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Total Quality Management - TQM:

Total Quality Management - TQM The quality journey continues…….. Author: Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones                           

Session Plan:

Session Plan Introduction to concepts of TQM Standards and TQM TQM Reasons for failure Measurement of Quality

Total Quality Management:

Total Quality Management TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all parts of the organization. TQM can be viewed as an extension of the traditional approach to quality. TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality decision making. Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of every member of staff within an organization to influence quality. All staff are empowered.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Total Quality Management Doing things right….. ….FIRST time. Internetix (2005)

British Standards on TQM:

British Standards on TQM BS 7850-1:1992 Total quality management. Guide to management principles. BS 7850-2:1994, ISO 9004-4:1993 Total quality management. Guidelines for quality improvement.

Elements of TQM:

Elements of TQM Leadership Top management vision, planning and support. Employee involvement All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their work. Product/Process Excellence Involves the process for continuous improvement.

Elements of TQM:

Elements of TQM Continuous Improvement A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality. Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use” Design quality Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace. Conformance quality The degree to which a product meets its design specifications.

A fundamental concept of TQM from BS 7850 - a ‘Process’:

A fundamental concept of TQM from BS 7850 - a ‘Process’ “A set of inter-related resources and activities which transform inputs into outputs.” (ISO 8402) . “Any activity that accepts inputs, adds values to these inputs for customers, and produces outputs for these customers. The customers may be either internal or external to the organization.” (BS 7850)

"The Simple Process":

Controls Process Outputs Inputs Resources "The Simple Process" (Source: BS 7850: 1992, “Total Quality Management”)

Changing Role of the Process Owner :

Changing Role of the Process Owner As customer Process owner As customer As supplier Process owner As supplier Process 1 Process 1 Input Output Output to customer Input from supplier (Source: BS 7850: 1992, “Total Quality Management”)

PowerPoint Presentation:

TQM & organizational Cultural Change Traditional Approach Lack of communication Control of staff Inspection & fire fighting Internal focus on rule Stability seeking Adversarial relations Allocating blame TQM Open communications Empowerment Prevention External focus on customer Continuous improvement Co-operative relations Solving problems at their roots

PowerPoint Presentation:

Customers’ expectations for the product or service Customers’ perceptions of the product or service Customers’ perceptions of the product or service Customers’ expectations for the product or service Customers’ perceptions of the product or service Gap Perceived quality is poor Perceived quality is good Expectations > perceptions Expectations = perceptions Expectations < perceptions Perceived quality is governed by the gap between customers’ expectations and their perceptions of the product or service Customers’ expectations of the product or service Gap Source: Slack et al. 2004

Additional views of Quality in Services:

Additional views of Quality in Services Technical Quality versus Functional Quality Technical quality — the core element of the good or service. Functional quality — customer perception of how the good functions or the service is delivered. Expectations and Perceptions Customers’ prior expectations (generalized and specific service experiences) and their perception of service performance affect their satisfaction with a service. Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) – (Expectation)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Customer’s expectations concerning a product or service Customer’s perceptions concerning the product or service Previous Experience Word of mouth communications Image of product or service Customer’s own specification of quality Management’s concept of the product or service organization’s specification of quality The actual product or service Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 Gap 4 A “Gap” model of Quality Source: Parasuraman, Zeithman and Berry. 1985

Continuous Improvement:

Continuous Improvement Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs. Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement.

Implementing TQM:

Implementing TQM Successful Implementation of TQM Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day operations. Causes of TQM Implementation Failures Lack of focus on strategic planning and core competencies. Obsolete, outdated organizational cultures.

Obstacles to Implementing TQM:

Obstacles to Implementing TQM Lack of a company-wide definition of quality. Lack of a formalized strategic plan for change. Lack of a customer focus. Poor inter-organizational communication. Lack of real employee empowerment. Lack of employee trust in senior management. View of the quality program as a quick fix. Drive for short-term financial results. Politics and turf issues.

Some criticisms of TQM:

Some criticisms of TQM Blind pursuit of TQM programs Programs may not be linked to strategies Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market performance Failure to carefully plan a program

PDCA Cycle repeated to create continuous improvement:

PDCA Cycle repeated to create continuous improvement Time Performance “Continuous” improvement Plan Do Check Act

Recognizing and rewarding Quality:

Recognizing and rewarding Quality Promotion of high quality goods and services Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (United States) Deming Prize (Japan) European Quality Award (European Union) ISO9000 certification

The integrated framework of the Baldrige Award criteria:

The integrated framework of the Baldrige Award criteria Source: 2004 Criteria for Performance Excellence, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Baldrige National Quality Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899. (

PowerPoint Presentation:

Product Continual improvement of the quality management system Customers (and other interested parties) Requirements Management responsibility Resource management Measurement, analysis and improvement Product realisation Output Satisfaction Input Source: BS EN ISO 9001:2000 Key: Value adding activity information flow Customers (and other interested parties)

Overview of the EFQM Excellence Model:

Overview of the EFQM Excellence Model

Quality Award common elements:

Quality Award common elements All take holistic approach Customers/people Measurable characteristics Visible Basis taken from TQM


Summary TQM – a way of working Involves everyone High prominence on ‘customer’ Awards based upon TQM

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