History of Missions Lesson 05


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MI 502 Lesson 5 - History of Missions


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History of Missions Lecture 5:

History of Missions Lecture 5 MI Dr. Robert Patton

South Central Asia :

South Central Asia The Great Century

The 19th century – the great century of Missions:

The 19 th century – the great century of Missions It was no longer the state, but the individual who must propagate the faith The voluntary missions societies grew tremendously – both denominational and independent


Colonialism There was some tie with colonialism & imperialism –both advantage and disadvantage. The missionaries enjoyed the prestige of being colonists, safety in many locations, and help from governments. But… Colonialists, and especially the trade organizations, often opposed missionaries, and missionaries were scandalized by the lives of many colonists

Missions brought:

Missions brought Democracy Schools Hospitals Universities But a sense of superiority of the white man and his culture. It was felt that you must civilize the individual to really convert him

Location of missions:

Location of missions Mostly initially along the coast; later went to the interior Much opposition from the trading companies, who viewed missions as interfering with their profits 1-3% of population converted in China and India, etc.

Preparation for effective missions:

Preparation for effective missions Jonathan Edwards had a big impact - both by writing and preaching with revival, and also by the diary of David Brainerd. He also was a missionary to the Indians for 8 years. His son also learned Mohican Great theologian and revivalist with most famous sermon in USA – Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Died of smallpox vaccination as president of Yale University

Jonathan Edwards:

Jonathan Edwards

Phillip Doddridge:

Phillip Doddridge 20 th child, always in poor health Became a nonconformist pastor and hymnwriter Greatly influenced by the writings of Richard Baxter of a previous century. Baxter had been jailed as well – wanting to have missionary movement

Phillip Doddridge:

Phillip Doddridge Phillip Dodderidge was influential in England, influencing Wilberforce, who eliminated slavery, and Whitefield, the great evangelist. He proposed a mission society, but it was 64 years before they did anything except organize prayer meetings

Phillip Doddridge:

Phillip Doddridge

The first awakening in America:

The first awakening in America Theodorus Frelinghuysen, Reformed pastor influenced by Dutch Pietists saw many converted. He linked with Gilbert Tennent , later founder of Princeton University, for the First Great Awakening. Later fires stirred by George Whitefield’s preaching with thousands saved

Theodorus Frelinghuysen & Gilbert Tennent:

Theodorus Frelinghuysen & Gilbert Tennent

George Whitefield:

George Whitefield

Preparation for effective missions :

Preparation for effective missions John and Charles Wesley were influenced by many of the above men They received assurance of salvation from Moravians on shipboard to America Wesley had great success in spiritual revival in America

John Wesley:

John Wesley

Preparation for effectivemissions - Thomas Coke:

Preparation for effectivemissions - Thomas Coke Thomas Coke, only 5 ft. 1 in and heavy, was closely aligned with John Wesley and considered his successor. Wesleyans put Thomas Coke as bishop, who sent 43 missionaries to the new world. He made 16 trips to the United States, four to the caribbean , but also to Africa (Sierra Leone) and pushed missions. He died on a trip with six missionaries to Ceylon

Thomas Coke - Bishop:

Thomas Coke - Bishop

Preparation for effective missions:

Preparation for effective missions Andrew Fuller was liberated from extreme Calvinism, writing to confront sinners with the gospel. Carey was liberated from the same. Finally in 1792, after publishing Carey’s booklet, they formed a mission society, with about 12 following over the next 25 years. Fuller became the secretary and preached widely. Opposed by many Baptists, and especially by the Presbyterians

Andrew Fuller:

Andrew Fuller

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834):

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834) Born 1761 the son of a weaver Apprenticed as a shoemaker because allergies prevented his being a gardener Converted as a teen through a coworker Married the daughter of his master, Dorothy, who was 5 years his senior at age 20

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834):

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834) Became a pastor and gradually realized the church’s responsibility to the heathen despite the influence of Reformed theology He wrote the classic 87 page book concerning missions Preached a classic sermon : Expect great things from God; attempt great things for God. A Baptist missionary society was then begun

