World War I v03

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World War I:

World War I By: Brian Surkan

Rise of Germany:

Rise of Germany German Confederation – Deutscher Bund (1815) Loose association of Germanic states led by Austria Replaced Holy Roman empire Napoleonic Wars Bismarck Becomes Prime Minister of Prussia (1862) Austro-Prussian War (1866) Austro-Hungarian Empire v. Kingdom of Prussia & Allies Required Prussian military service of 3 years -> Army Prussian used Breech-loading Rifles / Austrians not Prussians leveraged the RR to muster troops & supplies

Alliances of Austro-Prussian War:

Alliances of Austro-Prussian War

Uniting North and South Germany:

Uniting North and South Germany Establish a Common Enemy: France Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) Bismarck tried to put his relative on Spanish Throne Napoleon III of France objected Insulting telegram created by Bismarck France declares war (July 17, 1870) French lost, Napoleon III deposed German States United France loses Alsace & Loraine / Pays reparations Bismarck


Alliances Treaty of London (1839) Obliged Britain to defend Belgian neutrality Italian Unification (1870) Triple Alliance (1881) Germany / Austro-Hungarian Empire / Italy Agreed to help one another if attacked Africa Partitioned into Spheres of Influence (1884-1885) Among 15 European Nations Secret Franco-Italian Alliance Italy to remain neutral if Germany attacked France Triple Entente (1907) Russia / Britain / France Moral obligation of aid in case of war

Preliminary Skirmishes (1904-13):

Preliminary Skirmishes (1904-13) Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) Russia embarrassed by quick victory of Japan Demonstrated Russian military weakness Destroyed Russian fleet in East Revolution in Russia against Tsar, Nicholas II (1905) Tsar seeks to unite Russian people via military conquest Italy v. Ottoman Empire (1912) Ottomans lost Libya, Rhodes, Dodecanese Islands to Italy First and Second Balkan War (1912-13) Ottomans lost all of its European possessions, incl. Greece

Tinder for the Fire:

Tinder for the Fire Alliances Nationalism Italy and Germany united in 1871 Increasing Worldwide focus on patriotism Mercantilism (Protectionism & Colonialism) Mercantilism Export more than you import, collect the gold Colonialism / Imperialism Africa and East Asia – Italy and Germany left out

Colonization in 1900:

Colonization in 1900

Europe in 1914 :

Europe in 1914

Monarchy v. Socialism:

Monarchy v. Socialism Many monarchs weak and threatened Austro-Hungarian Empire Ottoman Empire Russia Germany Italy Socialism & Populism on the rise Communist Manifesto published in 1848 Initiative / Referendum / Recall Direct election of Senators (Amendment 17 – 1913) Anti-industry legislation like the Anti-trust laws

Trigger Events (1914):

Trigger Events (1914) Archduke Ferdinand Assassinated (June 28) By a Serb nationalist in Sarajevo Austria demands to seek out terrorists in Serbia Serbia hesitates and is offered Russian Support Austria Declares War on Serbia (July 28) Russia Mobilizes to help Serbia Germany Declares War on Russia (August 1) Germany Declares War on France (August 3) Britain Declares War on Germany (August 4) Japan Declares War on Germany (August 23)

German Schlieffen Plan:

German Schlieffen Plan Tackle two fronts: Russia and France Conquer France before Russia Mobilizes via (neutral) Belgium "letting the last man on the right, brush the Channel with his sleeve,“ No offensive via Alsace-Loraine Focus on Russia once France Subdued False Assumptions Britain would not help Belgium as promised in 1839 Russia would take six weeks to mobilize for first attack

French: Plan XVII:

French: Plan XVII Relied on French élan vital fighting spirit capable of turning back any enemy by its sheer power Focused on recapturing Alsace-Loraine Threat of British involvement 1839 Treaty deterrent to invasion via Belgium Minimal defenses required on Belgium border Neglected possibility of Germans using Reserves French did not trust their own reserves

Schlieffen and Plan XVII Map:

Schlieffen and Plan XVII Map

Key Events (1914-15):

Key Events (1914-15) 1914 August 4 – Germany invades Belgium August 23 – Austria invades Russia October 29 – Ottoman Empire joins Germany December – Christmas Truce 1915 Feb 4 – Germany declares U-boat blockade of Britain March 11 – Britain declares blockade of German ports April 26 – Italy signs secret treaty with Allies May 7 – Lusitania sinks w/U.S. Passengers May 23 – Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary

Key Events (1916):

Key Events (1916) March 24 – Germany sinks French ship Sussex May 4 – Germany ceases submarine warfare July 29 – U.S. Marines land in Haiti Sep 15 – Tanks introduced by British Oct 15 – Germany resumes U-boat attacks Nov 29 – US Occupation of Santa Domingo Dec 12 – Germany issues peace note Dec 18 – Wilson requests objectives of belligerents

Key Events (1917):

Key Events (1917) February 1 – Germany resumes unrestricted UBoats February 24 – Zimmerman Note to U.S. from U.K. March 15 – Tsar Nicholas II abdicates in Russia April 6 – U.S. declares war on Germany April 16 – Germans take Lenin from Switz. to Russia June 15 – U.S. Espionage Act Passed Nov 7 – Bolshevik Revolution brings Lenin to power

Key Events (1918 - 19):

Key Events (1918 - 19) 1918 January 8 – Wilson’s 14 Points Speech to Congress May 25 – U-boat appears in U.S. waters Nov 11 – Armistice Day – Fighting Ends 1919 Jan 10 – Communist revolt in Berlin May 7 – June 28 – Treaty of Versailles draft & signed July 21 – German fleet scuttled at Scapa Flow

Wilson’s Fourteen Points:

Wilson’s Fourteen Points Open covenants of peace, not secret agreements Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas Free Trade: The removal of all economic barriers Arms reduction to minimum required for defense Impartial adjustment of colonial claims Return of Russian Lands Restoration of Belgian nation Restoration of French territory, w/Alsace-Lorraine Italian borders adjusted along lines of nationality Split up Austro-Hungarian Empire along Balkan states restored to independence Turkish portion of Ottoman Empire restored Poland restored Create International Government Body (League of Nations)

Europe in 1920:

Europe in 1920

World Governments in 1922:

World Governments in 1922

New Weapons & Technology:

New Weapons & Technology Poison Gas Machine guns (small and large) Tanks (British initially) Submarines ( Unterseeboote – U- Boote ) Airplanes (reconnaissance, dogfights and bombing) Trains (key for supplies and troop movements) Radio (with encryption) Aircraft carriers Flamethrowers ( Flamenwerfer ) Trench Mortars


Tactics Defensive Trench Warfare perfected Machine guns mastered Land mines Offensive Warfare Improved Air warfare / reconnaissance Mechanized warfare (tanks & planes) Submarines Flamethrower Mortars Poison Gas

How did WWI Change our World:

How did WWI Change our World Europe broken down into smaller countries Ethnicity WAS NOT strictly respected Treaty of Versailles ( Versaillesdiktat ) Based on unconditional surrender Losers not invited to treaty Germany solely deemed responsible for war Heavy cash reparations demanded of Germany End of Large, Despotic Monarchies Socialism/Communism became increasingly popular Offensive War Tactics / Technologies come of age Unconditional Surrender Becomes Popular League of Nations

How much of World Involved:

How much of World Involved



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