History of Missions Lesson 13


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Lesson 13 MI 502 History of Missions


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History of Missions Lecture 13:

History of Missions Lecture 13 MI Dr. Robert Patton

Specialized Missions:

Specialized Missions Medicine, Aviation, Radio, etc.

Specialized Missions:

Specialized Missions After WW I & WWII, especially veterans pushed forward Most were evangelical, not liberal, & used new technology Communism also encouraged new ways to reach behind the Iron curtain- like radio + literature Bible schools broadened their curriculum, and some became liberal arts colleges Especially translation, medicine, aviation, radio, agriculture became glamorous

Missionary Medicine:

Missionary Medicine Tremendous impact for good Competition with witch doctors and medicine men Clash with culture and prejudices Starting with John Thomas (India with Carey), some were part-time like David Livingston & Hudson Taylor. One famous - Albert Schweitzer ? Saved???,

Medical missions late 19th century:

Medical missions late 19 th century John Scudder – India Clara Swain – India First missionary nurse 1884 – E. M. Mckechnie to Shanghai

Medical missions:

Medical missions More recently - governments have taken over more. Now public health, prevention and education are often open doors MAP gives millions of $$ drugs, equipment, enz. My personal contribution – though through USAID – was in medical education

Wilfred Grenfell:

Wilfred Grenfell Wilfred Grenfell - Labrador, converted in a Moody meeting. Initially he worked as an MD on a ship in the north seas, but then saw Labrador. He had opposition from the Anglical church, which was doing nothing, but did not want to lose converts. Grenfell also helped the economy, to the opposition of the local merchants, who lost some of their profits. He risked his life. His introduction of reindeer backfired as the reindeer died of a parasite which they also transmitted to the local caribou herds

Wilfred Grenfell:

Wilfred Grenfell The difficulty was his total independence and his lack of concern for doctrinal stance of others but for their work for the Lord. He was made a knight by King George V

Wilfred Grenfell:

Wilfred Grenfell

Ida Scudder:

Ida Scudder Ida Scudder. Her father John went to Ceylon for 36 years, and 9/13 children lived, 7 became missionaries, and there were 42 missionaries in 4 generations. Born in 1870, she knew missionary life. After being in the USA as a teenager, and at Moody’s school, She went back to India from school to care for her sick mother, stayed as a teacher, but then was called to assist in three difficult labors because she was a women. She could not by lack of training and all three women died.

Ida Scudder:

Ida Scudder She returned to the USA, and after graduation from medical school, returned to start a hospital. Her father died, and at first people did not trust her care. She started a nursing school for women, who ranked very high in government scores. She then opened a medical school. She ran a hospital, an orphanage, and taught a Bible school. Her mother died age 86

Ida Scudder:

Ida Scudder When the school was forced to integrate with men, there was great controversy in her board, but they eventually agreed. The school was eventually combined with men’s schools after great controversy. The hospital was an incredible success.- Vellore remains a top school. She retired at 75, but continued to serve there for another decade

Ida Scudder & Vellore Hospital:

Ida Scudder & Vellore Hospital

Dr. Viggo Olsen:

Dr. Viggo Olsen

Viggo Olsen:

Viggo Olsen Converted after he was a doctor, he turned down lucrative offers to go to Bangladesh He opened and ran Memorial Hospital during a time of great upheaval, but was successful as an MD and witness for Christ Was also a diplomat and translated into a dialect of Bengalese

Dr. Viggo Olsen:

Dr. Viggo Olsen

Dr. Carl Becker:

Dr. Carl Becker After high school, he worked 5 years to support his mother, and then entered medical school He made a promise to give everything to God if he finished. He went to a small town in Pennsylvania and prospered greatly as an MD

Dr. Carl Becker:

Dr. Carl Becker Africa Inland Mission contacted him and he left for Africa with his wife and children. After living in several different areas, he settled in Oicha , Belgian Congo to work among the pygmies

Carl Becker:

Carl Becker He was very innovative, especially with leprosy and psychiatric patients. He had 4000 patients in a 1100 acre compound and very great success – experts from over the world came. He was treating 2000 patients daily and doing 3000 operations per year He also used electric shock therapy for psychiatric patients.

