History of Missions Lesson 09


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Lesson 9 MI 502 History of Missions


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History of Missions Lecture 9:

History of Missions Lecture 9 MI Dr. Robert Patton

Middle East:

Middle East Reaching Paradise

The Pacific Islands:

The Pacific Islands Mostly done by protestants after Captain Cook. Initially English Rivalry with the French Roman Catholics who were there from the time of Magellan, who was killed trying to make them serve the king of Spain

The Pacific Islands:

The Pacific Islands Three main groups Polynesia Micronesia Melanesia Total population – about 2,000,000 persons Later Catholics arriving there were French

The Pacific Islands:

The Pacific Islands They used mission ships with the missionaries coordinating native evangelists. Many were killed by the animists who were afraid their evil spirits would be angered by their acceptance - as well as the travesties of some European traders. There was a constant temptation of falling into sexual sin There were a number of people movements through the family and tribal units.

LMs sent 30 men, 6 wives & 3 children to the South Sea Islands.:

LMs sent 30 men, 6 wives & 3 children to the South Sea Islands . They sailed on the “Duff”, LMS shi p Three places originally settled. The last was abandoned within a year, leaving only Tahiti and Tonga On the third location, one man refused to stay after he was accosted by native women, and the other left within a year

LMS ship “Duff”:

LMS ship “Duff”

LMS & South Sea Islands:

LMS & South Sea Islands On Tongo , one of the missionaries joined unsaved Europeans, had several wives and lived as a native. He later repented In a war, 3 missionaries were killed, six hid till rescued by passing ship

Tonga & Tahiti:

Tonga & Tahiti The repentant missionary returned to England and asked pardon Later Wesleyan Methodists came; John Thomas was successful 25 years, especially after baptizing Taufa’ahau , who became king of the Tonga group and established Christian laws there.

Taufa’ahau, king of Tongo:

Taufa’ahau , king of Tongo


Tahiti Tahiti – There was little success initially although a large group of missionaries went there. The supply ship was captured while returning after a year because of war between Britain & France


Tahiti 3 missionaries “went native”, others were sick and left. They lost house and printing press, and for a while had to forage for native berries and fruits Eventually only Henry Nott remained He persisted 22 years before his first convert He was primary translator of the Bible

Henry Nott:

Henry Nott During a rebellion, all other missionaries fled, but Nott stayed. He had married a native wife, but gave her up, and took one of 4 “godly young women” sent to Australia by the LMS. His new wife was obnoxious, abused him, and was an alcoholic until her death several months later.

Henry Nott & his tomb in Tahiti:

Henry Nott & his tomb in Tahiti

Henry Nott:

Henry Nott Pomare I was treacherous, had killed 2000 men Pomare II, the son of the original chief, made a profession of Christianity after receiving guns to defend against the rebels. Although he had been a homosexual, and continued in immorality, many subjects were truly saved, baptized, and lives changed. He was baptized a number of years after making a profession of faith

Pomare, cannibal king of Tahiti:

Pomare , cannibal king of Tahiti

Henry Nott:

Henry Nott 12 idols of Pomare were sent back to London Infanticide, cannibalism & war were pretty much eliminated Pomare II build the Royal Mission Chapel 712 ft long and 54 ft wide – with 3 simultaneous preaching pulpits

Henry Nott, Bricklayer and translator:

Henry Nott, Bricklayer and translator Nott and others continued to see thousands eventually saved Samoa also had many saved and a solid Christian church opened

Hiram Bingham :

Hiram Bingham Captain James Cook was killed in Hawaii on his second visit – but contact continued Interest started when Obookiah was found crying at Yale wanting to learn. A student helped him, but he died. His story sparked interest in Hawaii, and soon missionaries were sent

Hiram Bingham:

Hiram Bingham 7 missionaries – 6 couples went to Hawaii – most just married (they met, and were married 2 weeks later, and left for Hawaii two weeks after that!) Hiram Bingham emerged as the leader The biggest problem was opposition from European sailors when they could not find women available cheaply for a few trinkets any more

Hiram Bingham:

Hiram Bingham

Hiram Bingham:

Hiram Bingham He translated some of the Bible His son was also a missionary to the Gilbert Islands and also a translator A grandson was also an explorer

Schools and churches started:

Schools and churches started Many came to know Christ One queen, Kapiolani , became a Christian. She had been terrified of Pele, supposedly a goddess in a volcano. She walked into the volcano, threw stones and sacred berries into the lava, came out and testified of her faith!

