unit -2 datalink layer

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CCN unit 2 PPT for VTU students by Prof.Suresha V

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1 COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS SURESHA V Professor,Dept . of E&C KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia . Visvesvaraya Technological University(VTU) Belgaum-590 014.karnataka State. INDIA e-mail: [email protected] Mobile : +91 94485 24399

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2 U NIT- T WO D ata L ink L ayer Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327

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3 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia , D.K - 574 327 INTRODUCTION Vinton Cerf Vint Cerf in  Vilnius , September 2010. Born June 23, 1943 (age 68) New Haven, Connecticut Residence USA Citizenship United States of America Fields Computer science Institutions IBM , [1]   UCLA , [1]   Stanford University , [1] DARPA , [1]   MCI , [1][2]   CNRI , [1]   Google [3] Alma mater Stanford University ,  UCLA Known for TCP/IP Internet Society Notable awards National Medal of Technology Presidential Medal of Freedom Turing Award Farther of Internet Prof. Vinton Cerf

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4 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia , D.K - 574 327 Provides a well-defined service interface to the network layer. Determines how the bits of the physical layer are grouped into frames (framing) . Deals with transmission errors (CRC and ARQ) . Regulates the flow of frames. Performs general link layer management. T he two main functions of the data link layer are: Data Link Control(DLC) : It deals with the design and procedures for communication b/w nodes: node-to-node communication. Media Access Control(MAC): It explain how to share the link. 1 . Data Link Control (DLC): Data link control functions includes Framing. Flow Control. Error Control. Above functions are software implemented protocols that provide smooth and reliable transmission of frames between nodes. INTRODUCTION

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5 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Divide the bit stream in to group of bits and attach checksum called Framing. The data link layer needs to pack bits into frames , so that each frame is distinguishable from another. Framing in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to other destinations, by adding a sender address and a destination address. The destination address defines where the packet is to go; the sender address helps the recipient acknowledge the receipt. 1.FRAMING

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6 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Frames of Two Categories (1). Fixed-Size Framing Size of the frame is fixed. In fixed-size framing, there is no need for defining the boundaries of the frames, the size itself can be used as a delimiter. It is used in the ATM wide-area network, which uses frames of fixed size called cells. (2) .Variable Size Framing Size of the frame is not fixed. In variable-size framing, need a way to define the end of the frame and the beginning of the next. It is used in local area networks. Historically, two approaches were used for this purpose: (1). Character-oriented approach (2). Bit-oriented approach. Cont’d……

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7 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Character-oriented framing approach In a character-oriented approach, data to be carried are 8-bit characters from a coding system such as ASCII. The header, which normally carries the source and destination addresses and other control information. Trailer carries error detection or error correction redundant bits , are also multiples of 8 bits . To separate one frame from the next, an 8-bit (1-byte) flag is added at the beginning and the end of a frame. The flag, composed of protocol-dependent special characters , signals the start or end of a frame. Figure : shows the format of a frame in a character-oriented protocol 1.FRAMING (cont…)

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8 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1.1 Character-oriented framing approach (cont’d…) ( for reference only) A character stream. (a) Without errors. (b) With one error. 1.FRAMING (cont…)

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9 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Advantage: 1 .Simple framing method. 2. Character-oriented framing was popular when only text was exchanged by the data link layers. 3. The flag could be selected to be any character not used for text communication. Disadvantage: What if the count is garbled. Even if with checksum, the receiver knows that the frame is bad there is no way to tell where the next frame starts. Asking for retransmission doesn’t help either because the start of the retransmitted frame is not known. 4. Hence No longer used. Cont’d……

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10 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1.2 Starting and ending character with byte stuffing Byte stuffing is the process of adding 1 extra byte whenever there is a flag or escape character in the text. Figure : Byte stuffing and unstuffing Cont’d……

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11 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1.2 Starting and ending character with byte stuffing (cont’d….) Fig: Framing with byte stuffing Problem : fixed character size : assumes character size to be 8 bits : can’t handle heterogeneous environment . 1.FRAMING (cont…)

