard font like Times New Roman or Arial

Fonts - Bad:

Fonts - Bad If you use a small font, your audience won’t be able to read what you have written CAPITALIZE ONLY WHEN NECESSARY. IT IS DIFFICULT TO READ Don’t use a complicated font

Colour - Good:

Colour - Good Use a colour of font that contrasts sharply with the background Ex: blue font on white background Use colour to reinforce the logic of your structure Ex: light blue title and dark blue text Use colour to emphasize a point But only use this occasionally

Colour - Bad:

Colour - Bad Using a font colour that does not contrast with the background colour is hard to read Using colour for decoration is distracting and annoying . Using a different colour for each point is unnecessary Using a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessary T r y i n g t o b e c r e a t i v e c a n a l s o b e b a d

Background - Good:

Background - Good Use backgrounds such as this one that are attractive but simple Use backgrounds which are light Use the same background consistently throughout your presentation

Background – Bad:

Background – Bad Avoid backgrounds that are distracting or difficult to read from Always be consistent with the background that you use

Graphs - Good:

Graphs - Good Use graphs rather than just charts and words Data in graphs is easier to comprehend & retain than is raw data Trends are easier to visualize in graph form Always title your graphs

Graphs - Bad:

Graphs - Bad

Graphs - Good:

Graphs - Good

Graphs - Bad:

Graphs - Bad

Graphs - Bad:

Graphs - Bad Minor gridlines are unnecessary Font is too small Colours are illogical Title is missing Shading is distracting

Spelling and Grammar:

Spelling and Grammar Proof your slides for: speling mistakes the use of of repeated words grammatical errors you might have make If English is not your first language, please have someone else check your presentation!

Conclusion:

Conclusion Use an effective and strong closing Your audience is likely to remember your last words Use a conclusion slide to: Summarize the main points of your presentation Suggest future avenues of research

Questions??:

Questions?? End your presentation with a simple question slide to: Invite your audience to ask questions Provide a visual aid during question period Avoid ending a presentation abruptly

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