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Cell Organelles and their Functions:

Cell Organelles and their Functions


Cells Cells are the basic unit of all living things. IF IT IS ALIVE, IT HAS CELLS! Cell Theory: All organisms are made up of one or more cells The cell is the basic unit of all organisms all cells come from cells

Two Types of Cells:

Two Types of Cells

Parts in common:

Parts in common Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles DNA

Need Volunteers:

Need Volunteers Owner of a restaurant 1 waiter Need 6 guests

This is a prokaryotic cell:

This is a prokaryotic cell Is a single celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Its DNA is locked in the cytoplasm.

Four “Classes” of Eukaryotic Cells:

Four “Classes” of Eukaryotic Cells There are 4 classes of eukaryotic cells. Will only discuss 2; Plant & Animal cells - Plant cells Animal Cells

Cell Differentiation:

Cell Differentiation Each kind of cell has a DIFFERENT job to do…it is specialized. I am a heart cell! I am a skin cell I’m a Prison Cell! 

Restaurant :

Restaurant Need 13 volunteers 6 to the back 7 up front


When you hear the new vocabulary, just think of a TURTLE!

Cell Membrane:

Cell Membrane The cell membrane holds the cell together and allows nutrients into the cell. It’s just like a turtle’s skin - the cell membrane is on the edge of a cell.


Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is the watery gel (Jello!) inside a cell….it’s goop! It holds the ORGANelles. Cytoplasm is like the turtles blood and other liquids.


Mitochondria Mitochondria is an ORGANelle that releases energy from food. Every type of cell has a different amount of mitochondria. There are more mitochondria in cells that have to perform lots of work, for example - your leg muscle cells. Other cells need less energy to do their work and have less mitochondria. Mitochondria is like a turtle’s stomach.


Nucleus The nucleus controls the cell. It is the largest organelle in the cell and contains the cell’s DNA. The nucleus is like the turtle’s brain.


Nucleolus Inside the nucleus is another organelle called the nucleolus. It is responsible for making ribosomes. It is similar to all the neuron pathways inside a turtle’s brain.


Chromosomes Chromosomes are inside the nucleus and are made of genes (DNA). Genes decide the cells traits and activities (heart cell, eye cell - such as color).

Nuclear Membrane:

Nuclear Membrane The nuclear membrane allows substances to pass in and out of the nucleus. It surrounds the nucleus (the brain) like the turtle’s skull…protects it.


Vacuoles Vacuoles are spaces in the cytoplasm (gel) where food and chemicals are stored It’s like “fat” on a turtle I am NOT fat…I’m just a little plump!!

Endoplasmic Reticulum:

Endoplasmic Reticulum It is a network of membranes throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. It helps to move materials around the cell. It is much like the blood vessels throughout a turtle.

Golgi apparatus:

Golgi apparatus It is organelle in the cell that is responsible for sorting and correctly shipping the proteins produced in the ER. The Golgi apparatus are stacks of membrane-covered sacs. They also package proteins to be moved out of the cell. It’s like the digestive system of a turtle.  


Vesicles It is a small sac that surrounds material to be moved into or out of a cell


Ribosomes Organelles that help in the synthesis of proteins. Some ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm, but most are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. While attached to the ER, ribosomes make proteins that the cell needs and also ones to be exported from the cell for work elsewhere in the body.


Lysosomes Lysosomes function as the cell's recycling compartment. Lysosomes contain digestive chemicals that help break down food molecules, wastes, and worn out cell parts. It’s similar to the turtle’s digestive system! The lysosomes are stained RED!

Cell Wall:

Cell Wall Cell Walls are only in plant cells They make the cell strong and rigid They are like a turtle’s shell (but only plants have them…that’s why grass stands straight up!)


Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are only in plant cells They contain chlorophyll, which helps make energy/food from sunlight Chlorophyll is green in color. I’m green…do I have chloroplasts?

What’s the Difference?:

What’s the Difference? So what are two things that Plant cells have that animal cells don’t? ? Chloroplasts, vacuoles, & Cell Walls

Now, let’s review…:

Now, let’s review… Cell Membrane Cell Wall Chloroplasts Chromosomes Nuclear Membrane Nucleus Mitochondria Cytoplasm Vacuoles


This PowerPoint presentation has been adapted and modified by Dorothy Moore. Obtained from Biology PowerPoints: Cell Vocabulary, by Mr. Ryan submitted 12/09/06 at www.worldofteaching.com/biologypowerpoints.html

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