skin and wound care

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Skin and Wound Care Skin Care & Wound Healing Section 1 of 7 RN and LPN Self-learning Module DMC Adv Wound Care and Specialty Bed Committee

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Original authors 1997: Maria Teresa Palleschi, CNS-BC, CCRN JoAnn Maklebust, MSN, APRN-BC, AOCN, FAAN Kristin Szczepaniak, MSN, RN, CS, CWOCN Karen Smith, MSN, RN, CRRN The authors would like to acknowledge the efforts of the 1997 Critical Care Wounds Work Group in providing the basis for this self-learning module. We thank the following members for their expertise and dedication to the effort in formulating these recommendations and the ongoing work required to communicate wound care advances to our DMC staff : Cloria Farris RN Evelyn Lee, BSN, RN, CETN, CRNI Mary Sieggreen MSN, RN, CS, CNP Patricia Clark MSN, RN, CS, CCRN Bernice Huck, RN, CETN James Tyburski, MD Michael Buscuito, MD In 2000 the authors acknowledge the following staff for assisting with reviewing and revising this learning module: Mary Gerlach MSN, RN, CWOCN, CS Carole Bauer BSN, RN, OCN, CWOCN Debra Gignac MSN, RN, CS Sue Sirianni MSN, RN, CCRN Toni Renaud-Tessier MSN, RN, CS Evelyn Lee BSN, RN, CETN, CRNI Mary Sieggreen MSN, RN, CS, CNP Patricia Clark MSN, RN, CS, CCRN Bernice Huck RN, CETN In 2005, the authors acknowledge the following staff for assisting with reviewing and revising this learning module: Donna Bednarski , MSN, APRN,BC, CNN, CNP Carole Bauer BSN, RN, OCN, CWOCN Sue Sirianni MSN, RN, CCRN Evelyn Lee MSN, RN, CWOCN Mary Sieggreen MSN, RN, CS, CNP Bernice Huck RN, BSN, CPN, WOCN Carolyn J. Stockwell, MSN, RN, ANP, CCM In 2009 the DMC module was revised by the following staff: Maria Teresa Palleschi ACNS-BC CCRN Laura Harmon ACNP-BC, CCRN, CWOCN Evelyn Lee MSN, RN, CWOCN Diana LaBumbard ACNP-BC, CCRN Bernice Huck BSN, CWOCN Carolyn J. Stockwell, ANP-BC, CNP, CCM Mary Sieggreen ACNS-BC, CNP CVN Pauline Kulwicki ACNS-BC CNP CNRN Acknowledgements

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Purposes: To communicate DMC standards and policies in skin and wound care practice. To provide a study module and source of reference. To prepare RN and LPN orientees for clinical validation of skin and wound care. Directions: All staff members are responsible to read the content of each module and pass the tests. If you are unable to finish reviewing the content of this course in one sitting, click the Bookmark option found on the left-hand side of the screen, and the system will mark the slide you are currently viewing. When you are able to return to the course, click on the title of the course and you will have button choices to either: Review the Course Material which will take you to the beginning of the course OR Jump to My Bookmark which will take you to where you left off on your previous review of this module. Objectives : By completing this module, the RN and LPN will: 1. Recognize the professional responsibility of licensed health care providers. RNs will utilize the knowledge to make clinical decisions and enter EMR orders based on DMC evidenced based flowcharts found in Tier 2 Skin and Wound Policies. 2. Review basic skin and wound care concepts. 3. Apply DMC standard skin and wound management principles. Purposes and Objectives

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RNs are responsible for assessment, planning, documentation, and evaluation of skin and wound care. Under the direction of an RN, an LPN may be delegated aspects of skin and wound care. The following tasks may not be delegated to unlicensed personnel : mechanical, chemical, and sharp debridement. The following content and flow charts describe choices for topical or local care for various wounds and skin conditions. They do not represent the full scope of care. Staff RN are responsible to: Document wounds on assessment forms Enter EMR wound care orders for pressure ulcer prevention and management Enter comments related to resolution in the corresponding Plan of Care Document Patient Education related to prevention / treatment When unsure of appropriate care or orders, investigate corresponding DMC evidenced based flowcharts found in Tier 2 policies. If still unsure, consult an APN / CWOCN Consult APN / CWOCN for complex wounds or wounds that are deteriorating as well as for specialty beds / surfaces. The Skin and Wound Module in its entirety is available in the DMC Net Learning Library as a reference. Key Points

