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INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY S.THIYAGARAJAN 3rd Semester

“Nanotechnology is science and engineering at the scale of atoms and molecules. It is the art & science of building stuff that does stuff at the nanometer scale.” : 

Definition “Nanotechnology is science and engineering at the scale of atoms and molecules. It is the art & science of building stuff that does stuff at the nanometer scale.” National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2007

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Unit Comparison

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Size Comparison Ant = 5mmHead of Pin =1-2 mmHuman hair = 10-120 µm diameterRed Blood Cells = 2-5 µmDNA = 2-12 nmCarbon Nanotube =1.3nm diameterCarbon Bucky Ball = 1 nm

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History The idea of nanotechnology was born in December 29, 1959 when physicist Richard Feynman gave a lecture exploring the idea of building things at the atomic and molecular scale. He imagined the entire Encyclopedia Britannica written on the head of a pin. Richard Feynman.

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History (cont..) Experimental nanotechnology did not come into its own until 1981, when IBM scientists in Zurich, Switzerland, built the first scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) This allows us to see single atoms by scanning a tiny probe over the surface of a silicon crystal In 1990, IBM scientists discovered how to use an STM to move single xenon atoms around on a nickel surface - in an iconic experiment, with an inspired eye for marketing, they moved 35 atoms to spell out "IBM".

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History (cont..) Three gentlemen—Harold Kroto from the University of Sussex, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley from Rice University—were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996 for their discovery of a new composition of carbon, Carbon 60 in 1985. And in 1991, tiny, super-strong rolls of carbon atoms known as carbon nanotubes were created. These are six times lighter, yet 100 times stronger than steel. A “Buckyball.” A “Carbon Nanotube”

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Fields

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Applications

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Understanding of molecular recognition Capture and recognize a specified molecule, i.e. bioarrays As a sensor Fig. 1-NASA aircraft containing smart materials with sensors and actuators. Simulating form and functions of birds www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/spinoff2001/langley.html

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As a Space Elevator Recent proposals for a space elevator are notable in their plans to incorporate carbon nanotubes into the secure design, thus providing a link between space study and nanotechnology.

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Design to mimic some type of bioprocess Main focus is on human repair and idea of self-assembly Diagnostic and Treatment Nanoscale Biostructure Fig. 2-Carbon nanotubes as biomedical sensors to test electrical properties in biomolecular environment

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For Energy Capture and Storage Sunlight storage, i.e. titanium dioxide. This material is able to absorb solar energy when combined with a special dye. Then the energy may be converted to electrical energy. Fig. 3- New technologies for clean energy generation and storage, such as using hydrogen to supply fuel cells

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Nanoelectronics combine biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computer science, i.a. computer chips (nanochips), nanomotors, nanoelectronics to body’s nervous system Nanotechnology to the rescue of overheating computer chips For Electronics Nokia Morph Cell Phone With Nanotechnology

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Miniature Weapons and Explosives Disassembles for Military Use Uncontrolled Nanomachines Self Replicating Nanomachines Monitoring Tracking Potential Danger

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However, if the researchers in this field put together an ethical set of guidelines (e.g., Molecular Nanotechnology Guidelines) and follow them, then we should be able to develop nanotechnology safely while still reaping its promised benefits. Nanotechnology is predicted to be developed by 2020 but much depends on our commitment to its research. Conclusion

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Questionnaire ?

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology http://www.newscientist.com http://wanderlustmind.com/2009/01/18/interactive-nanotech-food http://scienceblogs.com/framing-science/2008/05/at_the_new_york_times_and_glob.php http://1nanotechnology.blogspot.com/2007/08/conclusion.html Alberto Quiñonez, Ph.D.(Slides) Karen Wosczyna-Birch (Slides) Bibliography

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Thank You Only a fool knows everything. A wise man knows how little he knows.