Carl Becker:

Carl Becker At age 70, he left in 1964 escaped the Simbas (he had been targeted). He returned and continued 13 years after that and finally retired to the USA age 83. He worked on a hospital and training center for Africans when back in the USA.

Dr. Carl Becker:

Dr. Carl Becker


Translations John Elliot translated into Algonquin Carey was an effective translator in India Also: Robert Morrison, Adoniram Judson, Robert Moffat, Hudson Taylor, Henry Martyn were all translators. 19th century - 500 translations. Much progress with computers and national helpers

William Cameron Townsend:

William Cameron Townsend Born in 1896, went after college to sell Bibles in Guatemala. Spent 13 years learning an Indian language, Cakchiquel , reducing it to writing, and translation of scriptures. He had major differences with CAM, and left after his wife’s death – wanted to translate, but the mission wanted evangelism

Wycliffe & William Cameron Townsend :

Wycliffe & William Cameron Townsend William Cameron Townsend - he was effective as a translator himself, but quite ecumenical in belief and practice. There was a question about his honesty in presenting himself to go into countries just as a translator. - wanted to take a Roman Catholic into his organization. He allowed Pentecostal workers in as well with a slight revision of their faith

William Cameron Townsend:

William Cameron Townsend

Wycliffe & William Cameron Townsend :

Wycliffe & William Cameron Townsend He supported using all races, as well as women translators, even alone. Two went to work with the Shapras – headhunters. The chief said that he would have killed men, but not women – eventually he became a Christian He ended up with 4500 workers, translated himself, worked more than 50 years as translator. He placed himself under a board which he himself had formed. He remarried after his first wife died; his wife and 4 children lived in Peru 17 years

Wycliffe & Kenneth Pike:

Wycliffe & Kenneth Pike He was followed by Kenneth Pike: Kenneth Pike - transformed into a linguist of great ability although initially had great difficulty in translation. Became very polished in academic circles as well. He was an effective and practical teacher. He also was Professor of Linguistics at the University of Michigan for 30 years

Kenneth Pike:

Kenneth Pike

Other translators:

Other translators Rachel Saint - brother Nate was killed by Auca indians . She was already working on the language. After his death, she worked with Dayuma for years, took her to the USA for a tour, and returned. She and Elizabeth Elliot lived with the Auca and eventually saw many saved.

Rachel Saint:

Rachel Saint

Radio ministry:

Radio ministry Advantages Pre-evangelism Building churches & strengthening believers It can go where people cannot go Problem with small language groups - tape recordings may be a solution

Clarence Jones & HCJB:

Clarence Jones & HCJB He endured ridicule, even in his home church. He had a Salvation Army background, was converted & went to Moody Bible Institute, graduating valedictorian after only 2 years high school. He was an expert trombonist working with evangelist Paul Rader. Initially rebuffed in South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Panama & Cuba), he was depressed.

Clarence Jones & HCJB staff 1946:

Clarence Jones & HCJB staff 1946

Clarence Jones & HCJB:

Clarence Jones & HCJB Then missionaries, the Larsons came and helped him start in Ecuador, getting a 25 year contract, though with many difficulties. It ended up being an ideal place to broadcast. Starting December 25, 1931 with 250 watts, but donations fell off, their bank & Chicago Gospel Tabernacle went bankrupt. They were careful to cooperate with the government and support patriotism and educational programs. They were positive, not directly attacking the Roman Catholics.