More Key Points:

Remember the old axiom “Don’t put anything in the wound you wouldn’t put in your own eye”. Wound tissue is as sensitive as the tissue in your eye. Cleanse wounds with sterile normal saline to remove surface debris and decrease the bacterial load. Use a cap with irrigation tip attached to a soft plastic bottle of 250mL sterile normal saline. Hold the irrigation tip one inch from the wound bed and squeeze full force with one hand. Povidone iodine, Dakin’s, and peroxide are cytotoxic and interfere with wound healing. These agents are not used in clean or granulating wounds. Protect yourself from blood and body fluid exposure during saline wound irrigation by wearing a mask with shield and other personal protective equipment. Most skin / wound care products are obtained from central supply and can be ordered independently through CIS. Continuity across the continuum of care is important. Communicate interventions and intended patient outcomes in the medical record. The occurrence of pressure ulcers among hospitalized patients is considered a sensitive indicator of quality nursing care. Experts assert that quality nursing interventions are paramount in order to prevent and expeditiously treat pressure ulcer. More Key Points

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Normal skin usually tolerates regular soap and warm water for cleansing. Aging skin loses its elasticity. The skin becomes thin, dry, fragile and prone to tearing when handled roughly. Avoid soap or chemical irritants on fragile skin. Keep unbroken skin lubricated and protected from trauma. Lotions or moisturizing creams are usually unnecessary for intact perineal / perianal tissue. Avoid adhesives on fragile skin Tape may cause friction burns. Tape removal may strip the epidermis and/or cause skin tears. Gently remove any adhesive dressing or tape from fragile skin. Avoid massaging reddened areas of skin. Massage does not increase circulation and may damage underlying tissue. Immediately protect perineal/perianal skin from feces and urine using barrier creams or ointments. Areas denuded of skin are treated as open wounds . Saline is used for cleansing. Avoid multiple layers of linen on specialty beds and surfaces because they interfere with the reduction / redistribution of pressure. Consult APN / CWOCN or dermatology for rashes. Skin Care

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. RN TO ASSESS SKIN Trunk and Extremity Weeping Skin or Rash Perineal/ Perianal Care Normal Intact Dry or Fragile Skin Consult Normal Intact Skin Irritated Unbroken Skin Denuded / IAD* CLEANSING Normal Hygiene Soap and Water MOISTURIZING Lotion or Petrolatum PROTECTION Prevent Trauma CLEANSING Water Only MOISTURIZING Lotion or Petrolatum PROTECTION Prevent Trauma Avoid Massage Avoid Tape/ Adhesive Agents CLEANSING Normal Hygiene Soap and Water MOISTURIZING Unnecessary PROTECTION Prevent Trauma CLEANSING Normal Saline or Cleanser MOISTURIZING Unnecessary PROTECTION Petrolatum Barrier Paste CLEANSING Normal Saline MOISTURIZING Unnecessary PROTECTION Barrier Paste Zinc Oxide Skin Care Flow Chart These flow sheets do not represent the full scope of care Refer to APN / CWOCN / Wound Care Specialist when in doubt. *Incontinence Associated Dermatitis

Goals of Care:

Clinicians must focus on overall patient status. Goals of care are established early and guide decision making at each patient contact so that wound care decisions are realistic and appropriate. Wound healing changes depending on the condition of the host. During terminal illness, pressure ulcers and other wounds can develop despite excellent management. Comfort and symptom management rather than aggressive treatment of wounds may be the goal. Ensure that adequate pain management plan is in place for all patients with skin / wound problems. Delayed wound healing occurs in patients who are immunocompromised, diabetic, have renal failure, and / or sepsis. Continuity in the evidenced based plan of care for these patients is essential to ensure quality care. Goals of Care

Wound Healing :

