MI 101 Lesson 13 & 14 History of Missions


Presentation Description

A brief history of missions from the time of Christ to modern mission


Presentation Transcript

Introduction to Missions Lecture 13-14:

Introduction to Missions Lecture 13-14 MI Dr. Robert Patton

History of Missions:

History of Missions Two models but one basic principle

Incredible growth of the church:

Incredible growth of the church Started with 120 in the upper room Now 33% of world are “Christian” – at least nominally – about 2,000,000,000

The Roman Empire:

The Roman Empire Apostolic period 33-95 AD with approx. death of John Much of the Mediterranean area - ? Spain All apostles persecuted; all martyred except John, who was exiled to Patmos when Domitian could not kill him Persecution started with Nero – approx. 64 BC

Advantages in spread:

Advantages in spread Good roads & transportation Uniform language - Greek – and culture Toleration of Judaism as a protected religion “ Pax Romana ”

Persecution 64-313 AD:

Persecution 64-313 AD Many bishops martyred Ireneus Polycarp Justin Martyr The martyrs of Lyons – such as Blandina


Persecution 10 major persecutions between Nero and Diocletian, who vowed to remove all Bibles and destroy Christianity Yet Christianity spread in all provinces of the Roman Empire and to Mesopotamia Tertullian: The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church (Christianity is worth dying for)

Why persecution?:

Why persecution? Religious – protected when considered part of Judaism, but when that was rejected – persecution Political – you can believe, but Caesar must have first place. Emperor worship consolidated the empire

Why persecution?:

Why persecution? Economic – loss of income, such as from making idols Social – convicted others, did not attend the theater and arena, no immorality Considered atheists – because they did not worship idols you can see

Early martyrs include::

Early martyrs include: Virtually all the apostles except for John, who was placed on an island Aristarchus Luke Barnabas Polycarp Perpetua

John sent to Patmos:

John sent to Patmos

Peter crucified upside down:

Peter crucified upside down

m Phillip stoned at Hieropolis:

m Phillip stoned at Hieropolis

James beheaded:

James beheaded

Andrew crucified:

Andrew crucified

Persecution 100-250:

Persecution 100-250 Emperor Tragan – 112 – don’t seek out Christians, but if one is so, ask three times. If affirmative – kill him Later in Smyrna – Polycarp killed Marcus Aurelius persecuted Christians – he was a Stoic who believed Christians caused the problems in his time – Killed Justyn Martyr

A survivor of Lyons explains:

A survivor of Lyons explains The torture was instigated by satan The horrible cruel torture The kind words of the judge to recant The steadfastness of the martyrs dealt a tremendous blow to satan God gave them the ability to withstand inhumane torture

Blandina – of the martyrs of Lyons:

Blandina – of the martyrs of Lyons


Perpetua Her father, a nobleman, pled with her to recant; she refused. He took a beating to try to get her free She had a new-born, and also her slave girl had just delivered She at last pushed the family away Perpetua gored by a bull, then beheaded

Window depicting Perpetua and her slave Felicia martyrdom:

Window depicting Perpetua and her slave Felicia martyrdom

Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna:

Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna

Polycarp was known and hated by unbelievers :

Polycarp was known and hated by unbelievers He glorified Jesus Christ He spoke against idolatry He was effective not only in Smyrna, but also traveled to Rome He was powerful in prayer His strong testimony led to his being burned to death A. D. 156

Patrick - Celtic church(Ireland):

Patrick - Celtic church(Ireland) After training as a deacon, he felt called to Ireland. Initially, another was sent as better prepared, but died, and Patrick arrived back at over 40 years of age in 432. He clashed with the druids, who were involved in witchcraft & human sacrifices. He tried to win a power encounter showing himself stronger than them…


Constantine Had a vision before a battle with another competitor – a cross and a voice “in this sign conquer” Painted crosses on shields, “baptized en mass the troops marching in the river, and won Thus – accepted the Christian faith

Edict of Toleration 313- 500 AD:

Edict of Toleration 313- 500 AD Little stimulus for true evangelization Church became rich and powerful

Edict of Toleration 313- 500 AD:

Edict of Toleration 313- 500 AD Christianity tolerated, then preferred Many heathen priests and laymen flocked to the churches – most unsaved Many heathen practices were “Christianized” Purification through persecution was no longer present

Patrick - Celtic church(Ireland):

Patrick - Celtic church(Ireland) Born in Britain around 389. His father was a deacon, his grandfather a priest in the Celtic church. He was captured and a slave in Ireland tending swine. He was converted, and escaped and went to a monastery where he trained as a priest

Stained glass window of St. Patrick:

Stained glass window of St. Patrick

Monastery at Iona:

Monastery at Iona

Medieval expansion 500-1517:

Medieval expansion 500-1517 Roman Catholic church prominent – there was a split with the Greek Orthodox about 1000 AD Roman Catholic doctrine against true evangelism Combination of the church and political power – such as Charlemagne, etc.