Clarence Jones & HCJB:

Clarence Jones & HCJB They gradually increased to 10,000 watts, (supported by R.G. LeTourneau ) and could be heard across virtually all the continents. Jones demanded top quality for the broadcasts. They had two disastrous accidents – one injured he and his wife; the second killed their only son


HCJB The ministry has expanded to two hospitals, mobile clinics, a printing press, etc. as well as two sister broadcasting stations – Panama and Texas. The hospital is top quality and has seen many medical residents saved; 2 are missionaries Now is HCJB global, with emphasis on internet & helping others set up radio stations



John Broger and the Far East Broadcasting Company::

John Broger and the Far East Broadcasting Company: John Broger started a station after being in the military in the far east during World War II. After many problems, in 1948 they were able to set up a broadcast in Manila, and received permission for unlimited power. Finances were a great problem. However, they have had great success in receiving letters and other indications of impact. By 1970 21 stations 1000-250,000 watts broadcasting 1400 programs per week

Broger & FEBC; using portable machine in barrios of Philippines:

Broger & FEBC; using portable machine in barrios of Philippines

FEBC – three murdered by Muslim extremists 1992:

FEBC – three murdered by Muslim extremists 1992

Trans World Radio:

Trans World Radio Trans World Radio - 5,000,000 watts power, can reach 80% of the world. They have 6 major broadcasting locations and broadcast in 80 languages. Paul Freed started the ministry in 1954, joined by his father, who turned down the presidency of Western Canada Bible Institute He trained, then worked for Youth for Christ and felt a burden for Spain. When Morocco nationalized the radio, they relocated in Monte Carlo with God supplying the money in miraculous ways.

TWR in some of its locations:

TWR in some of its locations

Trans World Radio:

Trans World Radio Then after a heart attack, he opened a second station in Bonaire, and now has 4 additional stations - Cyprus, Sri Lanka. Swaziland, and Guam.

Joy Ridderhof and Gospel recordings:

Joy Ridderhof and Gospel recordings Joy Ridderhof and Gospel recordings - while sick after initial missionary work, she caught the vision of making simple recordings in different languages which could be played on simple recorders - distributing more than 4000 languages with 40 full time volunteers.

Joy Ridderhof:

Joy Ridderhof There are now 5944 languages recorded with a total staff of over 100

Gospel Recordings:

Gospel Recordings


Aviation Mission aviation fellowship = best expertise and equipment in jungle flights. Later JAARS, (Wycliffe), NTM, SIM, AIM have had their own programs. Some are using helicopters to avoid having to build airstrips.


Aviation Betty Green - first pilot. She was trained in WWII flying B-17 bombers after joining the WASP. She was invited to join Jim Truxton to form MAF. She was the first pilot first in Mexico, and then in multiple other locations including Peru, flying across the Andes. She went to Nigeria and Sudan and two years in Irian Jaya. She was an expert flier and also ended up being a rep for MAF

Betty Greene, MAF first pilot:

Betty Greene, MAF first pilot


Aviation Nate Saint - Trained in WWII, he was also an expert repairman. He was inventive but also daring. After a crash, he became more cautious. He also developed an alternate fuel system which was later patented, and also the bucket drop. He died with 4 others at the hands of Auca Indians

Nate Saint’s plane displayed at MAF:

Nate Saint’s plane displayed at MAF

MAF Twin Otter Papua New Guinea:

MAF Twin Otter Papua New Guinea


Aviation JAARS developed after Cam Townsend was injured along with his family in a plane by an inexperienced Mexican pilot. They had an exceptional flight record. One fatality was made when a mechanic tied a nut without tightening it with a wrench, and 7 persons died the next day.


Aviation Even more risk in the arctic with low temperatures, high winds, etc. Often used to reach the Eskimos scattered broadly in the arctic Gleason Ledyard - his own pilot - Eskimo Gospel Crusade. Very successful in evangelism and also rescue. The challenges are even greater in the cold


Aviation Mark Poole - missionary doctor to the Congo, was able to fly his own Piper cub donated by a church, and greatly expand his ministry. Clair McCombs - many schools developed - MBI, Piedmont, LeTourneau college, McCombs was an expert pilot for years after WWII, got saved, went to GRSBM, and was asked to start a program in pilot training, which he did. He has been joined by his wife, also now an expert pilot.

Clair McCombs:

Clair McCombs