The Great War v03

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World War I Presentation

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The Great War:

The Great War Brian Surkan The Walker School

Class Roles:

Class Roles Real-time Student Researcher Note-taker on board Student Blog: Pre-registered class summary blogger Additional spontaneous summary bloggers Class homework blogger All students: Take notes during process Contribute to discussion

Country Roles:

Country Roles Russian Empire United Kingdom Canada Egypt ANZAC (Australia New Zealand Army Corps) USA France Italy Belgium Germany Switzerland Austro-Hungarian Empire Serbia Ottoman Empire Japan Arabs (middle east, esp. Saudi Arabia )

Introduction for Teachers:

Introduction for Teachers Rules of Engagement Be yourselves. Don’t try to be students. Thought processes are as important as the actual events Feel free to contribute and add clarification as we progress. I invite my students to do the same. Suggestions are welcome – note them during lesson and will can debrief afterwards

Significance:

Significance Singularly divides 19 th and 20 th centuries First Industrialized War Primary cause of WWII Reformed governments Lost Generation Old Military Tactics + New Technology

Causes:

Causes National / Dictator Pride Revenge Fear of Change / Democracy Belief in short, brief, victorious war

Catalysts:

Catalysts War Fever Propaganda National Pride Momentum Fear of Losing Honor / Land / Loved Ones Social Class Discord Colonial Considerations

Stages:

Stages Pre-War Posturing Optimistic Beginnings Drudgery / War of Attrition Allied Optimism – American Entry Utter Defeat – Unconditional Surrender Allied Revenge – Treaty of Versailles German Revenge – WWII

Exploring the Context:

Exploring the Context

Questions to Ponder about WWI:

Questions to Ponder about WWI Previous European Wars What did they fight over? How did they end? What might have caused WWI? What might have made it into a “World War”? What assumptions about the War might countries have made at the outset? Why was it so deadly? Why did it last so long? What might it have been called at that time? What is its significance in history?

Why Fight?:

Why Fight?

Safety in Alliances?:

Safety in Alliances?

Protection?:

Protection?

Show Joyeux Noël opening Warmonger Poems:

Show Joyeux Noël opening Warmonger Poems

Choose a Country:

Choose a Country

Country Profiles:

Country Profiles Profiles © John D Clare, 1995 Borrowed from his WWI 7 Causes Simulation

Great Britain (1):

Great Britain (1) 19th Century Britain believed in `Splendid Isolation' - not getting involved in European quarrels, and building up the British Empire overseas. 1901 As the international situation became more tense, British politicians approached Germany to be an ally, but negotiations failed. Meanwhile, the British public were furious when the Germans supported the Boers during the Boer War of 1899-1902. 1902 Britain made a Treaty with Japan; this meant that Britain did not need to keep a large navy in the Pacific. 1904 After a series of problems in the colonies with France, Britain made an Entente (` Friendly Agreement') with France .

Great Britain (2):

Great Britain (2) 1909 The British were scared by the increase the size of the German navy since 1900. They built eight new 'Dreadnought' warships. 1911 Agadir Crisis: Wilhelm II sent warship to French Morocco, Britain mobilised her navy for war. Germany backed down. 2 Aug 1914 Germany declared war on France, going through Belgium. Asquith, the British Prime Minister explained British reasoning: We must not forget the ties created by our long-standing and intimate friendship with France. We have obligations to Belgium to prevent it being used and taken over by Germany [by the Treaty of Belgian Neutrality, 1839]”.

Germany (1):

Germany (1) 1872 German unification (1872) 1882 The Triple Alliance was formed between Germany, Austria and Italy. 1889 Kaiser Wilhelm II came to the throne. He was moody and unstable. One German politician thought he was mad. He wanted `a place in the sun' for Germany. 1900 German Navy Law: began to build up the German navy to 38 battleships and 60 cruisers .

Germany (2):

Germany (2) 18 July 1914 The Germans noticed that the Russia army was growing stronger. In Germany the fear grew that they would one day be overrun by the Russians - the ‘barbarians from the east’. Jagow , the German Foreign Secretary warned : “ In a few years, according to the experts, Russia will be ready to attack. Then she will crush us with her numbers ... I do not want a war of prevention. But when there is an opportunity for battle we must not run away.” 31 July 1914 Many Germans came to believe that it was best to go to war NOW, before Russia grew any stronger. Helmuth von Moltke , the German General, openly said : “We are ready, and the sooner the better for us.”