William Carey and Serempore College:

William Carey and Serempore College

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834):

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834) He offered to accompany Dr. John Thomas who was appointed – had been to India before. His wife as well as his family were strongly opposed. She was pregnant with their fourth child, and refused to go. His original plan to go with Thomas and his family, along with his 8 month son, was stopped because Thomas must settle debts before leaving

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834):

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834) Dorothy changed her mind, and went with the new baby and her sister Kitty arriving in India in 1793 They moved because of pressure from the East India company to a swampy area, later helped by Mr Short from the East India company Carey moved 300 miles north, and was the foreman of an indigo plant

William Carey:

William Carey After the death of their 5 year old son, Peter, his wife went crazy and accused him of adultery and tried to kill him He was depressed, but started a church and translation, but no convert for 7 years at Malda He then moved to Serempore , under Danish control, where he was for 34 years

William Carey:

William Carey Marshman and Ward joined him, plus Marshman’s wife – and they worked well as a team He translated the entire Bible in 3 languages though some needed much reworking, and the New Testament in 23 other languages Carey revised the Bengali 8 times, and it has still been replaced. Marshman translated the Bible into Chinese – though not idiomatic

William Carey:

William Carey Set up a large printing operation, and eventually Serempore College for training nationals He became Professor of Oriental Languages at Fort William College, which help with income and influence with the British

William Carey:

William Carey He neglected his family; fortunately others helped them Dorothy died age 51 Six months later he married Lady Charlotte Rumhor , a Dane, whom he saw converted and baptized earlier. D espite initial opposition, the marriage was happy for 13 years and she mothered his boys

William Carey:

William Carey Charlotte helped translation work. After her death, he married Grace Hughes at age 62 (she was 45) – again a happy marriage When younger missionaries came, there was a split and the younger missionaries set up another station a few miles away. The younger missionaries did not like the autocratic style of older ( Marshman ), and not the communal living

William Carey:

William Carey The new missionaries had support of the Baptist Mission society, who insisted in running the mission from a distance and new members did not know Carey. Eventually Serempore severed relationships, but had to rescind when finances became a problem London began to run missions in areas they did not know with missionaries they had never met

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834):

William Carey – father of modern missions (1761-1834) Carey had started training nationals He also opposed suttee, but basically tried to leave the Indian culture intact He wanted an indigenous church with indigenous culture. He was also an expert botanist He lived modestly and supported other missionaries

William Carey:

William Carey Four of his own sons became missionaries Two of his co-workers, Ward and Marshman , were also recognized as great missionaries as well

Principles of Carey’s mission work:

Principles of Carey’s mission work Widespread preaching the gospel at every opportunity Distribution of the Bible in the languages of the people Establishment of a church as soon as possible Study background and thought of the native people Training for indigenous ministry

Anglican work:

Anglican work As the British took over India during the time of William Carey, and replaced the power of the East India Company, they sent a number of effective bishops to organize the work in England, including Middleton, Heber, and Wilson

Anglican work in South India:

Anglican work in South India The Mar Thomas churches that were under the pope wanted neither the pope nor the Portuguese. There was an attempt to bring in a Syrian bishop which lasted briefly. Then the Anglicans came, but there was rejection of the missionaries, and then a second group and second split. Finally the Mar Thomas church was established.