Queen Kapiolani:

Queen Kapiolani

Queen Kapiolani:

Queen Kapiolani This famous queen was saved and changed many things in the country, including infanticide, murder, etc. She decided to challenge Pele, the goddess of the volcano. Walking 100 miles with 80 other Christians, she descended into the crater and desecrated it, challenging those to accept Christ if Pele did nothing. Many were saved

Major problem with sexual immorality:

Major problem with sexual immorality Clothing was a problem of luring the men, who were used to naked women Some missionaries got involved with materialism & commercial ventures Titus Coan preached often and fervently and revival broke out – 20,000 came into the churches – son-in-law of Hiram Bingham


Hawaii Catholics also came – some famous like Father Damien, who worked with lepers until he himself died of the disease. He is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic church Eventually materialism of missionaries and the retirement of the Binghams led to decline in churches to 5000

Father Damien – before and after leprosy:

Father Damien – before and after leprosy

Father Damien dying & buried surrounded by lepers:

Father Damien dying & buried surrounded by lepers

John Williams:

John Williams He was saved as a teenager while learning the work of a blacksmith. After starting to attend church, his life changed dramatically, he felt called to foreign missions and married Mary, going close to Tahiti. They moved twice, second to Raiatea, the home of the god Oro which was the center of human sacrifice. He worked to improve their civilization, building a fine house as an example His second ship, Endeavor, was good, and he made 18000 pounds commercially covering costs. He argued about the need of a ship



John Williams, memorial tomb:

John Williams, memorial tomb

John Williams:

John Williams He translated the Bible in Raretongo language He built Messenger of Peace, and trained native evangelists. The natives, despite limited training, did an excellent job. He also lost 7 of 10 children in infancy. In 18 years, they had visited every island within 2000 miles of Tahiti. He returned to Britain for 4 years, raised money for a much larger ship, and returned with his son and daughter-in-law

Missionary ship John Williams and book of his adventures:

Missionary ship John Williams and book of his adventures

John Williams:

John Williams Problems with the natives weary of demands of missionaries, strife between Wesleyan Methodists and others, and influence of Catholics were major problems He was finally killed and eaten with his missionary partner Harris on Erromango as he tried to extend to New Hebrides. There were clues that danger was there – no women on the shore, and he did not send natives first. He tried to outswim the natives, but was clubbed to death His descendents went to Erromango to accept apologies from the natives in 2009

John Geddie:

John Geddie Raised in Nova Scotia as a Presbyterian Traveled to Aneityium and stayed there with his wife 24 years. Translated, planted churches, evangelized and trained native workers Extremely successful work

John Geddie:

John Geddie “ When he arrived, there were no Christians; when he left, there were no heathen” He suffered attacks numerous times but was not killed His natives evangelized widely despite many trials; many died

John Geddie & Aneityium:

John Geddie & Aneityium

Aneityum island, remains of church:

Aneityum island, remains of church

John G. Paton :

John G. Paton Born in 1824. He was raised in poverty and started working age 12 Converted at 17 as a Scottish Presbyterian, he worked in Glasgow City Ministry. He was aggressive and unafraid in the midst of poverty there. He had a famous quote from Mr Dickson, who feared that he would be eaten by cannibals After 10 years of city mission work, he married and left for the mission field at Tanna . They had major culture shock with the natives basically naked. His wife and newborn son died within a year.

John G. Paton:

John G. Paton

John G. Paton :

John G. Paton Native evangelists from Geddie lived a different life. Some of the natives were so incensed they killed one native evangelist and threatened Paton. Measles brought an epidemic and 1/3 of the population died Natives tried to kill him many times; he hid 4 days – especially the natives of the coast, finally he escaped Tanna.He remarried after escaping Tanna , returned from England with a vessel, and the commodore tried to punish the natives of Tanna

Islands of New Hebredes:

Islands of New Hebredes

John G. Paton :

John G. Paton He escaped to Australia, raised money and built his first boat, Dayspring He moved to Aniwa , and saw a major breakthrough over 24 years Eventually had 300 native evangelists Retired as missionary statesman, raised funds and continued translation work, and died at age 73

Tanna – chief & witchcraft:

Tanna – chief & witchcraft

John G Paton:

John G Paton Paton owed much to his godly parents, especially his father He had an unswerving confidence in God – that he would not die until his work for God was done, though threatened by clubs, muskets and spears

John G. Paton:

John G. Paton He was convinced that God could save anyone – example of his faithful helper Abraham from John Geddie Some others did not survive – the Gordons were betrayed and killed by natives on Erromanga – but later the harvest came to fruition

James Chalmers:

James Chalmers New Guinea, Scottish Presbyterian. Saved and committed to missions service in his teens. He worked for10 years in Rarotonga , and then went to New Guinea. He loved the people and worked freely with them. Worked on translation His wife died 2 years later. He went on furlough, remarried, and lost his second wife to illness. When going to the Fly River, he and another missionary were clubbed to death and eaten on April 8, 1901