Wound healing is a dynamic, complex, and delicate process that may be endangered at any point by improper or inadequate management. Normal healing progresses in a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, granulation, re-epithelialization and maturation (Jones, et al, 2004) Bernie will find updated reference for this one Hemostasis is the coagulation of blood leaking from a damaged, inflamed or dilated vessel. After hemostasis occurs, inflammation sets in. Inflammation appears as erythema and swelling due to vascular dilation and the inflow of plasma. Signs of inflammation should start to resolve 48 to 72 hours after the occurrence of a wound. Persistent inflammation implies the possibility of new tissue damage. Granulation, the third phase of healing, requires the presence of growth factors released by macrophages during the inflammatory phase. Reproduction of local cells that make collagen cannot start without growth factors. Without collagen, the formation of new blood vessels cannot take place because the scaffolding needed for support is absent. Newly formed blood vessels and capillary buds, often visible as red granules on the surface of granulating wounds, provide oxygen and nutrients to fuel the repair process. While dermal repair progresses, granulation tissue begins to mature. From Jones V, Bale S, Harding K Acute and Chronic Wound Healing in Wound Care Essentials, Practice Principles S . Baranoski and E. Ayello (eds), Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2004 Wound Healing

Wound Healing :

Wound contraction occurs in deep wounds as margins are pulled together by the contraction of specialized fibroblasts. This process facilitates epithelial proliferation, migration, and differentiation ( re-epithelialization ) by decreasing the distance epithelial cells have to travel. Epithelial cells migrate mainly from the wound edges in deep wounds. In partial-thickness or superficial wounds, cells may migrate from surviving islands of epithelium in the wound bed. The last step of re-epithelialization is differentiation , restoring the protective outer layer of the skin. Closure of a wound does not mean that the healing process has been completed. The maturation phase , during which a wound gains tensile strength, may take several months. While superficial wounds heal by regenerating a perfect new epidermis, deeper wounds never achieve the former degree of dermal organization or strength. For this reason, pressure ulcer scars are at high risk for developing breakdown. Obstacles that may impact wound healing include: compromised circulation; infection; stress; drug therapy (corticosteroids, chemotherapy); impaired nutrition; chronic illness (diabetes, cancer); radiation therapy; and advancing age. From Jones V, Bale S, Harding K Acute and Chronic Wound Healing in Wound Care Essentials, Practice Principles S . Baranoski and E. Ayello (eds), Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2004 Wound Healing

Wound Irrigation :

Optimal wound healing cannot take place until all foreign material is removed from the wound. Wounds must be irrigated with enough force to enhance cleansing without traumatizing the wound bed. Wound cleansing has two components: 1. A cleansing solution and 2. An irrigation force or mechanical means of delivering the solution to the wound bed. Cleansing solution : The most common and cost-effective wound cleanser is isotonic saline (0.9% sodium chloride). Skin cleansers should not be used on open wounds. Irrigation Force : The cleansing or irrigation pressure must be greater than the adhesion force holding the debris against the wound bed. Flush away any wound drainage or old dressing materials . Studies show that irrigation pressures between 4 and 15 pounds per square inch (PSI) are ideal for cleansing open wounds. Too little pressure e.g., asepto syringe or 1000 mL saline bottle does not adequately cleanse a wound. ( Bates-Jensen BM, Ovington LG. 2007) Bottle of sterile normal saline with irrigation cap delivers up to 15 pounds per square inch (PSI) when the system is held 1 inch from the wound bed and the bottle is squeezed full force using one hand. Label normal saline bottle with date and time. Discard opened normal saline solution after 24 hours . Wound Irrigation

Wound Assessment and Documentation :

Careful initial and repeat assessment of the patient and the wound will help the clinician in selecting treatment modalities and evaluating progress. The examination includes notation of the location, depth, and dimensions of the wound, evaluation of the wound bed and the surrounding skin, and analysis of any odor or exudate that may be present. Important wound characteristics to be documented are: 1. Location Anatomic location of the wound is important. The time required for complete healing is affected by the blood supply to the region. For this reason, wounds on the face generally heal faster than a similar wound in a peripheral area where the blood supply is poorer. The rate of healing is also affected by the extent to which the skin is tightly adherent to the underlying fascia. For example, wounds on the shin generally heal slower than comparable wounds anywhere else because skin adherence is so tight over the shin (Baranoski,S., Ayello, E.A., 2004 ). Wound Assessment and Documentation WOUND ASSESSMENT SIZE AND DEPTH Measure or trace wound area. Measure depth WOUND EDGES Assess for undermining and condition of margins SURROUNDING SKIN Assess for color, moisture, suppleness WOUND BED Assess for necrotic and granulation tissue, fibrin slough, exudate