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12 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Bit-Oriented framing approach Bit stuffing is the process of adding one extra 0 whenever five consecutive 1’s follow a 0 in the data, so that the receiver does not mistake the pattern 0111110 for a flag. Most protocols use a special 8-bit pattern flag 01111110 as the delimiter to define the beginning and the end of the frame, as shown in Figure below This flag can create the same type of problem.That is, if the flag pattern appears in the data, we need to somehow inform the receiver that this is not the end of the frame. We do this by stuffing 1 single bit (instead of I byte) to prevent the pattern from looking like a flag. The strategy is called bit stuffing. Figure : A frame in a bit-oriented protocol 1.FRAMING (cont…)

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13 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1.2 Bit-Oriented framing approa ch (cont’d….) Bit stuffing is the process of adding one extra 0 whenever five consecutive 1s follow a 0 in the data, so that the receiver does not mistake the pattern 0111110 for a flag. Figure : Bit stuffing and unstuffing 1.FRAMING (cont…)

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14 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1.2 Bit-Oriented framing approach (cont’d….) Fig: Framing with bit stuffing (a) The original data. (b) The data as they appear on the line. (c) The data as they are stored in receiver’s memory after destuffing. 1.FRAMING (cont…)

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15 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 2 . The most important responsibilities of the data link layer are Flow Control Error Control . Collectively, these functions are known as Data Link Control (DLC) . Flow Control Flow Control is a technique for speed matching of transmitter and receiver. Flow control ensures that a transmitting station does not overflow a receiving station with data Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment. Two types of flow control: Feedback based & Rate based flow control . 2. FLOW AND ERROR CONTROL

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16 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 2 . 2. Error Control Error control is both error detection and error correction . It allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damaged in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. Error control in the data link layer is based on automatic repeat request (ARQ) which is the retransmission of data. 2. FLOW AND ERROR CONTROL

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17 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Here it explains how the data link layer can combine framing, flow control, and error control to achieve the delivery of data from one node to another. The protocols are normally implemented in software by using one of the common programming languages. Figure shows Taxonomy of protocols are used in data link lay er 3 . DATA LINK PROTOCOLS ***

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18 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.1.1 Simplest Protocol (unrestricted ideal protocol) The following assumption has been made for developing the (algorithm) simplex protocol The channel is a perfect noiseless channel. Hence an ideal channel in which no frames are lost, duplicated, or corrupted. No flow control and error control used. It is a unidirectional protocol in which data frames are traveling in only one direction- from the sender to receiver. Both transmitting and receiving network layer are always ready. Processing time that is small enough to be negligible. Infinite buffer space is available. 3.1 DATA LINK PROTOCOLS FOR NOISELESS CHANNELS (Flow control protocols)

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19 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Design : Figure shows The design of the simplest protocol with no flow or error control 3.1.1 Simplest Protocol (unrestricted ideal protocol) cont’d……

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20 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Algorithms for Simplest Protocol Algorithm 3.1 shows the procedure at the sender site. Algorithm 3.1 Sender-site algorithm for the simplest protocol 3.1.1 Simplest Protocol (unrestricted ideal protocol) cont’d……

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21 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Algorithms for Simplest Protocol Algorithm 3.2 shows the procedure at the receiver site. Algorithm 3. 2 Receiver-site algorithm for the simplest protocol 3.1.1 Simplest Protocol (unrestricted ideal protocol) cont’d……

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22 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 4 . Example for simplex protocol Figure below shows an example of communication using this protocol. It is very simple. The sender sends a sequence of frames without even thinking about the receiver. To send three frames, three events occur at the sender site and three events at the receiver site. Figure : Flow diagram for above Example 3.1.1 Simplest Protocol (unrestricted ideal protocol) cont’d……

