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Chapter : 

Chapter The Foreign Exchange Market 9

Case: The Axis hedges the Euro : 

9-2 Case: The Axis hedges the Euro In 1999 Axis Ltd, prices sales to European customers in Euros Euro plunges against the dollar causing lost revenues To hedge against adverse currency movements Axis enters into forward exchange contracts

The foreign exchange market : 

9-3 The foreign exchange market Foreign exchange market: A market for converting the currency of one country into the currency of another. Exchange rate: The rate at which one currency is converted into another Foreign exchange risk: The risk that arises from changes in exchange rates

Functions of the foreign exchange market : 

9-4 Functions of the foreign exchange market Two functions: Converting currencies Reducing risk

Currency conversion : 

9-5 Currency conversion Companies receiving payment in foreign currencies need to convert these payments to their home currency Companies paying foreign businesses for goods or services Companies investing spare cash for short terms in money market accounts Companies taking advantage of changing exchange rates (Speculation)

Reducing risk : 

9-6 Reducing risk Insuring against foreign exchange risk Spot exchange rate: rate of currency exchange on a particular day Forward exchange rate: two parties agree to exchange currencies on a specific future date Currency swap: simultaneous purchase and sale of a given amount of foreign exchange for two different value dates

Foreign exchange quotations, June 18,2003 : 

9-7 Foreign exchange quotations, June 18,2003

Foreign exchange trade growth : 

9-8 $ billions Foreign exchange trade growth

The foreign exchange market (FX) : 

9-9 The foreign exchange market (FX) Global network of banks, brokers and foreign exchange dealers connected by electronic communications systems London’s dominance is explained by: History (capital of the first major industrialized nation). Geography (between Tokyo/Singapore and New York). Two major features of the foreign exchange market: The market never sleeps Market is highly integrated

Hierarchy of international financial centers : 

9-10 Hierarchy of international financial centers Note: Size of dots (squares) indicates cities’ relative importance

Economic theories of exchange rate determination : 

9-11 Economic theories of exchange rate determination Exchange rates are determined by the demand and supply of one currency relative to the demand and supply of another Price and exchange rates: Law of One Price Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Money supply and price inflation Interest rates and exchange rates Investor psychology and “Bandwagon” effects

Law of one price : 

9-12 Law of one price In competitive markets free of transportation costs and trade barriers, identical products sold in different countries must sell for the same price when their price is expressed in terms of the same currency Example: US/French exchange rate: $1 = .78Eur A jacket selling for $50 in New York should retail for 39.24Eur in Paris (50x.78).

Purchasing power parity : 

9-13 Purchasing power parity By comparing the prices of identical products in different currencies, it should be possible to determine the ‘real’ or PPP exchange rate - if markets were efficient In relatively efficient markets (few impediments to trade and investment) then a ‘basket of goods’ should be roughly equivalent in each country

Slide 14: 

9-14 United States $2.49 2.49 - - - - - - - - - Argentina Peso 2.50 0.78 1.00 3.13 -68 Brazil Real 3.60 1.55 1.45 2.34 -38 Canada C $ 3.33 2.12 1.34 1.57 - 15 Euro 2.67 2.37 0.93 0.89 - 5 Hong Kong HK $11.20 1.40 4.50 7.80 - 42 Japan ¥ 262 2.01 105 130 - 19 Russia Ruble 39.00 1.25 15.7 31.2 - 50 Switzerland Sw Fr 6.30 3.81 2.53 1.66 53 Price in Local Currency Implied PPP of the Dollar Actual Exchange Rate 17/04/01 Local Currency % Over(+) or Under(-) Valuation Against Dollar Price in Dollars Big Mac Prices The Big Mac Index: PPP, April 2002 Table 9.2

Money supply and inflation : 

9-15 Money supply and inflation PPP theory predicts that changes in relative prices will result in a change in exchange rates A country with high inflation should expect its currency to depreciate against the currency of a country with a lower inflation rate Inflation occurs when the money supply increases faster than output increases Purchasing power parity puzzle

Interest rates and exchange rates : 

9-16 Interest rates and exchange rates Theory says that interest rates reflect expectations about future exchange rates. Fisher Effect (I = r + l). International Fisher Effect: For any two countries, the spot exchange rate should change in an equal amount but in the opposite direction to the difference in nominal interest rates between the two countries.

Investor psychology and bandwagon effects : 

9-17 Investor psychology and bandwagon effects Evidence suggests that neither PPP nor the International Fisher Effect are good at explaining short term movements in exchange rates Explanation may be investor psychology and the bandwagon effect Studies suggest they play a major role in short term movements Hard to predict

Exchange rate forecasting : 

9-18 Exchange rate forecasting Efficient market school: Prices reflect all available public information Inefficient market school: Prices do not reflect all available information Use fundamental (economic theory) or technical (price/volume data) analysis to predict the exchange rate Analysis suggest that professional forecasters are no better than forward exchange rates in predicting future spot rates

Approaches to forecasting : 

9-19 Approaches to forecasting Fundamental analysis Draws on economic theory to construct sophisticated econometric models for predicting exchange rate movements Technical analysis Uses price and volume data to determine trends

Currency convertibility : 

9-20 Currency convertibility Political decision. Many countries have some kind of restrictions Governments limit convertibility to preserve foreign exchange reserves Service international debt Purchase imports Government afraid of capital flight

Counter trade : 

9-21 Counter trade Barter-like agreements where goods/services are traded for goods/services Helps firms avoid convertibility issue

Managerial implications : 

9-22 Managerial implications Exchange rates influence the profitability of trade and investment deals International businesses must understand the forces that determine exchange rate Forward exchange rate not an unbiased predictor Inflation effects foreign exchange markets International businesses need to take the proper precautions before trading or investing in a country