subjunctive and adverbial clauses

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 1 In Spanish, adverbial clauses are commonly introduced by conjunctions. Certain conjunctions require the subjunctive, while others can be followed by the subjunctive or the indicative, depending on the context. —Y me parece muy bien, cariño, pero para cuando salgas del instituto.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 2 Conjunctions that require the subjunctive Certain conjunctions are always followed by the subjunctive because they introduce actions or states that are uncertain or have not yet happened. These conjunctions commonly express purpose, condition, or intent. MAIN CLAUSE CONNECTOR SUBORDINATE CLAUSE No habrá justicia para las víctimas sin que encarcelen a los criminales . An adverbial clause ( cláusula adverbial ) is one that modifies or describes verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. It describes how, why, when, or where an action takes place. ¡ATENCIÓN!

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 3 El ejército siempre debe estar preparado en caso de que haya un ataque. The army must always be prepared, in case there is an attack. El presidente ganará las elecciones otra vez con tal de que no cometa un error. The president will win the election provided that he doesn’t make a mistake.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 4 If there is no change of subject in the sentence, always use the infinitive after the prepositions para and sin , and drop the que . La abogada investigará todos los detalles del caso para defender a su cliente. The lawyer will investigate every detail of the case in order to defend her client.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 5 The use of the infinitive without que when there is no change of subject is optional after the prepositions antes de , con tal de , and en caso de . After a menos que , however, always use the subjunctive. Debo leer sobre el candidato antes de votar por él. I must read about the candidate before voting for him. La senadora va a perder a menos que mejore su imagen. The senator is going to lose unless she improves her image.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 6 Conjunctions followed by the subjunctive or the indicative If the action in the main clause has not yet occurred, then the subjunctive is used after conjunctions of time or concession. — En cuanto te lo quites un rato, ni te acuerdas. Note that although después (de) que and luego (de) que both mean after , the latter expression is used less frequently in spoken Spanish. ¡ATENCIÓN!

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 7 Trabajaremos duro hasta que no haya más abusos de poder. We will work hard until there are no more abuses of power. Aunque mejore la seguridad, siempre tendrán miedo de viajar en avión. Even if security improves, they will always be afraid to travel by plane. Cuando hablen con la prensa, van a exigir la libertad para los prisioneros. When they speak with the press, they are going to demand freedom for the prisoners.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 8 If the action in the main clause has already happened, or happens habitually, then the indicative is used in the adverbial clause. Tan pronto como se supieron los resultados, el partido anunció su victoria. As soon as the results were known, the party announced its victory. Mi padre y yo siempre nos peleamos cuando hablamos de política. My father and I always fight when we talk about politics.

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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 6.1- 9 A pesar de , después de , and hasta can also be followed by an infinitive, instead of que + [ subjunctive ], when there is no change of subject. Algunos ladrones se reforman después de salir de la cárcel. Some thieves reform after leaving jail. Algunos ladrones se reforman después de que salen de la cárcel. Some thieves reform after they leave jail.

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