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Reconstruction : 

Reconstruction By: Brian Surkan U.S. History 7 The Walker School

Presidential Reconstruction1863-1865 : 

Presidential Reconstruction1863-1865 Lincoln believed South still part of the country Lincoln deeply respected in the Union Re-elected by a large majority in 1864 Proved himself during the war Seen as a conservative moderate Republican Sought forgiveness and healing Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863) Second inaugural address (March, 1865) Only 1/10 of voters in Confederate states need to pledge loyalty to the Constitution for readmission Would carry out Emancipation Proclamation Southern states would then be allowed to run own affairs 5/21/2009 2 Reconstruction

Lincoln’s Second Inaugural : 

Lincoln’s Second Inaugural “…With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” 5/21/2009 3 Reconstruction

Radical Republicans : 

Radical Republicans Increasingly significant portion of Congress Believed in punishing the South for… The war Lincoln’s death Insisted on setting the criteria for re-admission Majority of white males must pledge allegiance to the Constitution Constitutional Convention required to draft new Constitution for each Confederate state Qualifications for election / Constitutional Convention Never fought in the Civil War for the Confederates Never participated in Confederate politics De facto martial law in the South since War ended 5/21/2009 4 Reconstruction

President Andrew Johnson : 

President Andrew Johnson Southern Democrat Senator from Tennessee Only Southerner to stay in office after secession Lacked Lincoln’s wit, tact, warmth and established reputation “Crude, stubborn and argumentative” Distrusted as a southern Democrat Refused to call a special session of Congress Proposed to continue with Lincoln’s plan 5/21/2009 5 Reconstruction

Southern Resistance : 

Southern Resistance President Johnson asked Southern states to: Repudiate their war debts Nullify their ordinances of secession Adopt the 13th Amendment freeing slaves South Carolina repealed their secession laws Implied that secession had been legal MS Announced Slaves Freed by Union Army Refused to accept 13th Amendment SC and MS refused to repudiate their war debt 5/21/2009 6 Reconstruction

Southern Resistance (2) : 

Southern Resistance (2) Southern states passed Black Codes (laws) Blacks could not vote Blacks could not marry whites Blacks could not be witnesses in trials against whites Blacks restricted to agricultural or domestic jobs Vagrancy laws made finding new employment hard Former Confederates elected to political office Pardoned by President of the crime of rebellion Southerners had more representation than pre-war Republicans in Congress feared Democratic Party revival Republican tariffs and internal improvements would die 5/21/2009 7 Reconstruction

13th Amendment (12/6/1965) : 

13th Amendment (12/6/1965) 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 5/21/2009 Reconstruction 8

Congressional Reconstruction1866 – 1873 : 

Congressional Reconstruction1866 – 1873 Southern Congressmen shut out (Dec 1865) Southern States “had left” the Union by secession Congress created Committee of Reconstruction Led by Radical Thaddeus Stevens Joint committee of fifteen members To create a Congressional plan for Reconstruction Freedman’s Bureau Organization to educate and help freed blacks Helped refugees (black/white) get farms back into working order Built hospitals, provided food to refugees Built schools and colleges for blacks Sought to adjudicate discrimination trials (vetoed by A.J.) Sought to redistribute some land to former slaves 5/21/2009 9 Reconstruction

Congressional Reconstruction = Radical Reconstruction : 

Congressional Reconstruction = Radical Reconstruction Civil Rights Bill Federal government to protect black rights in the South Vetoed by Johnson as an intrusion on states’ rights Passed over Johnson’s Veto Johnson estranged moderate Republicans Joined Radicals to re-pass Freedman’s Bureau Bill Fourteenth Amendment Defined citizenship as being born in the USA Forbade citizens from being deprived of their rights Repudiated Southern War Debt Rejected former Confederates from Congress w/o pardon Representation reduced if all adult males can’t vote 5/21/2009 10 Reconstruction

14th Amendment (7/9/1968) : 

14th Amendment (7/9/1968) 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 5/21/2009 Reconstruction 11

14th Amendment (2) : 

14th Amendment (2) 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 5/21/2009 Reconstruction 12

