Knowledge Management

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Knowledge management of the university industry in Malaysia

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Knowledge management:

Knowledge management Done by: Farid Hakim Bin Saibun 13030157 Dean Yeo Kai Liang 13030142 Hazwan Bin Hasnol 13030113 Eng Poh Yoke 13030139 Syaza Mohamad Salleh 13030047 Higher education industry Lecturer: Dr rohaya mohd nor

Part 1: Industry Analysis:

Part 1: Industry Analysis Industry Analysis Background of Industry Business Environment Interaction Issues Solution via Knowledge Management Tools

Background of Industry:

Background of Industry The industry chosen: Industry of Higher Education The Industry of Higher Education is chosen with regards to the blooming university industry in Malaysia.

Background of Industry (cont’d):

Background of Industry (cont’d) From the establishment of the University of Malaya back in October 1949 , till today Malaysia has seen a huge growth in numbers of universities throughout the nation. Today, approximately there are 600 learning institutions throughout Malaysia.

Background of Industry (cont’d):

Background of Industry (cont’d) Over the past decade, private learning institutions have been popping up like mushrooms after the rain.

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MUSHROOMS AFTER THE RAIN!!!!

Business Environment Interaction :

Business Environment Interaction The interaction is divided to two parts: Public University interactions Private University Interactions Even though the interactions are divided into two, but mainly they interact within the same business environment.

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d):

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d) First interaction: With the Local Government Public University: Interacts with the local government with regards to obtaining funding for the university. Private University: No such interaction with the local government to obtain funding as they are more profit-oriented.

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d):

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d) Second Interaction: International Bodies Both Universities In current times both universities find themselves interacting more and more with international bodies with one main reason in mind; to obtain funding for researches.

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d):

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d) Third Interaction: With the Market Both Universities: This is a more important interaction due to the fact that institutions compete for the best “brains” in order to produce possibly better researchers. Better researchers = Better chance to obtain funding for researches.

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d):

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d) Third Interaction: With the Market (cont’d) Public Universities More interested to obtain best quality to produce better researchers. Private Universities More importance on quantity rather than quality for higher profits.

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d):

Business Environment Interaction (cont’d) Fourth Interaction: Public Both Universities: Interact with public to get the word out and to promote their universities . To find the best staff available.

Issues:

Issues There are three issues to speak of: Lack of initial training for new lecturers Culture of in-bringing Teaching modules

PowerPoint Presentation:

For a person wtihout any previous experiences of teaching, the role of a lecturer is fearsome. There some who are experienced with experiences coming from previous teaching experiences such as tuition centers or schools but teaching in the university is a different story altogether. Issue 1: Lack of initial training for new lecturers

Issue 1: Lack of initial training for new lecturers:

Issue 1: Lack of initial training for new lecturers For private universities; There is no initial training. New lecturers are expected to know how to teach. Example in SIDMA college, a private university, new lecturers are elected from those candidates with the best grades and best interviewees but that do not guarantee a good lecturer. Thus there is an importance on the missing initial training in private institutions.

Issue 1: Lack of initial training for new lecturers:

Issue 1: Lack of initial training for new lecturers For public universities; There is also no initial training. No requirement of a Diploma of Education before being elected as a lecturer. However for public universities, the new lecturers are gradually given training to obtain the required qualifications as a teacher.

Issue 1: Lack of initial training for new lecturers:

Issue 1: Lack of initial training for new lecturers Initial training is important to allow new lecturers to learn how to impart and impact their students with proper techniques of teaching.

Issue 2: Culture of In-bringing:

Issue 2: Culture of In-bringing This is a main issue in both public and private institutions. Culture of in-bringing; This is the culture where universities hire their own graduates to be members of faculty. Mainly this was a common trend seen in Private Universities but in recent years this trend has been seen in Public institutions as well.

Issue 2: Culture of In-bringing:

Issue 2: Culture of In-bringing Main problem with this would be that there is no growth of knowledge when new staffing is brought in from the institutions own products. The knowledge that the new faculty members impart towards their underlings would not be different from what they have learned themselves.

Issue 2: Culture of In-bringing:

Issue 2: Culture of In-bringing This may create an endless cycle of stagnant knowledge, where there is no new knowledge that can or may be created. This culture of in-bringing ensures that this happens and that there is no growth of knowledge, especially tacit knowledge due to the similar standards of the lecturer is to the students.

Issue 3: Teaching Modules:

Issue 3: Teaching Modules A key part of all learning institutions would be the teaching module or basically the curriculum of the institutions. The teaching module would determine what is being taught and how knowledge would be grown for the use of all within the faculty of learning institutions.

