Chemical Bonding

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CHEMICAL BONDING : 

CHEMICAL BONDING By: Tayyba Khan Per. 5/6

What is Hemoglobin? : 

What is Hemoglobin? A red blood cell’s protein that takes oxygen into the blood stream and colors the blood red. Hemoglobin has four subunits. Websites: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-hemoglobin.htm http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Hemoglobin/MetalComplexinBlood.html

How is Hemoglobin Important in the Transport of Oxygen in our Bodies? : 

How is Hemoglobin Important in the Transport of Oxygen in our Bodies? It is important because it transfers oxygen in human’s blood from the lungs to the tissues of our body. http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/CancerCenter/2/19510.htm http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Hemoglobin/MetalComplexinBlood.html

How is the Transport of Oxygen by Hemoglobin a Real-life Example of Chemical Bonding? : 

How is the Transport of Oxygen by Hemoglobin a Real-life Example of Chemical Bonding? It’s a real-life example because it is transported by two elements iron and oxygen. Iron is a positively charged atom and oxygen is a negative charged atom, so they bond together, because they are opposites. Oxygen atom Website: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005858/hydrogen2.html

How is Hemoglobin Related to a Successful climb to the top of Mt. Everest? : 

How is Hemoglobin Related to a Successful climb to the top of Mt. Everest? Hemoglobin carries oxygen throughout the body so it helps to make a successful climb. The circulatory system increases so your endurance increases. Website: http://womanofroyce.wordpress.com/2009/03/12/mt-everest/

We Learned about pH in our Last Unit on Acids and bases. What does pH have to do with the Transport of Oxygen by Hemoglobin? : 

We Learned about pH in our Last Unit on Acids and bases. What does pH have to do with the Transport of Oxygen by Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin releases oxygen by H+ ions from the cells. The difference in pH (7.44) blood is enough to release oxygen from the tissue. Website: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Protein_function/Oxygen-Binding_Curve

What is blood doping? : 

What is blood doping? Blood doping is the infusion of blood to produce an increase in the blood’s oxygen. Websites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_doping http://www.pharmainfo.net/sirisha/doping-sports

What is the difference between Autologous and homologous Blood doping? : 

What is the difference between Autologous and homologous Blood doping? Autologous When a patient’s own cells are used. Homologous Temporarily stores oxygen for delivery in red blood cells. Returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Websites: http://www.zimbio.com/Bone+marrow+transplants/articles/148/Autologous+Bone+Marrow+Transplant http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=13210

What is EPO and why is it used? : 

What is EPO and why is it used? EPO means Erythropoietin It is a protein that boosts the production of red blood cells Used in treating certain types of anemia Websites: http://www.answers.com/topic/erythropoietin http://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/glossary_e.asp http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_CAmg8xXq7mw/SoTBNW_uZiI/AAAAAAAAAEM/jrZ55JHGN_I/s320/RBC_epo.jpg

What are the Medical uses of Blood Doping? : 

What are the Medical uses of Blood Doping? Blood transfusions Childbirth Surgical procedure Serious injury Website: http://www.shands.org/health/graphics/images/en/19449.jpg

Why is Blood Doping used in Sports? : 

Why is Blood Doping used in Sports? Blood doping is used in sports to enhance an athlete’s ability. Increases red cells mass Website: http://www.topnews.in/general/doping http://www.kidzworld.com/article/1832-blood-doping-in-sports-athletes-cheating

First Documented Example of Blood Doping used in Sport : 

First Documented Example of Blood Doping used in Sport A great example of a successful blood doping procedure with adverse side effects is of the 1984 United States Olympic cycling team. Previous American cycling teams had not fared well in past Olympic Games. But in the 1984 Los Angeles games, they decided to try blood doping as a way to get an advantage on the competition. The results were a huge success. The team brought home a U.S. cycling team record of nine medals. The problem was not the fact that the athletes had undergone blood doping procedures, but, rather, how the procedure was performed. Between the Olympic trials and the actual games, the Americans did not have adequate time to use their own blood as a transfusion. Instead, they had to rely on the blood of relatives and others with similar blood types. Consequently, some of the cyclists received tainted blood and a short time after the Games contracted hepatitis, a serious liver disease. Website: http://www.texarkanacollege.edu/~mstorey/beckham.html

Second Documented Example of Blood Doping used in Sport : 

Second Documented Example of Blood Doping used in Sport Thomas J. Hicks, an American born in England on January 7, 1875 won the Olympic marathon in 1904. He crossed the line behind a fellow American, Fred Lorz, whose concept of marathon-running extended to riding half the way in a car. But nor did Hicks compete without outside help. His trainer, Charles Lucas, pulled out a hypodermic and came to his aid as his runner began to struggle. I therefore decided to inject him with a milligram of sulphate of strychnine and to make him drink a large glass brimming with brandy. He set off again as best he could [but] he needed another injection four miles from the end to give him a semblance of speed and to get him to the finish. The use of strychnine, far from being banned, was thought necessary to survive demanding races, says the sports historian Alain Lunzenfichter. The historian of sports doping, Dr Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, said: It has to be appreciated that at the time the menace of doping for the health of athletes or of the purity of competition had yet to enter the morals because, after this marathon, the official race report said: The marathon has shown from a medical point of view how drugs can be very useful to athletes in long-distance races.[Hicks was, in the phrase of the time, "between life and death" but recovered, collected his gold medal a few days later, and lived for almost 60 more years, although he never again took part in athletics. Documented example of blood doping used in sports. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Games

Side Effects of Blood Doping : 

Side Effects of Blood Doping Heart problems Allergy reaction Fever Blood infection Blood clots Kidney damage Website: http://www.babble.com/CS/blogs/strollerderby/archive/tags/fever/default.aspx

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