Wound Assessment and Documentation :

2. Wound Dimensions Size : the initial size of a wound is an important factor in noting the rate of healing. Large deep wounds take longer to heal than small deep wounds. By contrast, large shallow wounds, like skin-graft donor sites, are covered with new epithelium at about the same rate as small shallow wounds, especially when kept moist. Measure and document the wound upon admission and every Monday using centimeters as follows: 1. Length - longest point on wound, from head to toe. 2. Width - widest point on wound, from side to side. 3. Depth- the deepest point in the wound Length x width x depth 3. Depth The depth of a wound profoundly affects time to healing. Wounds left to heal by formation of granulation tissue are classified by depth. To measure the depth of deep wounds, gently insert a gloved finger into the deepest part of the wound bed. Mark and measure against a centimeter ruler (Kerstein, 1997 ). Document findings in the medical record . 4. Undermining Tissue destruction that occurs around the wound perimeter under intact skin where edges have pulled away from wound base. Document the location and amount . (Baranoski & Ayello, 2004) 5. Wound Bed The condition and appearance of the wound bed provides information about the progress of healing and the effectiveness of treatment. The presence of granulation tissue indicates that healing is progressing. A significant amount of fibrin slough or necrotic tissue in the wound bed suggests inadequate wound debridement. Document appearance of the wound bed . Wound Assessment and Documentation

Wound Assessment and Documentation :

6. Necrotic Tissue Dead devitalized avascular tissue and may impede wound healing. It may be present in the wound as yellow, gray, brown or black. Yellow or tan stringy tissue is referred to as slough. Black devitalized tissue is eschar. Document color, type and percentage of tissue in the wound bed. (Baranoski & Ayello, 2004) 7. Exudate Visual appraisal of the amount and character of wound drainage is generally regarded as an important parameter in wound assessment. One study showed the healing rate of wounds was slowed by two-thirds when exudate was present at baseline. The amount of exudate may be an important indicator of healing. ( Xakellis & Chrischilles, 1992) . Document exudate color, consistency, odor and amount. 8. Surrounding Skin Monitor and document wound margins for signs of inflammation (erythema, swelling, pain) or maceration (waterlogged). Inflammation may be caused by unrelieved pressure, infection or adverse reactions to wound care treatments. Skin maceration, caused by prolonged contact of wound fluid with the skin, may be a sign that the topical wound treatment is inappropriate for the patient. Document periwound condition. 9. Induration Induration is an area of hardened tissue that can be palpated around a pressure ulcer or wound. Use fingertips to palpate for induration on intact skin surrounding a pressure ulcer or wound. Document induration and extent of wound margin. 10. Infection Occurs in viable tissue beneath the wound surface. Clinical signs of wound infection are the presence of warmth, pain, erythema, swelling, induration, and/or purulent drainage. Infection occurs when the bacterial burden overwhelms the host. Assess the peri-wound tissue for cellulitis. A tissue biopsy should be obtained to confirm infection. Document signs of infection and contact APN / CWOCN and/or physician. Documentation wound documentation is entered in the EMR integumentary and integumentary detailed section of the Admission Assessment and Ongoing Assessment. Tissue integrity is addressed in the Plan of Care. Wound Assessment and Documentation