South India:

South India Rhenius organized the church around schools with a teacher-catechist as the center. This was successful Some prominent Indians also developed the church, and invited missionary Ringeltaube who baptized about 1000 converts

American Missions mentors:

American Missions mentors Jonathan Edwards had moved away from Calvinism through the influence of Samuel Hopkins and Joseph Bellamy Jonathan Edwards influenced Edward D. Griffen , top Yale graduate. Samuel Mills was converted under his preaching and influenced by his missionary sermon “The Kingdom of Christ”

Samuel Mills:

Samuel Mills Mills distributed the sermon at Williams College, and this stimulated the famous haystack meeting. Started a group of “brethren” with idea of starting a missions group Mills was instrumental in starting the American Bible Society

The “haystack prayer meeting”:

The “haystack prayer meeting” In 1802, five men from Williams College met for prayer for a lost world. During a rainstorm, they sought shelter under a haystack. They committed themselves to become missionaries Adoniram Judson later joined them, and then became the first USA missionary

Monument at Williams College for haystack meeting:

Monument at Williams College for haystack meeting

Griffin starts a new seminary – Andover:

Griffin starts a new seminary – Andover Mills and his group connected to Andover Griffin suggested they start a mission group among Congregationalists Mills later stayed in the USA, goes to the frontier, noted the lack of Bibles, and asked Griffin to start a Bible society Later Timothy Dwight, grandson of Edwards, saw revival as Yale’s president

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson Brilliant, graduated valedictorian from Brown University at age 19. However, he was influenced by deist Jacob Eames and went to New York to be a playwright. He had no success, and stopped at an inn when he heard the terrible groans of James Eames, who he heard die.

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson His father and others started Andover seminary, and he attended as a special student and got saved. He vowed to be a missionary after hearing a British minister He went to get support under the London Missionary Society, but they did not want to fund an American missionary

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson He returned when he heard that the American board had received a sizeable inheritance He married Ann Nancy Hasseltine , who was truly called to missions 13 days later they headed for India, and en route made an extensive study of baptism. They were baptized by William Ward in Serempore

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson Luther Rice came to the same conclusion concerning baptism. Both resigned their board. Luther Rice went back to raise support through formation of a Baptist board. The congregationalists were upset, but the Baptists started a board and supported the Judsons

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson They were opposed by the East India Company, and finally went to Burma, Adoniram’s original choice where he was met by Felix Carey, who had started a translation; Ann miscarried on the trip Felix Carey and his wife soon left Burma Adoniram and his wife spent up to 12 hours a day studying Burmese. Ann learned the spoken language quickly, but her husband struggled with the written language.

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson Initial life in Burma very difficult The Burmese had Theravada Buddhism, the most difficult, and the king was despotic The war with Britain made things difficult, as did the weather and no European colony

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson He built a zayat as a place to speak to individuals and people began to come to listen to him After 7 years of work, he baptized his first convert

Zayat (right); initial convert:

Zayat (right); initial convert

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson His health was bad, and Judson went by ship to recover health and get reinforcements from Chittagong, but the ship never arrived, finally returning 8 months later. Opposed by the viceroy and initially by the emperor in Ava, accused of spying

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson When the British attacked Burma, they imprisoned Judson and Dr. Price, another missionary, as spies, placed them in the death prison and tortured them Ann visited repeatedly and pled for their lives – finally released after 18 months

Judson in prison:

Judson in prison

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson Judson was in intermediary between the British and Burmese. Before he could return to his wife, she died, and shortly thereafter, the baby Maria also died He became very depressed, built a hut, dug a grave, and sat contemplating death –

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson After 2 years, he recovered and started evangelizing with much greater results. He then translated the Bible over 14 years – two years initially with much revision work. His translation is still used as accurate today! Age 46 he married Sarah Boardman, age 30 whose husband died 3 years earlier. She gave birth to 8 children in 10 years - died after last one en route to the USA

Judson’s Burmese Bible:

Judson’s Burmese Bible

Adoniram Judson:

Adoniram Judson While in the states, he met Emily Chubbock , a young secular writer. He proposed that she write a book on Sarah Boardman Judson. He proposed a month later, and six months later they were married. They were in Burma only 3 years. They had one child. Adoniram died after 3 years while on a sea voyage for his health, and Emily died 3 years later age 36. His ministry was carried on for generations,

Emily Judson:

Emily Judson

George and Sarah Boardman:

George and Sarah Boardman George was moved by the death of a missionary working with Judson and decided to go to Burma. His future wife wrote a poem about the same man. He met her, and they married They arrived in Burma just after the British-Burma war completed