Syncreticism with paganism:

Syncreticism with paganism Catholic doctrine often mixed with paganism Trust in baptism & sacraments Often persons relapsed back into paganism Some true believers at all times Classic example – Francis Xavier Syncretism still exists today

Charles Martel:

Charles Martel



Boniface chopping down the oak of Thor:

Boniface chopping down the oak of Thor

Europe “Christianized” by 1200 AD:

Europe “Christianized” by 1200 AD The area of France and Germany, where there was a lot of competition Scandanavia – finally the Vikings were placed under control

Cyril and Methodius:

Cyril and Methodius

By 1000, Christianity was the state religion of Sweden King Olaf Harald:

By 1000, Christianity was the state religion of Sweden King Olaf Harald

Major attacks by Islam:

Major attacks by Islam Islam spread rapidly from 632 to 732 – all of Arabia, much of the middle east to the Balkans, and North Africa Expansion into Spain for 800 years, and to France until stopped by Charles Martel Major Mongol invasions from the east to the area of Russia

Spread of Islam:

Spread of Islam

Saladin – muslim conqueror:

Saladin – muslim conqueror

Genghis Khan:

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan empire:

Genghis Khan empire

The fall of Constantinople:

The fall of Constantinople

Francis of Assisi:

Francis of Assisi

Peter Waldo:

Peter Waldo

Protestant Reformation 1517-1700:

Protestant Reformation 1517-1700 Reformation – to restore Biblical Christianity; return to the Scriptures Luther Zwingli Calvin But opposed by the Catholics, and by the counter-reformation

John Wycliffe:

John Wycliffe

John Huss:

John Huss

Maarten Luther & German Bible 1534:

Maarten Luther & German Bible 1534



John Calvin:

John Calvin

Travels of Francis Xavier:

Travels of Francis Xavier

St. Francis Xavier:

St. Francis Xavier


Reformation Reformation is present, not revival False theology – especially Calvinism & Reformed – see below

Why the “great omission”?:

Why the “great omission”? Claimed the great commission was only for the apostles The heathen are at fault for rejecting God’s word The government rather than the church is responsible for reaching the heathen

Why the “great omission”?:

Why the “great omission”? God would save the heathen without their help “where there are Christians, missions are superfluous; and where there are no Christians, they are hopeless”

Phillip Spener, father of German Pietism:

Phillip Spener , father of German Pietism

August Franke – University of Halle :

August Franke – University of Halle



Moravian revival:

Moravian revival Continuous 24/7 prayer meeting for 100 years Unity among those at Herrnhut Outreach using laymen, who also were “tentmakers”

Count Zinzendorf:

Count Zinzendorf

Zinzendorf preaching to the nations:

Zinzendorf preaching to the nations



American Revival:

American Revival Jonathan Edwards, but also others Evangelicism also in England Whitefield Wesley Note well – true revival often spurs missions

Revival – 18th Century:

Revival – 18 th Century German Pietism – revolt against sterile Lutheranism Franck, Spener & the Danish Halle Mission Count Zinzendorf & the Moravian mission More missionaries from one small church than from all Protestant churches for 200 years Greenland, West Indies, Suriname, & many others

Jonathan Edwards:

Jonathan Edwards

Theodorus Frelinghuysen & Gilbert Tennent:

Theodorus Frelinghuysen & Gilbert Tennent

George Whitefield:

George Whitefield

John Wesley:

John Wesley

19th century – the Great Century:

19 th century – the Great Century William Carey – father of modern missions Mission societies started 1792 – An Enquiry written Pioneer evangelism Adoniram Judson – Burma Christian Schwartz – India Many others – usually on the coast

William Carey and Serempore College:

William Carey and Serempore College

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson

19th century:

19 th century Hudson Taylor Beginning of faith missions China Inland Mission David Livingstone AIM, SIM – reaching into Africa

Jennie Faulding, Taylor’s second wife & Taylor:

Jennie Faulding, Taylor’s second wife & Taylor

Judson in prison:

Judson in prison

Henry Martyn:

Henry Martyn

Robert & Mary Moffatt:

Robert & Mary Moffatt

David Livingstone:

David Livingstone

Sculpture Livingstone mauled by a lion:

Sculpture Livingstone mauled by a lion

John Williams, memorial tomb:

John Williams, memorial tomb

John Geddie & Aneityium:

John Geddie & Aneityium

John G. Paton:

John G. Paton

A B Simpson:

A B Simpson

Nyack College & Simpson:

Nyack College & Simpson

Fredrick Franson:

Fredrick Franson

20th century:

20 th century Growth of many faith missions Specialization Medicine Radio & TV Aviation Agriculture translation



Graham Staines:

Graham Staines

First group for AIM:

First group for AIM

Jim Elliot and others:

Jim Elliot and others

Mother Eliza Davis-George:

Mother Eliza Davis-George

Her ENI schools - :

Her ENI schools -

Modern challenges:

Modern challenges The unreached people groups – 97% are in the so-called 10-40 window The untaught – only 7-8% of the 6900 languages have a complete Bible. 2000+ language groups have NO scripture Persecuted – 200,000 martyrs/year; 400 million under some form of persecution