Issue 3: Teaching Modules:

Issue 3: Teaching Modules Public University; For an institution such as UNIMAS, the teaching module does not promote knowledge growth as the teaching module are being reused and recycled. A new module for UNIMAS according to a source within the Language Faculty would be an old module being reused. This meant that in UNIMAS there was no new modules that can promote knowledge growth .

Issue 3: Teaching Modules:

Issue 3: Teaching Modules Private Universities; In SIDMA on the other hand, teaching modules was also an issue where instead of the modules being not only outdated, it was also no record for their teaching modules. Lecturers within private institutions would have their own amendments to the teaching modules and that these amendments if they were made meant that there is no record on the teaching modules and that would mean that there is no consistency in teaching. Another part within SIDMA was that there were no teaching modules that was properly recorded and stored .

Solution via Knowledge Management Tools:

Solution via Knowledge Management Tools All the issues can be solved with the proper Knowledge Management Tool. Among the solutions are; SWOT Analysis Ba Multi-perspective Approach SECI Model

Solution 1: SWOT Analysis:

Solution 1: SWOT Analysis “According to Mackintosh 1999, the main knowledge management technique that should be applied to tackle these three issues is by implementing the most important understanding which is knowledge as an asset or knowledge asset .”

Solution 1: SWOT Analysis:

Solution 1: SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis can be performed to analyze whether the initial training is important or not. SWOT analysis a knowledge management tool would be able to show the importance of initial training that can be turned into a competitive advantage for the institutions.

Solution 1: SWOT Analysis:

Solution 1: SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis as to understand the reasons behind in-bringing and how to develop this common practice into a competitive advantage in terms of knowledge development and usage . This is mainly because the culture of in-bringing has been long rooted into universities thus it is important to know of it using SWOT to turn it into a competitive advantage.

Solution 2: Ba:

Solution 2: Ba The concept of ba can also be implemented to solve the problems of initial training. ba can provide a pivotal platform where senior lecturers can share and help develop the growth of knowledge among themselves and the junior staffing to overcome issues of initial training.

Solution 2: Ba:

Solution 2: Ba Ba also allows the junior lecturers to learn and adapt their abilities by discussion and sharing of knowledge with their seniors which allows most private institutions to adapt and solve this issue without much hassle . Ba can also be a form of seminar where senior lecturers for either public or private institutions, interact with juniors to provide a basic platform for them to tackle the issue of initial training.

Solution 3: Multi-Perspective Approach:

Solution 3: Multi-Perspective Approach Important in tackling the issues of in-bringing. Multi-perspective approach would be able to view the issues surrounding in-bringing, by developing different perspective with respective models to tackle this problem. This allows the culture of in-bringing to be viewed from positive and negative views.

Solution 4: SECI Model:

Solution 4: SECI Model The SECI model can also be used to overcome the issues of in-bringing as the components of the SECI model would allow for the growth of knowledge among the lecturers to evolve and grow knowledge. The SECI model would allow the development of the knowledge surrounding teaching modules and turn this into a knowledge asset .

Solution 4: SECI Model:

Solution 4: SECI Model The implementation of a knowledge management perspective would allow the teaching module to be developed as a knowledge asset that junior lecturers can learn from. The teaching module can be used to teach junior lecturers the importance of application of knowledge management in lectures and managing their knowledge.

Solution 4: SECI Model:

Solution 4: SECI Model The teaching module would also be used to teach the junior staffing to use knowledge and that by applying knowledge management tools, the teaching module can be developed to create integral knowledge management skills for the staff. Applying the knowledge management skills here can help to evolve the teaching modules to be current with the times.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Business Analysis Private Institution: SIDMA College Academic Department Background SWOT Analysis SECI Model Managing Knowledge SIDMA as a Learning Organization

Business Analysis:

Business Analysis Private Institution: SIDMA College Academic Department

Background:

SIDMA College Sarawak or also formerly known as Institut Pengurusan Dinamik (IPD) Sarawak  is a wholly owned Bumiputera Company. It started its operation in May 1992 at Level 2, Lot 205, Section 8 KTLD, Jalan Haji Taha , 93400 Kuching as a training provider and offering computer training. Background

Background (cont’d):