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DEFINITIONS The following definitions apply to the Skin and Wound Care Flow Charts A Abscess : a circumscribed collection of pus that forms in tissue as a result of acute or chronic localized infection. It is associated with tissue destruction and frequently swelling. Acute wounds : those likely to heal in the expected time frame, with no local or general factor delaying healing. Includes burns, split-skin donor grafts, skin graft donor site, sacrococcygeal cysts, bites, frostbites, deep dermabrasions, and postoperative-guided tissue regeneration. B Bariatric : Term applying to care, prevention, control and treatment of obesity. Basic Wound Care: RN identifies and orders treatment plan based on DMC Skin and Wound Care Flowcharts. Blister : elevated fluid filled lesions caused by pressure, frictions, and viral, fungal, or bacterial infections. A blister greater than 1 cm in diameter is a bulla and blisters less than 1 cm is a vesicle. Bottoming Out : determined by the caregiver placing an outstretched hand (palm up) under a mattress overlay, below the part of the body at risk for ulcer formation. If the caregiver can feel less than one inch of support material between the caregiver’s hand and the patient’s body at this site, the patient has “bottomed out”. Reinflation of the mattress overlay is required. C Cellulitis : inflammation of cellular or connective tissue. Inflammation may be diminished or absent in immunosuppressed individuals. Chronic wounds : those expected to take more than 4 to 6 weeks to heal because of 1 or more factors delaying healing, including venous leg ulcers, pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, extended burns, and amputation wounds. Colonized : presence of bacteria that causes no local or systemic signs or symptoms. Community Acquired Pressure Ulcer : Any pressure ulcer that is identified on admission and documented in the Adult or Pediatric Admission Assessment as being present on admission (POA). Contaminated : containing bacteria, other microorganisms, or foreign material. Term usually refers to bacterial contamination. Wounds with bacterial counts of 10 5 or fewer organisms per gram of tissue are generally considered contaminated; those with higher counts are generally considered infected. Cytotoxic Agents : solutions with destructive action on all cells, including healthy ones. May be used by APN / CWOCN to cleanse wounds for defined periods of time. Examples of cytotoxic agents include Betadine, Dakin’s Peroxide, and CaraKlenz. D Debridement, autolytic : disintegration or liquefaction of tissue or cells; self-digestion of necrotic tissue. Debridement, chemical : topical application of biologic enzymes to break down devitalized tissue, e.g., Accuzyme, Santyl (Collagenase).The following definitions apply to the Skin and Wound Care Flow Charts: Debridement, mechanical : removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from a wound by physical forces rather than by chemical (enzymatic) or natural (autolytic) forces. Examples are scrubbing, wet-to-dry dressings, wound irrigation, and whirlpool. Debridement, sharp : removal of foreign matter or devitalized tissue by a sharp instrument such as a scalpel. Laser debridement is also considered a type of sharp debridement. 5 Definitions

Definitions:

D Denuded : Loss of superficial skin / epidermis. Drainage : wound exudate, fluid that may contain serum, cellular debris, bacteria, leukocytes, pus, or blood. Dressings , primary : dressings placed directly on the wound bed. Dressings, secondary : dressings used to cover primary dressing. Dressings, alginate : primary dressing. A non-woven highly absorptive dressing manufactured from seaweed. Absorbs serous fluid or exudate in moderately to heavily exudative wounds to form a hydrophilic gel that conforms to the shape of the wound. May be used for hemorrhagic wounds. Non adhesive, nonocclusive primary dressing. Promotes granulation, epithelization, and autolysis. Dressings, foam : primary or secondary dressing. Low adherence sponge-like polymer dressing that may or may not be adherent to wound bed or periwound tissue e.g., Mepilex. Indicated for moderately to heavily exudative wounds with or without a clean granular wound bed, capable of holding exudate away from the wound bed. Not indicated for wounds with slough or eschar. Foam and low-adherence dressings are used in wounds for granulation and epithelialization stages as well as over fragile skin. Dressings, continuously moist saline : primary dressing. A dressing technique in which gauze moistened with normal saline is applied to the wound bed. The dressing is changed often enough to keep the wound bed moist and is remoistened when the dressing is removed. The goal is to maintain a continuously moist wound environment. Indicated for dry wounds or those with slough that require autolytic therapy. Dressings, gauze : primary or secondary dressing. a woven or non-woven cotton or synthetic fabric dressing that is absorptive and permeable to water, water vapor, and oxygen. May be impregnated with petrolatum, antiseptics, or other agents. Indicated for surgical and draining wounds. Dressings, hydrocolloid : primary dressing. Two kinds of wafer, thick and thin. Wafers contain hydroactive/absorptive particles that interact with wound exudate to form a gelatinous mass. Moldable adhesive wafers are made of carbohydrate with a semiocclusive film layer backing e.g., DuoDerm ® . Thick wafers are applied over areas with exudate while thin wafers are used over sites with minimal or no exudate. Thin wafers may conform to sites easier than thick wafers. Contraindicated where anaerobic infection is suspected. Dressing is not removed upon external soiling. Removing any intact product that adheres to skin strips the epidermis, causes damage and increases the risk for breakdown. Cover hydrocolloid with a transparent film to decrease friction from repositioning patient or if dressing is at risk for soiling. May be used for intact skin that requires protection against friction. Hydrocydrocolloid and low-adherence dressings are for wounds in the epithelialization stage. Used to cover a wound entirely, leaving approximately a 1.5 inch border around the wound margins. Does not require a secondary dressing Contraindicated for third-degree burns and not recommended for infected wounds. May be used by wound care consultants to promote autolysis in some patients with eschar. Not recommended for wounds with depth or friable periwound tissue or those that require monitoring more often than once or twice a week. May be left on for 3-5 days. Definitions

