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Ancient Ages : 

The symptoms of pneumonia were described by Hippocrates (c. 460 BC – 370 BC): Hippocrates referred to pneumonia as a disease "named by the ancients.” He also reported the results of surgical drainage of empyemas. Ancient Ages

Slide 4: 

Hippocrates(c. 460 BC – 370 BC):

Middle Ages : 

. Maimonides (1138–1204 AD) observed "The basic symptoms which occur in pneumonia and which are never lacking are as follows: acute fever, sticking [pleuritic] pain in the side, short rapid breaths, serrated pulse and cough.“ This clinical description is quite similar to those found in modern textbooks, and it reflected the extent of medical knowledge through the Middle Ages into the 19th century. Middle Ages



Early classification schemes : 

Initial descriptions of pneumonia focused on the anatomic or pathologic appearance of the lung, either by direct inspection at autopsy or by its appearance under a microscope. A lobar pneumonia is an infection that only involves a single lobe, or section, of a lung. Multilobar pneumonia involves more than one lobe, and it often causes a more severe illness. Bronchial pneumonia affects the lungs in patches around the tubes Interstitial pneumonia involves the areas in between the alveoli, and it may be called "interstitial pneumonitis." It is more likely to be caused by viruses or by atypical bacteria. Early classification schemes

Combined clinical classification : 

Combined clinical classification

Slide 9: 

Traditionally, clinicians have classified pneumonia by clinical characteristics, dividing them into "acute" (less than three weeks duration) and "chronic" pneumonias. Acute pneumonias are further divided into the classic bacterial bronchopneumonias (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae), the atypical pneumonias (such as the interstitial pneumonitis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae), and the aspiration pneumonia syndromes. Chronic pneumonias, on the other hand, mainly include those of Nocardia, Actinomyces and Blastomyces dermatitidis, as well as the granulomatous pneumonias (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria, Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioides immitis).

Health-care Associated Pneumonia : 

Health-care Associated Pneumonia

Microbial causes : 

Microbial causes

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