James Chalmers – “Tamate”:

James Chalmers – “ Tamate ”

James Chalmers:

James Chalmers

John Coleridge Patteson:

John Coleridge Patteson John Coleridge Patteson - Anglican bishop of Melanesia. Well trained, he started as bishop of New Zeeland, where a big mission was already – 22 mission stations, 50,000 adherents. The work had expanded after the Maori language was translated with the Bible. With the influx of Europeans, there was a lot of trouble over the land. Many reverted back

John Coleridge Patteson, bishop of Melanesia:

John Coleridge Patteson , bishop of Melanesia

John Coleridge Patteson:

John Coleridge Patteson As Anglican bishop of Melanesia, he learned 20 different Melanesian languages. He brought native boys to New Zealand for education and to be returned as evangelists. Once he had over 50 students. His plan was defeated by European “ blackbirding ” - capturing slaves. The natives became suspicious of his methods

Patteson’s home in New Zealand:

Patteson’s home in New Zealand

John Coleridge Patteson:

John Coleridge Patteson When he went ashore, he did not return, and those following him were driven back by arrows. Later his body was pushed out in a canoe with 5 marked wounds for 5 men who had been stolen “ blackbirded . His death helped stop the practice of capturing slaves for sugar and cotton plantations, and raised up other missionaries

John Patteson’s body set afloat:

John Patteson’s body set afloat

John and Mary Calvert – missionaries to Fiji:

John and Mary Calvert – missionaries to Fiji Fiji had incredible cannibalism, deaths and also killing wives of departed men, and killing before every important event. Men were buried with the posts of the kings house, and crushed rolling out war canoes The Calverts first task was to bury 80 victims’ bones after arrival They finally worked on King Tanoa , a bloodthirsty man who ate hundreds of persons

Tanoa, village then:

Tanoa , village then

John Calvert then, Fiji Islands now:

John Calvert then, Fiji Islands now

John and Mary Calvert:

John and Mary Calvert Mrs. Calvert averted the death of 5 of 14 victims for a cannibal feast. Mr. Watson stopped sacrifices at 5 women for Tanoa’s death Later Thakombau , the son, was saved and 17 years later gave Fiji to Queen Victoria. They saw 1300 churches established! He translated the Bible

Florence Young:

Florence Young Sister of plantation owners, she worked with the slaves, teaching them with great response. She organized and had many plantations participate. She started the Queensland Kanaka Church. At the peak, they had 17 missionaries and over 100 national workers in 11 locations and thousands of members After 10 years in China, she returned

Florence Young:

Florence Young

Florence Young:

Florence Young Blackbirding was now illegal. She and many family members started working in a mission to the South Seas in church planting (South Seas Evangelical Mission) – at least 10 other family members joining over the next years

Kanaka Church:

Kanaka Church

New Zealand:

New Zealand Samuel Marsden was originally a missionary pastor to New South Wales, ministering to criminals in Australia. He helped develop a place for women prisoners there. Samuel Marsden was an effective Anglican bishop and reached many Maori for the Lord though he had been a very severe magistrate in Australia

New Zealand:

New Zealand He became interested in the Maori, a cannibalistic tribe of New Zealand who had killed and eaten many sailors

Samuel Marsden:

Samuel Marsden On his one furlough, he befriended a New Zealand native Maori who helped him. He bought a ship, the Active , because no captain would bring him to the islands. He was received because of the young friend who was with him. He also introduced sheep, horses and other animals


Marsden He made 7 trips to the Maori and gradually many were saved. He transported youth for training in Australian He was greatly respected as an older man above 70.

Bishop George Selwyn, Samuel Marsden New Zealand:

Bishop George Selwyn, Samuel Marsden New Zealand

Maori around 1850 and ritual dance reinacted:

Maori around 1850 and ritual dance reinacted

Sumatra – Ludwig Nommensen:

Sumatra – Ludwig Nommensen Injured at age 13, promised the Lord to serve him if he was restored to health, and walked 3 years later. After caring for the family, he went to Sumatra under the Rhemish society – German Lutheran Worked with the Batak people with great success


Sumatra Initial work was slow, but with the conversion of some chiefs, there was a a people movement and eventually well over 100,000 persons were saved He trained national pastors and teachers and empowered them He translated the New Testament into Batak

Ludwig Nommensen:

Ludwig Nommensen

Batak warriors 1870:

Batak warriors 1870

Traditional Batak house Modern Batak couple:

Traditional Batak house Modern Batak couple

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