Radical Reconstruction (2) : 

Radical Reconstruction (2) Only Tennessee agreed to 14th amendment 1866 Mid-term elections strengthened Radicals Turned to revenge, idealism and opportunism Military Reconstruction Old Confederacy divided into 5 military districts Each ruled by a Union General Re-organize each state: keep power in Republican hands Denied leading white citizens right to vote and hold office Stopped short of wholesale land distribution to blacks Passed the law over President Johnson’s Veto 5/21/2009 13 Reconstruction

Radical Reconstruction (3) : 

Radical Reconstruction (3) Congress tried to remove President’s powers Took away right to run the Army Tenure of Office Act President must seek Senate approval to fire officials President Johnson fired Secretary of War Stanton Congress attacks President House of Representatives impeached Johnson Senate failed to find him guilty by one vote Kept Congress from becoming a dictatorship Johnson’s power considerably diminished thereafter 5/21/2009 14 Reconstruction

President Grant : 

President Grant Ulysses S. Grant nominated for President 1868 “Wave the bloody shirt” campaign Black vote gave him a popular majority of votes New State Constitutions White majority state government in all but SC & LA Blacks in government sometimes illiterate Blacks very forgiving of their former owners “Scalawags”, “Carpetbaggers”, and Blacks Army “encouraged” Republican governments in South More corruption than former Southern governments Bigger government = more temptation for corruption 5/21/2009 15 Reconstruction

15th Amendment (2/3/1870) : 

15th Amendment (2/3/1870) 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 5/21/2009 Reconstruction 16

Forced Acceptance of Blacks : 

Forced Acceptance of Blacks Whites Southerners resented… Suffering inflicted during Total War Loss of slaves without compensation Lack of rights for prominent whites Martial law in the South Forced political prominence of blacks Loss of savings via repudiation of war debt Now that blacks were no longer property … No reason to treat them well Culminating frustration focused on blacks Whites sought to re-enact slavery in all but name 5/21/2009 17 Reconstruction

The New Slavery : 

The New Slavery Black codes restricted black freedoms Vigilante groups attacked random blacks… Klu Klux Klan Tennessee Pale Faces Louisiana Knights of the White Camelia North Carolina White Brotherhood Mississippi Society of the White Rose Texas Knights of the Rising Sun Red Jackets Knights of the Black Cross 5/21/2009 18 Reconstruction

Redemption, 1873-1877 : 

Redemption, 1873-1877 President Grant’s second term rife with scandal Crédit Mobilier – U.P. supply company (1873) Congress voted hefty raises to self, Pres., Court (1873) Later repealed as public found it very greedy President and Supreme Court kept raises Whiskey excise tax frauds (1874) Secretary of Navy received bribes (1876) Resigned before Senate finished impeaching him Panic of 1873 Excessive indebtedness from War debts Fires in Chicago (1871) and Boston (1872 ) RR Bond failures at Jay Cooke’s investment firm 5/21/2009 19 Reconstruction

End of Reconstruction : 

End of Reconstruction Election of 1876 disputed Electoral votes: Hayes (R) 165 / Tilden (D) 184 20 disputed votes w/two conflicting counts Republican electoral commission gave all to Hayes Democrat-dominated House cut a deal w/Hayes All Federal troops to leave south At least one Southerner in his Cabinet Hayes to support generous spending to improve South Whites still racist, but… Many tried to compromise to mutual advantage Blacks wooed to become Democrats in South Blacks elected to every Congress but one until 1900 5/21/2009 20 Reconstruction

Segregation Increases : 

Segregation Increases Older generation of slave owners fades South states except MS/SC segregate schools Other public places, transport mixed Informal segregation slowly appears in 1880s Populist period legalized segregation Created “Jim Crow” laws Supreme Court blessed segregation Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “Separate but equal” is Constitutional 5/21/2009 21 Reconstruction

Reconstruction : 

Reconstruction By: Brian Surkan U.S. History 7 The Walker School

Sources : 

Sources A History of the United States – D. Boorstin 5/21/2009 23 Reconstruction

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