Definitions:

D Dressings, hydrogel or hydrogel impregnated gauze : primary dressing. A water-based non-adherent dressing primarily designed to hydrate the wound, may absorb small amount of exudate e.g., Skintegrity. Indicated for dry to minimally exudative wounds with or without clean granular wound base. Donates moisture to the wound and is used to facilitate autolysis. May be used to provide moisture to wound bed without macerating surrounding tissue. Requires a secondary dressing. Dressings: Primary : dressing placed directly on the wound bed. Dressings: Secondary: dressing used to cover primary dressing. Dressings, silver: Useful for colonized wounds or those at risk of infection and decreases wound’s bacterial load. good for up to 5 - 7 days. Alginate e.g., Aquacel Ag - Highly absorbent interacts with wound exudate and forms a soft gel to maintain moist environment. May be used in dry wounds covered with saline moistened gauze as secondary dressing to maintain moisture Foam e.g., Mepilex Ag - Used for colonized wounds or those at risk of infection and decreases wound’s bacterial load. Used in exudating colonized wounds Textile e.g., InterDry Ag - Used for Intertrigo and other skin to skin surfaces with rash. May remain in place for 5 days. Dressings, transparent : primary or secondary dressing. A clear, adherent non-absorptive dressing that is permeable to oxygen and water vapor e.g., Tegaderm. Creates a moist environment that assists in promoting autolysis of devitalized tissue. Protects against friction. Allows for visualization of wounds. Indicated for superficial, partial-thickness wounds, with small amount of slough to enhance autolytic debridement. Used in wounds with little or no exudate Dressings, wet-to-dry : a debridement technique in which gauze moistened with normal saline is applied to the wound and removed once the gauze becomes dry and adheres to the wound bed. Indicated for debridement of necrotic tissue from the wound as the dressing is removed, however method is not selective and removes healthy tissue as well. Other methods of debridement are considered more effective. Wet to dry dressing orders that are changed at a frequency that does not allow drying are considered continuously moist dressings. Dressing, xeroform : primary dressing. Impregnated gauze with petrolatum and 3% bismuth. Indicated for skin donor sites and other areas to protect from contamination while allowing fluid to pass to secondary dressing. Definitions