Austro-Hungarian Empire (1):

Austro-Hungarian Empire (1) 1908 Austria-Hungary was the `Polyglot Empire' - the Empire of many languages. It was ruled from Vienna in Austria, by people who spoke German, but the empire contained also Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Italians, Rumanians, Serbs and Croats. In the Balkans in south-east Europe the Serbs, Bulgars and Rumanians were fighting to gain their independence. Austrians were afraid that these new states would attack Austria. In 1908, to try and halt this problem, Austria captured Bosnia and annexed it.

Austro-Hungarian Empire (2):

Austro-Hungarian Empire (2) 1912-13 During the Balkan Wars, Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria attacked Turkey and took most of Turkey's land in Europe. The Serbian Prime Minister Pasic said: "The first round is won. Now for the second round - against Austria". Talk like this frightened Austria. Aehrenthal (the Austrian Foreign Minister) said: Our enemies are encircling us, in front of our eyes, in broad daylight ... a Balkan League is being set up, led by Russia, against the Austrian Empire". 1914 The heir to the Austrian throne was murdered at Sarajevo. The Austrians believed that Serbia had arranged it. They wanted to `set an example' to the nationalists by attacking and destroying Serbia .

Russian Empire (1):

Russian Empire (1) 1904 Russo Japanese War Russia was humiliated, defeated and bankrupted by tiny Japan. 1908 Austria annexes Bosnia Russia had always thought of herself as the Defender of the Slavs. Austria's attack took her by complete surprise. Russia did nothing to help the Slavs. 1912 Balkan Wars Serbia , Greece and Bulgaria attacked and defeated Turkey. But then the Austrians forced Serbia to give up Albania, which it had conquered. Russia did nothing to help Serbia. The Serbs were angry with Russia. Russia could not afford to let them down again. The Balkans were important to Russia, firstly because she wanted to appear still to be a world power, and secondly because she wanted to be able to ensure that her ships could enter the Mediterranean through the Black Sea .

Russian Empire (2):

Russian Empire (2) 23 July 1914 Austria sent an Ultimatum to Serbia about the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. It was clear that they intended to attack. Next day, the Russian ministers held a Council Meeting with the Tzar . Sazonov , the Chancellor, warned : “ Germany has made careful preparations, so she can increase her power in Central Europe. She wants to be able to carry out her wishes in all international questions.” And Krivoshein , the Minister for Farming argued : “ Conditions had improved greatly in Russia in the last ten years. The public and Parliament would not be able to understand why the government had not acted boldly, at this important time for Russia's future . . .” Meanwhile , Tzar Nicholas saw a moral issue : “ An unjust war has been declared on a weak country. I share in all Russia's anger at this. I foresee that very soon I shall be forced into war by the pressure being put on me .”

France (1):

France (1) 1870 France lost the war between the German states and France. The French were defeated. France lost the Rhine provinces Alsace and Lorraine. The French wanted revenge. Victor Hugo, the French author, wrote : “ France will have only one thought, to get her forces back together, feed her holy anger, bring up her young children to become again a great France . . . the France of an idea with a sword. Then we will take back Alsace Lorraine.” 1904 As Germany grew more powerful, France realised that she could never fight Germany alone. She agreed the Entente Cordiale (`Friendly Agreement') with Britain .

France (2):

France (2) 1906 Algericas Crisis Kaiser Wilhelm claimed that Morocco should not be a French colony. Britain promised troops if it came to war. 1911 Agadir Crisis The French army was helping the Sultan of Morocco defeat some rebels. Germany objected and sent the gunship Panther into Agadir harbour . The British navy prepared for war, and Germany backed down. 1914 The French thought that the murder of Franz Ferdinand would drag them into war. Poincare, the French President, came from Alsace-Lorraine, and he wanted a chance to get the provinces back . The French General Joffre also was ready for war if it came : “ Certainly, I think war is unavoidable . . . I have always thought so. It will come. I shall fight it and I shall win .”

Major Events:

Major Events

Conduct Beginning of War Simulation using handouts:

Conduct Beginning of War Simulation using handouts

Archduke Franz Ferdinand:

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

First Battle of Alsace – 7 Aug. ‘14:

First Battle of Alsace – 7 Aug. ‘14

B.E.F. Lands in Belgium: Aug/Sep:

B.E.F. Lands in Belgium: Aug/Sep

Battle of Tannenberg – Aug 23:

Battle of Tannenberg – Aug 23

Students Design Trenches:

Students Design Trenches

Trench War at Marne: Sep. 1914:

Trench War at Marne: Sep. 1914

Ottoman Enter – October 29:

Ottoman Enter – October 29

Battle of Falkland Islands – Dec 8:

Battle of Falkland Islands – Dec 8

Christmas Truce – 25 Dec 1914:

Christmas Truce – 25 Dec 1914

London: Zeppelins – Jan 1915:

London: Zeppelins – Jan 1915 ~500 killed in 52 raids

U-Boot Blockade – Feb 1915:

U-Boot Blockade – Feb 1915

Verdun: Feb – Dec 1916:

Verdun: Feb – Dec 1916 Casualties French – 337k (162k dead) German – 337k (100k dead)

Ypres II: Chlorine – 22 April ‘15:

Ypres II: Chlorine – 22 April ‘15 Cumulative Gas Use Germans – 68k tons French – 36k tons British – 25k tons Gas Casualties Germans – 200k (3k died) French – 190k (8k died) British – 189k (8k died) Russia – 419k (56k died)

Gallipoli – 25 April 1915:

Gallipoli – 25 April 1915 Casualties Allied – 265k (46k dead) Turks – 218k (66k dead)

Lusitania – 15 May 1915:

Lusitania – 15 May 1915 On Board: Crew: 694 Passengers: 1,265 (197 US) Total Deaths: 1198 (128 US)

Italy Declares War – 23 May 1915:

Italy Declares War – 23 May 1915

US Occupies Haiti – 28 July 1915:

US Occupies Haiti – 28 July 1915

Allies land in Greece: 3 Oct 1915:

Allies land in Greece: 3 Oct 1915

Villa in Columbus: 9 Mar 1916:

Villa in Columbus: 9 Mar 1916

1st Depth Charge Kill: 22 Mar ‘16:

1 st Depth Charge Kill: 22 Mar ‘16

Sussex Pledge – 4 May 1916:

Sussex Pledge – 4 May 1916

Jutland – 31 May – 1 June:

Jutland – 31 May – 1 June British: 151 ships (14 lost) Germans: 99 ships (11 lost)

Somme – July - Nov 1916:

Somme – July - Nov 1916

Tanks – Sept. 1916:

Tanks – Sept. 1916 Little Willie Big Willie

Zimmerman Note – Jan 1917:

Zimmerman Note – Jan 1917

Tsar Nicholas II Abdicates – Feb:

Tsar Nicholas II Abdicates – Feb Rasputin

U.S. Declares War – April 1917:

U.S. Declares War – April 1917 Wilson

To Russia With Love – April 1917:

To Russia With Love – April 1917

War at Home: Propaganda:

War at Home: Propaganda

Doughboys: Western Front – Oct:

Doughboys: Western Front – Oct

Battle of Beersheba – 31 Oct ‘17:

Battle of Beersheba – 31 Oct ‘17

Communist Revolution – Nov ‘17:

Communist Revolution – Nov ‘17 Lenin Karl Marx Trotsky

Brest-Litovsk Treaty – Dec 1917:

Brest-Litovsk Treaty – Dec 1917

If you were President Wilson, what conditions / objectives would you propose for the end of the War?:

If you were President Wilson, what conditions / objectives would you propose for the end of the War?

Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Jan ‘18:

Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Jan ‘18 Open covenants of peace, not secret agreements Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas Free Trade: The removal of all economic barriers Arms reduction to minimum required for defense Impartial adjustment of colonial claims Return of Russian Lands Restoration of Belgian nation Restoration of French territory, w/Alsace-Lorraine Italian borders adjusted along lines of nationality Split up Austro-Hungarian Empire along lines of nationality Balkan states restored to independence Turkish portion of Ottoman Empire restored Poland restored Create International Government Body (League of Nations)

Red Baron Killed – 22 April 1918:

Red Baron Killed – 22 April 1918 Baron von Richthoven

Nicholas II Murdered – July 1918:

Nicholas II Murdered – July 1918

Reds v. Whites – Aug. 1918:

Reds v. Whites – Aug. 1918

Armistice – 11 Nov 1918:

Armistice – 11 Nov 1918

Outcomes:

Outcomes

How much of World Involved:

How much of World Involved

Versailles Treaty – 28 June 1919:

Versailles Treaty – 28 June 1919

Humiliation:

Humiliation “…Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied … Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.” - Treaty of Versailles - Article 231

Reparations:

Reparations “...Allied…Governments, however, require, and Germany undertakes, that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allied …Powers and to their property during the period of the belligerency…” - Treaty of Versailles - Article 232

New Country Borders – 1919:

New Country Borders – 1919

League of Nations:

League of Nations

Post WWI Changes:

Post WWI Changes Rigid Social Classes -> Democracy Monarchy -> Democracy Democracy -> Socialism Offensive Weapons / Tactics Developed Unconditional Surrender Popularized Women Performed “Men’s” Work

Sources:

Sources http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/timeline/time_1914.html http:// info.stylee32.net/Weapons%20and%20Military/Trench%20Warfare.jpg http:// cache2.artprintimages.com/lrg/29/2934/TGCRD00Z.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WWIchartX.svg

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