George and Sarah Boardman:

George and Sarah Boardman Pioneer work among the Karen people, who had a tradition that a man with a book would come to show them the truth. They accepted Boardman as that man George Boardman’s health deteriorated but he saw many saved He finally died of tuberculosis

George Boardman – baptisms as he watches dying of Tbc:

George Boardman – baptisms as he watches dying of Tbc

George and Sarah Boardman:

George and Sarah Boardman George died after 5 years. His wife stayed on starting a girl’s school, caring for a 2 year old, and three years later married Adoniram Judson. Her son was sent to the USA and became a pastor

Sarah Boardman:

Sarah Boardman After marriage, she had many children to care for She was also excellent in language and helped in translation work, hymns and other materials She lived to be 46, and gave birth to 8 children in 10 years She died en route to the USA

Ko Tha Byu:

Ko Tha Byu Their worker, Ko Tha Byu , a former murderer, was effective with a people’s movement which eventually led to 10,000 members He had been a murderer of at least 30 people. After training and baptism, he was a faithful pastor until his death, having seen over 1000 saved

Henry Martyn:

Henry Martyn Henry Martyn came to India as a chaplain for the East India Company. He was a brilliant student at Cambridge, with top honors in mathematics. He translated the New Testament into Hindustani, Persian & Arabic. With poor health, he went to Persia, but then continued in poor health and died en route to England at age 32.

Martyn’s translations:

Martyn’s translations Martyn was brilliant but also very well educated in languages. His Urdu translation is still a basis today He made an excellent translation into Persian, and good progress on Arabic

Henry Martyn:

Henry Martyn

Alexander Duff:

Alexander Duff Schools were large (peaked at 800), but had only 33 professions – however, they made a major impact as missionaries and ministers He left 4 children behind, and had little time for them when home in Scotland Hailed as missionary statesman for his controversial innovation

Alexander Duff:

Alexander Duff Duff succeeded in pushing English education in India, but did not result in many conversions. It may have stimulated reformed Hinduism He was brilliant and a scholar, but did not reckon with the Hindu culture and the need of reaching the heart as well as the head

Alexander Duff:

Alexander Duff Started Scottish Church college Instrumental in beginning Calcutta University Leader in the Free Church movement Did help in many other countries in later years A number of other missionaries imitated the methods of Duff

Alexander Duff and the Scottish Church College:

Alexander Duff and the Scottish Church College

John Clough:

John Clough Lone star mission unsuccessful, and when missionaries left nationals in charge, they were drunk and irresponsible They planned to close the mission, but at a prayer meeting, a touching poem was written and the mission prolonged.

John Clough:

John Clough John Clough evangelized at the Lone Star mission at Ongole , with perhaps 1,000,000 converts eventually. This mission was saved by prayer with revival starting 13 years after they arrived. Concentrated on the villages, used native structure, and native evangelists.

John Clough:

John Clough John Clough, an engineer, arrived, and looked to starting a school with the Brahmins A small group of Dalits walked 200 miles for baptism. The Brahmins said that they would pull out their children if he baptized the Dalits , who were genuinely saved.

John Clough:

John Clough He and his wife prayed apart, and God showed both the same text – I Cor. 1:27. He baptized, and the Brahmins left He changed the school to train Dalits for evangelization. There was a famine, and the British decided to build a canal

John Clough:

John Clough John bid on 4 miles of the canal, worked with his Dalits , and saved many from starvation. Many Dalits saved – perhaps 1,000,000 total over years. Once 2222 baptized in a single day School eventually did open, and some Brahmins joined them.

NT Times article:

NT Times article

James and Isabella Thoburn:

James and Isabella Thoburn James – methodist bishop with wife Isabella, his sister – educator Major problems for education – with caste structure and no desire to educate women First taught women in regular school Later opened the first woman’s college.

James Thoburn:

James Thoburn Later expanded into Burma, Singapore and the Philippine Islands,

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