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E Enzymes: protein catalyst that induces chemical changes in cells to digest specific tissue. Indicated for partial and full thickness wounds with eschar or necrotic tissue. Gauze is used as a secondary dressing, e.g.., Santyl and polysporin. Epithelialization : regeneration of epidermis across a wound’s surface. Erythema : Blanchable (Reactive Hyperemia ): reddened area of skin that turns white or pale when pressure is applied with a fingertip and then demonstrates immediate capillary refill. Blanchable erythema over a pressure site is usually due to a normal reactive hyperemic response. Erythema : Non-blanchable : redness that persists when fingertip pressure is applied. Non-blanchable erythema over a pressure site is a sign of a Stage I pressure ulcer. Excoriation : loss of epidermis; linear or hollowed-out crusted area; dermis is exposed Examples:  Abrasion; scratch. Not the same as denuded of skin . Exudate: any fluid that has been extruded from a tissue or its capillaries, more specifically because of injury or inflammation. It is characteristically high in protein and white blood cells but varies according to individual health and healing stages. G Gangrene: Gangrene is ischemic tissue that initially appears pale, then blue gray, followed by purple, and finally black. Pain occurs at the line of demarcation between dead and viable tissue. Consists of 3 types: Dry, Wet, and Gas Dry gangrene is tissue with decreased perfusion and cellular respiration. Tissue becomes dark and loses fluid. Area becomes shriveled / mummified. Not considered harmful and is not painful. Area requires protection, kept dry, avoid maceration. Alcohol pads may be used between gangrenous toes to dry tissue out. Wet gangrene is dead moist tissue that is a medium for bacterial growth. Area requires protection, kept dry, do not use a wet to dry dressing. Monitor for erythema and signs of infection in adjacent tissue. Gas gangrene is tissue infected with an anaerobic organism e.g., clostridium. Systemic antibiotics are required and tissue must be removed by physician in the OR. Keep moist tissue moist and dry tissue dry. Monitor adjacent tissue for signs of infection progressing Granulation Tissue: pink/red, moist tissue that contains new blood vessels, collagen, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells, which fills an open, previously deep wound when it starts to heal. H Hospital acquired condition (HAC) – condition that occurs during current hospitalization. Formerly known as nosocomial. Ulcers without assessment documentation in the patient medical record within 24 hours of admission are classified as hospital acquired even though they were present on admission (POA). Acceptable documentation of ulcer assessment for hospital acquired conditions / pressure ulcers includes a detailed description within any assessment record e.g., EMR Adult Ongoing Assessment, Progress Note, H&P or consultative form. Definitions

Definitions:

I Incontinence-related dermatitis : an inflammation of the skin in the genital, buttock, or upper leg areas that is often associated with changes in the skin barrier. Presents as redness, a rash, or vesiculation, with symptoms such as pain or itching. Associated with fecal or urinary incontinence. Infection: overgrowth of microorganisms causing clinical signs/ symptoms of infection: warmth, edema, redness, and pain. Induration : an abnormal hardening of the tissue surrounding wound margins, detected by palpation. It occurs following reactive hyperemia or chronic venous congestion. J K L M Maceration : excessive tissue softening by wetting or soaking (waterlogged). N Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) provides an occlusive controlled sub-atmospheric pressure (negative pressure) suction dressing that promotes moist wound healing. Controlled sub-atmospheric pressure improves tissue perfusion, stimulates granulation tissue, reduces edema and excessive wound fluid, and reduces overall wound size. Some indications for use include pressure ulcers, venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, dehisced surgical incisions, partial thickness burns, grafts, split thickness skin grafts, traumatic wounds, fasciotomy, myocutaneous flaps, and temporary closure for abdominal compartment syndrome (V.A.C. ACS). No Touch Technique: Dressing change technique where only the outer layer of dressing is touched with clean gloves. The dressing surface against the wound bed is never touched. O P Periwound: area surrounding a wound. Assessed for signs of inflammation or maceration . Pressure Ulcer : localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence or beneath a medical device, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction. Pressure ulcers are staged according to extent of tissue damage or classified as DTI or unstageable. Definitions

Definitions:

P Pressure Ulcer Staging : One of the most commonly used systems to classify pressure ulcers. This staging system was developed by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) and is recommended by the AHCPR Guidelines for pressure ulcers. Stage I: Intact skin with non-blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence. Darkly pigmented skin may not have visible blanching; its color may differ from the surrounding area. The area may be painful, firm, soft, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue. Stage I may be difficult to detect in individuals with dark skin tones. May indicate "at risk" persons (a heralding sign of risk). Treatment: Do not cover, assess frequently for progression. Stage II: partial thickness loss of dermis presenting as a shallow open ulcer with a red pink wound bed, without slough. May also present as an intact or open/ruptured serum-filled blister. Presents as a shiny or dry shallow ulcer without slough or bruising.* This stage should not be used to describe skin tears, tape burns, perineal dermatitis, maceration or excoriation. Treatment: Hydrogel / hydrogel impregnated gauze, or foam / Mepilex dependent on location. Stage III: full thickness tissue loss. Subcutaneous fat may be visible but bone, tendon or muscle are not exposed. Slough may be present but does not obscure the depth of tissue loss. May include undermining and tunneling. The depth of a stage III pressure ulcer varies by anatomical location. The bridge of the nose, ear, occiput and malleolus do not have subcutaneous tissue and stage III ulcers can be shallow. In contrast, areas of significant adiposity can develop extremely deep stage III pressure ulcers. Bone/tendon is not visible or directly palpable. Treatment: Hydrogel / hydrogel impregnated gauze or continuously moist dressings. Stage IV: full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon or muscle. Slough or eschar may be present on some parts of the wound bed. Often include undermining and tunneling. The depth of a stage IV pressure ulcer varies by anatomical location. The bridge of the nose, ear, occiput and malleolus do not have subcutaneous tissue and these ulcers can be shallow. Stage IV ulcers can extend into muscle and/or supporting structures (e.g., fascia, tendon or joint capsule) making osteomyelitis possible. Exposed bone/tendon is visible or directly palpable. Treatment: Hydrogel / hydrogel impregnated gauze, continuously moist dressings. Unstageable: full thickness tissue loss in which the base of the ulcer is covered by slough (yellow, tan, gray, green or brown) and/or eschar (tan, brown or black) in the wound bed. Until enough slough and/or eschar is removed to expose the base of the wound, the true depth, and therefore stage, cannot be determined. Stable (dry, adherent, intact without erythema or fluctuance) eschar on the heels serves as "the body's natural (biological) cover" and should not be removed. Treatment: contact APN / CWOCN for enzymatic agent for areas outside of the heels. Deep Tissue Injury: Purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear. The area may be preceded by tissue that is painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue. *Bruising indicates suspected deep tissue injury. These lesions may herald the subsequent development of a Stage 3 or Stage 4 Pressure Ulcer even with optimal management. Treatment: protect, reposition off area at all times, contact APN CWOCN, assess frequently for deterioration. Although useful during initial assessment, the staging classification system cannot be used to monitor progress over time. Pressure ulcer staging is not reversible. Ulcers do not heal in reverse order from a higher number to a lower number and are not be described s such e.g., “the ulcer was a Stage II but now looks like a Stage I”). Wounds with slough or eschar cannot be staged. The full extent or wound depth is hidden by slough or eschar. Definitions

Definitions:

P Present on Admission (POA): Any alteration in tissue integrity that is identified on admission is defined as community-acquired and documented in the Adult Admission History as present on admission (POA). Acceptable documentation of ulcer assessment for community acquired conditions / pressure ulcers includes a detailed description within any assessment record e.g., EMR Adult Admission History, Progress Note, H&P or consultative form. Protective barrier film : Clear liquid that seals and protects the skin from mechanical injury e.g., AllKare wipes (contains alcohol), Medical Adhesive Spray (alcohol free). Some contain alcohol and require vigorous fanning after application to avoid burning on contact . Pustule: Elevated superficial filled with purulent fluid . Purulent: forming or containing pus. Q R Rash: term applied to any eruption of the skin. Usually shade of red. Shear : friction plus pressure causing muscle to slide across bone and obstructing blood flow e.g., sitting with head of the bed (HOB) at > 30  angle. Skin Sealant : clear liquid that seals and protects the skin . Tissue Biopsy : use of a sharp instrument to obtain a sample of skin, muscle, or bone. Tissue: Eschar : dry, thick, leathery, dead tissue Tissue: Necrotic: devitalized or dead tissue Tissue: Slough : moist, dead tissue. Weep-No-More (WNM) Suction Dressing : an occlusive suction dressing using a folded gauze dressing which covers a catheter or tubing enclosed within a transparent film. May be placed over wounds and incisions with a physician’s order and changed at least every 24 hours. May also be ordered by the RN over non-surgical sites, e.g., puncture sites and changed at least every 72 hours. May be used over sites that cannot be adequately managed with conventional dressings.. Wound Care as Ordered : refers to RN generated orders for treatment based on DMC Skin and Wound Care Flowcharts . Wound irrigation: cleansing the wound by flushing with fluid e.g., 250 mL sterile normal saline under pressure. Definitions

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