Background (cont’d) Now, it manages UNITAR programs for Sabah and Sarawak has moved to a new city campus in Kuching . The campus is easily accessed, as it is situated in the middle of Kuching city, with bus terminals, taxi stations and even penambang jetties, connecting all routes to-and-fro from the campus to all over Kuching .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Strength Continuously receive a contract by UNITAR Kuala Lumpur to offer a variety of courses to all Sarawakian . All the courses from UNITAR has been certified by MQA Taking care of their staff welfare like providing financial assistance and foods, for example when their staff celebrates Hari Raya the board of directors will give bonuses to their respective staff that celebrate Hari Raya and also give them some meat and chicken to all the staff. SWOT Analysis: SIDMA College

SWOT Analysis: SIDMA College:

SWOT Analysis: SIDMA College Weaknesses Not enough staff in all departments and obviously is in an academic department, not enough lecturer to teach. One lecturer teaches until 12 subjects in one semester. Most of the lecturers who teach in SIDMA College don’t a have master. They hire their own student to become a lecturer and staff.

SWOT Analysis: SIDMA College:

SWOT Analysis: SIDMA College Opportunities The first IPTS in Sarawak that will produce a good and successful Bachelor of Early Childhood Education student.

SWOT Analysis: SIDMA College:

SWOT Analysis: SIDMA College Threats If they did not review the lecturer basic pay their will be in trouble because the pay of the lecturer there are small. If they did not show the good quality in teaching in the future they will fail to make the student to enroll or to study at SIDMA College.

SECI Model: SIDMA College:

Socialization In this stage, individual tacit knowledge is shared through shared experience in day to day social interaction to create new tacit knowledge . In applying SECI model in this Academic department, its shows that the learning system is the typical method of transferring knowledge through socialization, where the student listen, observe and take note every explanation given by the lecturer and then acquire know how through exercise and exam. SECI Model: SIDMA College

SECI Model: SIDMA College:

SECI Model: SIDMA College In socialization, students embrace contradictions rather than fighting them, absorbing knowledge in their social environment through perception and action.

SECI Model: SIDMA College:

SECI Model: SIDMA College Externalization In the learning systems example of externalization would be a lecturer trying to explain a new concept or theory using a power point slide. Through externalization, the lecturer can communicate acquired knowledge more efficiency to large number of students than it can if the knowledge remains tacit. Furthermore, new realizations occur in the process of externalizing, and new knowledge is created once again.

SECI Model: SIDMA College:

SECI Model: SIDMA College Combination In the learning systems, combining stage happen in the systems call ‘UNIEC’. All the notes and discussion regarding subject or topic are discuss and disseminated to all student who enroll for the subject.

SECI Model: SIDMA College:

SECI Model: SIDMA College Internalization This internalization happen in the learning system for example, when students reading and reflecting deeply on information in power point slide or notes about the topic that will come out in the final exam, the students can internalize this explicit knowledge and enrich their own tacit knowledge.

SECI Model: SIDMA College:

SECI Model: SIDMA College In conclusion when the thoughts and skills of the individual are crystallized into a performance, a product, or service, and marketed, the ensuing interaction with customers, competitors, cooperators, other regions and other entities further enriches the tacit knowledge of the entire group. This enriched, internalized tacit knowledge can be shared again through socialization, starting another new SECI process.

SECI process of dialogue and practice:

SECI process of dialogue and practice The dialogue part; In the academic department at Sidma College the process of dialogue happen in the learning process whereby the lecturer giving lecture and the lecturer ask for some idea or views from the student .

SECI process of dialogue and practice:

SECI process of dialogue and practice The practice part To make sure the student understand about the topic the lecturer will give them an exercise and with that exercise it will show whether the student understand or not and with this result the lecturer will use it to correct it back.

Knowledge vision and driving objectives:

Knowledge vision and driving objectives Sidma College’s vision is about to be the champion of education provider and ensuring absolute customer satisfaction. To achieve this vision Sidma College academic department plays an important role because all the lecturers need to give quality services to their students that guarantee satisfaction.

Knowledge vision and driving objectives:

Knowledge vision and driving objectives In Sidma College the driving objectives that helps to achieve this vission is to get best academic provider with qualified and dynamic, innovative and competitive human capital.

Knowledge assets:

Knowledge assets The knowledge assets that help in the process of learning in Sidma College are called UNIEC, it is a portal for student to find notes for every subject, final exam paper and the students also can use this portal to discuss regarding the subject.

Knowledge assets:

Knowledge assets Besides that Sidma College also has a good and reliable organizational structure and system, and from that the culture in Sidma College is different from the public universities because all the students are being spoon-fed .

Environment:

Environment Sidma College is in an education business environment where it is offering a course from Unitar International University. They have a contract with Unitar since 1998 and this is why Sidma College continues its operation until now.

