# TEACHING MATH

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TEACHING MATHEMATICS

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APPROACHES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS

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DISCOVERY Approach

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A method of teaching or presenting a mathematical concept in such a way that it gives meaning to the leaner D I S C O V E R y A P P R O A C H

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L earners discover the concepts/ ideas through reactions and active participation. “Learn how to learn” D I S C O V E R y A P P R O A C H

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Main Steps in DISCOVERY Approach

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Observe and discuss items or data to be used in developing the concept. Identify common features for use in grouping the data, noting the distinguishing differences.

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c. Decide on a basis for grouping them. d. Label, name or define each group. e. Have the pupils use the term and find the new examples.

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Guidelines in the Implementation of DISCOVERY Approach

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Plan ahead Incorporate Motivate and aim for success Be supportive Encourage sharing

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PRACTICAL WORK APPROACH (PWA)

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PWA - A strategy in which the learners manipulate concrete objects and/or perform activities to arrive at a conceptual understanding of phenomena, situation or concept.

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Levels of Implementation o f Practical Work

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Level 1 Teacher uses classroom demonstration to help develop concepts. Teacher uses specimens found in the local environment.

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Level 2 Teacher uses demonstrations to promote a limited form of inquiry. Some learners assist in planning and performing demonstrations.

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Level 2 Learners participate in closed (cook book) practical work. Learners communicate data using graphs and tables.

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Level 3 T eacher designs practical work in such a way as to encourage learner’s discovery of information. Learners perform “guided- discovery” type of practical work in small groups, engaging in hands-on activities.

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Level 3 Learners can write scientific reports in which they support and justify their conclusions in terms of data collected.

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Level 4 Learners design and perform their own “open” investigation. Learners reflect on the quality of the design and the collected data to make improvements. Learners can interpret data in support of competing theories or explanations.

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INTEGRATIVE TECHNIQUE

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A way of organizing the instructional program so that many subject areas and skills provided in the curriculum can be linked to one another.

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Concepts It can be a combination of topics and skills. Other topics that may be integrated: loca l culture and indigenous resources. It cuts across the curriculu m. It can be done across or within the learning areas.

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Why Integrate? The “real world” is integrated. Learners do best when learning is connected. It makes learning relevant and meaningful to the learners. It capitalizes on the learners’ experiences in providing more meaningful learning.

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How do we Integrate? Integration may be content-based . Integration may be dine by using thematic teaching .

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Some Principles on Planning and Implementing Theme Teaching Effectively

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1. Themes should relate directly to the learners’ real-life experiences and should revolve on what they know.

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2. Each theme should represent a concept for learners to discover more about the topics/ concepts to be learned.

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3. Every them should be supported by a body of content that has been adequately researched on.

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4. All themes should integrate content learning with process learning.

OTHER APPROACHES

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Cooperative Learning Demonstration Approach Math-Lab Approach Individualized Instruction Using Modules Brainstorming Problem Solving

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Social Activities/ “Lesson on foot” Dramatization and Dramatic Play Stories and Songs Games Contests

INTERVIEW

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This assessment technique provides: 1. A source of rich information concerning what child is thinking or feeling about the Mathematics. 2. Insights into how to direct the pupil’s learning as well as the assessment of his conceptual knowledge of Mathematics.

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In conducting an interview the following should be observed

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1. Find a quiet spot where you won’t be interrupted. 2. Ask some easy interesting questions at the start.

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3. Accept the pupil’s responses without judgment. 4 . Keep a neutral, accepting manner rather than giving praise and feedback.

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5 . Keep your tone or voice the same for correct and incorrect responses. 6 . Probe right answers as well as incorrect one’s

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7. Establish a good wait time. 6 . Encourage the child to “think out l oud”.

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9. Encourage alternative solutions, verification of answers and asking how do you know that?

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10. Avoid giving body clues. 11. Do not begin to teach the correct way.

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OBSERVATION AS ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE

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Observation may serve to obtain information about understanding as well as attitudes about Mathematics.

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CHECKLIST - Design to record a number of widely based objectives over a series of days or weeks

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WEEK of __________________ PUPIL A B C D E Tasks: Uses counting on to find sums Counts by twos Touches objects for counting Uses models to show sets Ready for connecting level Observation Checklist Example

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PERFORMANCE TASK Represents just what they say they are- pupils performance on a particular Mathematics task or investigation.

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PERFORMANCE TASK Can be designed to gather information about high-level cognitive behaviors and are well-suited to assess collaborative learning.

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PERFORMANCE TASK Can be graded using a scoring rubrics. Two Methods that are commonly Used Analysis Holistic Scoring

SELF- ASSESSMENT

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Self-assessment encourages pupils to learn about themselves as Mathematics pupil. Form: Journal Writing

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UTILIZATION OF MULTIGRADE PLANS IN MATHEMATICS

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Generally, children enjoy playing games. They love to do activities that challenge their minds and interest. They can learn best through play and games.

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4. They also learn how to follow directions. 5. Mathematical games and puzzles play important role in the teaching-learning process.

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6 . They also develop values and attitudes like cooperation, honesty and teamwork. 5. The teacher can utilize them to develop concepts, discover patterns, and reinforce concepts and enrichment activities.