cold war slides

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UNIT II THE COLD WAR 1945 TO 1990

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UNIT II THE COLD WAR 1945 TO 1990

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• THE COLD WAR - THE OPEN YET RESTRICTED RIVALRY THAT DEVELOPED AFTER WORLD WAR II BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOVIET UNION AND THEIR RESPECTIVE ALLIES. THE COLD WAR WAS WAGED ON POLITICAL ECONOMIC AND PROPAGANDA FRONTS AND HAD ONLY LIMITED USE OF WEAPONS.

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THE TERM WAS FIRST USED BY THE ENGLISH WRITER GEORGE ORWELL IN AN ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN 1945 TO REFER TO WHAT HE PREDICTED WOULD BE A NUCLEAR STALEMATE BETWEEN “TWO OR THREE MONSTROUS SUPER- STATES EACH POSSESSED OF A WEAPON BY WHICH MILLIONS OF PEOPLE CAN BE WIPED OUT IN A FEW SECONDS.”

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SIMPLY PUT IT’S A DOCTRINE THAT AIMS TO REPLACE PRIVATE PROPERTY AND A PROFIT- BASED ECONOMY WITH PUBLIC OWNERSHIP AND COMMUNAL CONTROL OF AT LEAST THE MAJOR MEANS OF PRODUCTION E.G. MINES MILLS AND FACTORIES AND THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF A SOCIETY. Before we move on It’s important to understand what COMMUNISM is…

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THIS REFERS TO A THEORY IN U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AFTER WORLD WAR II STATING THAT THE “FALL” OF A NONCOMMUNIST STATE TO COMMUNISM WOULD CAUSE THE FALL OF NONCOMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS IN NEIGHBORING STATES. A. Containment The Domino Theory

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THE VIETCONG NVA NORTH VIETNAMESE ARMYOVERTHREW THE FRENCH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT IN THE NORTH IN 1954. THEY SOUGHT TO UNIFY THE ENTIRE COUNTRY UNDER A SINGLE COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT. B. Vietnam – The Early Years – 1954 to 1963 – Overthrow of the French Colonial Government to JFK

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WITH RESPECT TO VIETNAM THE ASSASSINATED PRESIDENT LEFT HIS SUCCESSOR LYNDON B. JOHNSON A LEGACY OF INDECISION HALF- MEASURES AND GRADUALLY INCREASING INVOLVEMENT. B. Vietnam – The Early Years – 1954 to 1963 – Overthrow of the French Colonial Government to JFK

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B. Vietnam – The Early Years – 1954 to 1963 – Overthrow of the French Colonial Government to JFK

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C. Vietnam – LBJ Escalation and the Draft

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LBJ INCREASED THE NUMBER OF TROOPS STEADILY OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS PEAKING AT ABOUT 550000 IN 1968. ALL MEN IN THE U.S. OVER 18 WERE ELIGIBLE FOR THE DRAFT. MANY WENT WILLINGLY. MANY DID NOT… ALL YOUNG MEN IN THIS ROOM ARE REQUIRED TO REGISTER FOR THE SELECTIVE SERVICE WITHIN 30 DAYS OF TURNING 18. ITS A FELONY TO NOT REGISTER. THE PUNISHMENT INCLUDES FINES OF UP TO 250000 AND UP TO FIVE YEARS IN PRISON. C. Vietnam – LBJ Escalation and the Draft

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C. Vietnam – LBJ Escalation and the Draft Those who did not go willingly were labeled “draft dodgers” There were a number of ways to avoid going to Vietnam. These included medical deferments college deferments or simply leaving the U.S. for Canada and other countries.

