English101LectureSix

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English 101 : 

English 101 Lecture Six: The Argumentative Essay

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Argument: to convince or persuade someone who disagrees with you but who can be swayed by logic and evidence to adopt your point of view on an issue We will be looking at three current events topics, examining both sides of each issue You will then write an “in-class” paper on one of three possible prompts which will ask you to take a stance on your chosen issue and to defend that stance with reasoning and evidence

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Arguments are built like houses: roof (thesis) at least three walls - reasons foundation (evidence) No matter the type of argument it is, an argument will have some form of these three elements. There are at least two different purposes for argument and several different modes.

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Convincing – Argument to change someone’s mind More logic-based Deals with values or principles Changes perceptions, not actions Persuasion (convincing-plus) – Argument to change someone’s mind in order to change their actions Often more motion-based, but often logical Changes what people do as well as what they think

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Inductive Deductive Toulmin method Dialectic (Pro/Con)

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Inductive reasoning: Specific Evidence General Conclusions Fact-based Relies on outside evidence

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Example: Your research has turned up a large amount of immigrants studying in the US in medicine or computer programming, and you also find numbers that show a larger amount of immigrants in those fields. You may also find data showing that there are fewer US graduates in those fields. Your general conclusion from this specific data might be that immigrants are taking jobs away from equally qualified American students.

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Deductive reasoning: General Principles Specific Conclusions Principles-based Uses assumptions (premises) that the audience is likely to share and builds assent IF: The US Constitution guarantees the separation of church and state;   And IF: Public schools are funded by and considered part of the US government;   THEN: Prayer should not be allowed in public schools.

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Syllogism – the pattern for deductive reasoning First premise: a fact or a shared principle Second premise: a more specific fact or a more complex shared principle Conclusion: the arguable point we should be able to accept if we accept the first and second premises

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Sample thesis: Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned.

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned. First Premise: We believe equal crimes should receive equal punishment.   Second Premise: Some murderers receive parole after a few years, whereas others are immediately sent to death row.   Conclusion: Capital punishment violates the principle of equal punishment.

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned. First Premise: We believe all citizens are equal before the law.   Second Premise: Minorities and the poor are far more likely to receive the death penalty than white defendants or rich ones for the same crimes.   Conclusion: Capital punishment violates the principles of equality.

Paper #4: Argument: 

Paper #4: Argument Capital punishment violates several basic principles underlying the US system of justice and therefore should be banned. First Premise: Fairness demands that the judicial system can correct its mistakes.   Second Premise: Once someone is put to death, they cannot be brought back if they turn out to be innocent.   Conclusion: Capital punishment prevents judicial mistakes from being fairly corrected.

Discussion: 

Discussion Read the “Letter from Eight White Clergymen” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail” to get a sense of what a good argument is like, then respond to it in DB #35. Respond to a peer’s response for DB #36. Read each of the three current events topics as scheduled and respond to the DB questions posted for each, then respond to a peer’s response. Instructions on how to do an online “in-class” paper will be given out shortly.

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