History of Missions Lesson 10


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Lesson 10 MI 502 History of Missions


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History of Missions Lecture 10:

History of Missions Lecture 10 MI Dr. Robert Patton

Single Women Missionaries:

Single Women Missionaries ?Second class citizens?

Missions 20th Century:

Missions 20 th Century Imperialism and colonialization was coming to an end, and nationalism was rising Marxism came to the fore WWI & WWII showed the moral weakness of the west Missionaries and white men were seen as both deliverer and destroyer

Missions 20th Century:

Missions 20 th Century Bible Institutes began with a desire to keep the faith pure with most denominations affected by modernism, attacking the deity of Christ and embracing the scientific method Neo-orthodoxy became prominent in Europe and USA Faith missions started, and evangelized Europe and Latin America The base of missions shifted from Europe to North America, especially USA as it became prominent

Missions 20th Century:

Missions 20 th Century Churches were invaded by liberalism and the social gospel - including the mission field Woman’s rights and women in professions radically changed Many single women volunteered as missionaries

Single lady missionaries:

Single lady missionaries Opportunities to serve opened up as an alternative to ministry at home, considered a man’s occupation Rapid growth in many areas over 40 years – hospitals, schools, etc. They sensed a call from God and the opportunity to make a difference

Early 20th century:

Early 20 th century Seemed like classic missions tapered off, but many specialized groups started in medicine, education, radio, translation, agriculture, etc. World War II caused a pause, and then they pushed ahead

Single lady missionaries:

Single lady missionaries Mabel Francis Ann Marie Javouhey Lottie Moon Ann Carmichael Gladys Aylward Helen Roseveare

Single lady missionaries:

Single lady missionaries Roman Catholic Ann Marie Javouhey formed a group of nuns in Africa, with about 900 before her death – Sisters of St. Joseph They were successful in Senegal. She had stood up to the bishop who did not like her independence She ended up with over 1000 sisters scattered in 140 locations

Ann Marie Javouhey:

Ann Marie Javouhey

Single lady missionaries:

Single lady missionaries A single black lady went to Hawaii as a missionary, but was placed as servant of missionary couple, but taught as well in 1820s Cynthia Farrar worked 34 years in Bombay in 1860s

Adele Fields 1839-1916:

Adele Fields 1839-1916 Engaged and almost died on shipboard; her groom died in Bangkok seven months earlier 10 days after she sailed She eventually left after conflicts with the director in several areas, including personal separation She was befriended by missionaries in China

Adele Fields 1839-1916:

Adele Fields 1839-1916 She taught Bible women thoroughly and then sent them out, to return after a few weeks for additional stories She wrote the stories of many of the women, with enormous appeal. She trained other women to take over Her last years were spent traveling, teaching and in science

Mabel Francis:

Mabel Francis Fiance died; she began preaching age and age 19 felt called to missions. Joined the Christian & Missionary Alliance age 29 in Japan Joined by her brother, started 22 churches Later joined by widowed sister who taught while she preached

Mabel Francis:

Mabel Francis During the war, she was in a concentration camp. Afterwards she did humanitarian work. She was in a key position to help the occupation troops reach the lost during the early occupation of Japan after World War II

Mabel Francis:

Mabel Francis She was grieved that the USA missed the chance to send 1000 missionaries to Japan Age 83, she was given the highest award given in Japan to a foreigner

Mabel Francis:

Mabel Francis

Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon:

Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon Lottie Moon - Well educated and cultured as her family was - mom widowed, but a brother and sister were MD’s. She ran the plantation while other family members were involved in the civil war. Brilliant student especially in languages She followed he younger sister to China as a missionary at age 32 after teaching school. Her first years were difficult in China, and she was frustrated, lonely and bored teaching girls. She turned down a suitor who was theologically liberal and ended up teaching at Harvard

Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon:

Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon She then moved into the interior in Pingtu and work alone. She was totally frustrated at not having equal opportunities and vote as men She was finally able to see some men saved and a church started under a Chinese pastor, who baptized over 1000. She felt that women could reach Chinese women. She adopted Chinese dress & customs

Lottie Moon:

Lottie Moon 1890-1912 she did evangelistic work part time, and part time trained new missionaries and counseled Chinese women Her greatest effectiveness was in her writing, raising up funds and women for missions She became depressed, starved to death at age 72 while sharing her meager rations with the Chinese in a famine

Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon:

Charlotte Lottie Diggs Moon Her work of funds from the USA and recruiting women continued after her death. Millions of dollars are still raised each year by a special Christmas offering through the Southern Baptist Mission

Charlotte D. Moon:

Charlotte D. Moon

Amy Carmichael 1867-1951:

Amy Carmichael 1867-1951 Amy Carmichael - initially wealthy, father died leaving a big debt when she was 18, and the oldest in the family. She worked in the city mission in Belfast, Ireland. She was heavily influenced by the Keswick Movement. Age 24, she went to Japan as a missionary for 15 months, then to Ceylon and then home

Amy Carmichael 1867-1951:

Amy Carmichael 1867-1951 She finally went to India, and founded Dohnavur to rescue “temple children” sold into prostitution, widows and orphans. They worked together in ministry. She had others forsake family and marriage, forming the Sisters of the Common life. Those working with her should not associate with other missionaries.