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UNLIKE WWII THE U.S. GOVERNMENT DID NOT CENSOR MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE WAR. GRAPHIC FOOTAGE OF THE WAR WAS BROADCAST NIGHTLY TO THE 50 MILLION AMERICANS WHO TUNED IN. AFTER THE TET OFFENSIVE OF 1968 “THE MOST TRUSTED MAN IN AMERICA” WALTER CRONKITE OF CBS NEWS HAD THIS TO SAY… HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCHVNN4W-UD-TYE d. Vietnam – The Media’s Impact on Public Opinion

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D. Vietnam – The Media’s Impact on Public Opinion As a result of the graphic nature of the images from Vietnam and Walter Cronkite’s statement the publics’ support for the war dropped dramatically. Protests on college campuses grew in number and frequency with many turning violent.

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D. Vietnam – The Media’s Impact on Public Opinion As a result of the graphic nature of the images from Vietnam and Walter Cronkite’s statement the publics’ support for the war dropped dramatically. Protests on college campuses grew in number and frequency with many turning violent.

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C. Vietnam – LBJ Escalation and the Draft

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C. Vietnam – LBJ Escalation and the Draft

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D. Vietnam - – Media’s Impact on Public Opinion - At Kent State University in Ohio four students were shot dead by The National Guard during a Vietnam War Protest.

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https://www.youtube.com/watchvJCS-g3HwXdc

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DRAW A PICTURE ON THE FRONT OF A LANDMARK IN YOUR COLLEGE TOWN….FOR EXAMPLE DRAW THE UT TOWER IF YOU’RE AT UT AUSTIN…. You are a student at a University in 1968. Protests are happening weekly with some turning violent. Your assignment is to write a postcard to be sent home to your parents describing what is happening around you AND your thoughts on the war. YOU ARE WRITING IN FAVOR OF THE WAR OR AGAINST THE WAR PICK A SIDE AND EXPLAIN WHY YOU HAVE CHOSEN TO SUPPORT THE VIETNAM WAR OR WHY YOU’RE AGAINST THE WAR. ON THE RIGHT HAND SIDE OF THE BACK OF THE CARD WRITE AN ADDRESS AND DRAW A STAMP. ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE WRITE A DATE OCTOBER 261968 AND TEXT AS IMAGINED THROUGH THE PERSPECTIVE OF THIS PERSON.

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A. The Cuban Missile Crisis – The closest the Soviets/Americans ever came to Thermonuclear War MAD. In 2002 Thomas Blanton who was then director of the National Security Archive said that "a guy called Vasili Arkhipov saved the world".

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B. National Defense Education Act NDEA - The goal of the legislation was to enable the country’s educational system to meet the demands posed by national security needs. Of particular concern was bolstering the United States’ ability to compete with the Soviet Union in the areas of science and technology.

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C. HUAC - House Un-American Activities Committee HUAC/McCarthyism – Conducted investigations through the 1940s and ’50s into alleged communist activities. Those investigated included many artists and entertainers. Highly controversial for its tactics it was criticized for violating First Amendment rights.

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C. HUAC - Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin is most closely associated with HUAC and the Red Scare.

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D. The Red Scare - The excessive fear of communist subversion was fed by numerous sources. China’s fall to communism and the announcement of a Soviet atomic explosion in 1949 alarmed many and fighting between communist and U.S.-supported factions in Korea heightened political emotions as well.

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https://www.youtube.com/watchv1Km0Td-tsE8

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E. The Korean War Containment Policy – 1950 to 1953 A conflict between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea North Korea and the Republic of Korea South Korea in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives

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E. Korean War - The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea supplied and advised by the Soviet Union invaded the South. The United Nations with the United States as the principal participant joined the war on the side of the South Koreans and the People’s Republic of China came to North Korea’s aid.

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F. The Berlin Airlift – 1948-1949 - After the end of the Second World War the future of postwar Germany was plagued by the divisions within and between Allied powers U.S. U.K. France Soviets.

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F. The Berlin Airlift – 1948-1949 - The crisis started on June 24 1948 when Soviet forces blockaded rail road and water access to Allied-controlled areas of Berlin. The United States and United Kingdom responded by airlifting food and fuel to Berlin from Allied airbases in western Germany.

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