Managing Knowledge: SIDMA:

Managing Knowledge: SIDMA Knowledge is manage through the virtual hub of UNIEC, where notes and course materials can be found. Through UNIEC, a virtual ba is also created as Q&A sessions can be held in through the system.

SIDMA College as a Learning Organization:

Sidma College is a learning organization as we can see knowledge have been created and has been shared to the student through the learning process, brainstorming and support by the study materials. The process of learning is always been create and new knowledge is always available for the students and lecturer that’s who need it. SIDMA College as a Learning Organization

PowerPoint Presentation:

Business Analysis Public Institution: UNIMAS CLS Academic Department Background SWOT Analaysis SECI Model Managing Knowledge UNIMAS as a Learning Organization

Business Analysis:

Business Analysis Public Institution: UNIMAS CLS Academic Department

Background:

Background Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) was established on 24 December 1992 . It is the eighth University in Malaysia. CLS was launched on 1 December 1993 . The Centre is in charge of developing and enhancing the language proficiency of students at UNIMAS.

SWOT Analysis: CLS Unimas:

SWOT Analysis: CLS Unimas Strengths Centralised learning & teaching for language courses Weaknesses Shortage of instructors Part-timers had to be hired to fill in the gaps for full-time instructors

SWOT Analysis: CLS Unimas:

SWOT Analysis: CLS Unimas Opportunities Language is an essential market niche Threats Large number of student intake

SECI Model: CLS Unimas :

SECI Model: CLS Unimas Tacit to Tacit ( Socialisation ) In CLS, a Logical Framework discussion is held where all instructors will come together in a meeting room each carrying with them ideas or just to be present for the brainstorming session to come up with the best designs of teaching process and outcome for a particular subject.

SECI Model: CLS Unimas :

SECI Model: CLS Unimas Tacit to Explicit ( Externalisation ) Each team will then have to document their brainstorming sessions into a provided template. This document will then be distributed to every member of the team for further actions.

SECI Model: CLS Unimas :

SECI Model: CLS Unimas Explicit to Explicit (Combination) Every member of the team will be given a task to build communicative networks with external parties such as students, and other schools/universities’ teachers/instructors. Interviews and questionnaires are disseminated to the people mentioned above to find out their personal views and takes on existing teaching/learning processes found in CLS. Feedbacks are then compiled together with the existing documents from the brainstorming sessions.

SECI Model: CLS Unimas :

SECI Model: CLS Unimas Explicit to Tacit ( Internalisation ) The compiled data are then distributed to each team member for implementation. Upon implementation, each individual’s collective reflection will be reassessed and brought to the next meeting. Thus , creating the “spiral” effect of knowledge creation, hence “ spiralling ” into a new level.

Dialogue & Practise :

Dialogue & Practise This is shown in CLS’s habit of having discussions and implementing the ideas based on the discussions.

Knowledge Vision & Driving Objectives :

Knowledge Vision & Driving Objectives This highlights the direction CLS aims to employ in their knowledge creation based on each team’s objective which is collectively to enhance UNIMAS student’s language proficiency.

Ba :

Ba The space-time for teams to conduct SECI is the Programme Meeting Room in CLS which is usually conducted during student’s semester breaks.

Knowledge Assets :

Knowledge Assets Inputs and outputs of SECI in CLS comes mainly from both the internal and external stakeholders of the department with them being the staff and students, respectively.

Environment:

Environment Besides the Programme Meeting Room and the timespace in student’s semester breaks, the Centre itself during each curricular semester is an influential factor on the SECI as each instructor’s personal experience will be taken into account when conducting SECI.

Managing Knowledge: CLS Unimas:

Managing Knowledge: CLS Unimas For each subject taught, each instructor must keep a portfolio for each semester. The portfolio will contain the Course Outline, Moderation Materials, Teaching Modules, Attendance Sheet, and Performance Analysis. This portfolio will then be archived and if needed will be pulled out from the archives for reference.

Managing Knowledge: CLS Unimas:

Managing Knowledge: CLS Unimas Junior staff can always request from senior staff the portfolio for reference. It will be used mainly for reference of past semesters’ teaching materials, students’ attendance and grades. This particular portfolio is very important as it is one of the means of knowledge management in CLS that will benefit the instructors in terms of making reference for future improvements.

CLS Unimas as a Learning Organization:

CLS Unimas as a Learning Organization CLS is definitely a learning organisation as the knowledge created by the CLS team will then be acquired by students in class. It is without doubt that CLS staff also benefit from the knowledge creation process through the brainstorming sessions during the Logical Framework. The learning culture will always be present as long as it is an education department, this includes all education institutions.

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