Amy Carmichael:

Amy Carmichael

Amy Carmichael 1867-1951:

Amy Carmichael 1867-1951 She believed she had a divine mission from God. She was very Victorian in life, and contempt for non-Christian practices. She had a bad fall and was an invalid for the last 20 years of her life She remained single and worked with other women 50 plus years until her death at age 83.

Joanna Veenstra:

Joanna Veenstra She is an example of many ordinary but sacrificial lady missionaries Her mother was early a widow when she was two. After going to Christian school, she was a secretary at age 14. She got training in Calvin College and as a midwife, and went to Africa

Joanna Veenstra:

Joanna Veenstra She developed a school for young men to become evangelists She believed she must be a firm boss – maternalism She was appreciated for her medical work and teaching, but died after routine surgery at age 39

Johanna Veenstra:

Johanna Veenstra

Gladys Aylward:

Gladys Aylward Gladys Aylward was originally refused because she had trouble learning. Born in London, and as a poor domestic started service age 14. She dreamed eventually of being a missionary but was turned down age 27 Saving money, she went by rail across Siberia to help Jennie Lawson in China

Gladys Aylward:

Gladys Aylward She had a harrowing ride by train, had to walk back from the war zone, but eventually got to Japan, and then with help to China. She worked with muleteers, learning the language and working hard. She clashed with Lawson, but cared for her until her death After the missionary’s death, she was made official foot inspector.

Gladys Aylward:

Gladys Aylward She became effective, and even quelled a prison riot She became a Chinese citizen, and an effective spy. She fell in love with Linnen , a Chinese soldier, but never married In 1940, she crossed the border to Siam with 100 children

Gladys Aylward:

Gladys Aylward She finally returned to England, and became very famous, but remained humble throughout her life

Gladys Aylward:

Gladys Aylward

Gladys Aylward:

Gladys Aylward

Stress and Singleness:

Stress and Singleness Honorably Wounded Marjory F. Foyle


Singleness The author is talking about individuals committed to celibacy unless married. Some are voluntary (certain religious orders), others involuntary – the right person has not appeared

What about vows:

What about vows Her advice – do not swear to lifelong singleness, but to a period of time you can handle. Often menopause is difficult – no longer able to bear children. We need to trust that God has the best plan for us regardless

Difficulties in singleness:

Difficulties in singleness Many cultures – an oddity. Many cultures have arranged marriages – they wonder if your parents were at fault, did not have enough dowry, etc. As a woman doctor, should she be with the doctors, or with their wives? Finally took a national lady with her


Accommodations Some live alone, others with a female companion, but often frequent adjustments Putting them with a married couple creates stress with attraction, inability to develop relationships, etc. Better not to except when absolutely necessary for safety. In Africa, often think the man has 2 wives

Living alone:

Living alone Avoid becoming a recluse. Do invite people over

Personal relationshps:

Personal relationshps L A common area of clash is between single women and the wife of a couple Stress leading to leaving the field is about the same Main problem is role. Wives must care for children as well as domestic duties. Single ladies do not have to care for children/husband

Personal relationships:

Personal relationships rig Remember that single people need to be considered people in their own right, and have their private lives too. Be careful to abide by customs as far as male-female relationships are concerned Also be careful not to have an all-consuming national friend to exclusion of others


Loneliness Need to learn to be able to manage without a confidant Be careful not to overwhelm someone who does visit Use your imagination

Sexual stress:

Sexual stress Biological – remember that a decision for singleness does not automatically take away sexual desires. We need to trust that this is the best plan for us from a loving God Creative – group support of others in the same situation can be a big help. Most difficult for those who were not celibate earlier


Homosexuality Unacceptable biblically Single celibate individual may fall when under pressure overseas. Be very careful – have someone available to counsel

Practical suggestions:

Practical suggestions Talk to singles about their sexual situation before going overseas Some sort of confidante is helpful and may be implemented before going overseas The missionaries need to trust the board; the board needs to show themselves trustworthy

Observation single women missionaries:

Observation single women missionaries To succeed, they must be pretty independent and determined These same traits may cause conflicts on the field, especially with those who are insecure

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