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23 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Efficiency analysis 3.1.1 Simplest Protocol (unrestricted ideal protocol) cont’d…… Transmission in one direction The receiver is always ready to receive the next frame (has infinite buffer storage). Error-free communication channel. No acknowledgments or retransmissions used. If frame has d data bits and h overhead bits, channel bandwidth b bits/second: Maximum Channel Utilization = data size / frame size = d / ( d + h ) Maximum Data Throughput = d / ( d + h ) * channel bandwidth = d / ( d + h ) * b Data Frame 1 Data Frame 2 Data Frame 3 Data Frame 4 Data Frame 5 Data Frame 6 Sender Receiver One way Channel delay or latency l Frame transmission time = ( d+h ) / b where b = channel bandwidth : : : : : :

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24 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1. The following assumption has been made for developing the (algorithm) Stop-and- Wait Protocol The channel is a perfect noiseless channel. Flow control used It is a bidirectional protocol in which frames are traveling in both direction Both transmitting and receiving network layer are always not ready. Processing time considerable Finite buffer space is available 3.1.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol (simplex)

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25 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.1.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol (Simplex ) cont… c Simplex: Data transmission in one direction The receiver may not be always ready to receive the next frame (finite buffer storage). Receiver sends a positive acknowledgment frame to sender to transmit the next data frame. Error-free communication channel assumed. No retransmissions used. Maximum channel utilization » (time to transmit frame /round trip time) * d / ( d + h ) » d / (b * R) Maximum data throughput » Channel Utilization * Channel Bandwidth » d/ (b * R) * b = d / R Data Frame 1 Sender Receiver Acknowledgment Frame Data Frame 2 Acknowledgment Frame Round trip time, R Time

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26 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 2. Design Figure shows Design of Stop-and-Wait Protocol 3.1.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol (cont’d…)

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27 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3. Algorithms Algorithm 3.1 Sender-site algorithm for the Stop-and-Wait Protocol 3.1.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol (cont’d…)

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28 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 2. Algorithms Algorithm 3.2 shows the procedure at the receiver site. Algorithm 3. 2 Receiver-site algorithm for the Stop-and-Wait Protocol 3.1.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol (cont’d…)

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29 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 4. Example for Stop-and-Wait protocol The sender sends one frame and waits for feedback from the receiver. When the ACK arrives, the sender sends the next frame. Note that sending two frames in the protocol involves the sender in four events and the receiver in two events. Figure : Flow diagram for above Example 3.1.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol (cont’d…)

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30 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Stop-and-Wait Protocol gives us an idea of how to add flow control. Noiseless channels are nonexistent, hence error occur. We discuss three protocols in this section that use error control. Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat Request(ARQ) *** Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) *** Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) *** Automatic Repeat Request(ARQ) Purpose : To ensure a sequence of information packets is delivered in order and without errors or duplications despite transmission errors & losses 3.2 DATA LINK PROTOCOLS NOISY CHANNELS ( Flow&Error control protocols)

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31 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 For noisy link, pure stop and wait protocol will break down , and solution is to incorporate some error control mechanism Stop and wait with ARQ : Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ), an error control method , is incorporated with stop and wait flow control protocol If error is detected by receiver, it discards the frame and send a negative ACK (NAK), causing sender to re-send the frame. In case a frame never got to receiver, sender has a timer: each time a frame is sent, timer is set ! If no ACK or NAK is received during timeout period, it re-sends the frame Timer introduces a problem: Suppose timeout and sender retransmits a frame but receiver actually received the previous transmission ! receiver has duplicated copies. To avoid receiving and accepting two copies of same frame , frames and ACKs are alternatively labeled 0 or 1: ACK0 for frame 1, ACK1 for frame 0 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol***

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32 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 NOTE: An important link parameter is defined by a = propagation time / frame time = R d / V L where R = data rate (bps) d = link distance (m) V = propagation velocity (m/s) L = frame Length (bits) 2. Error correction in Stop-and-Wait ARQ is done by keeping a copy of the sent frame and retransmitting of the frame when the timer expires 3. In Stop-and-Wait ARQ, use sequence numbers to number the frames. 4. The sequence numbers are based on modulo-2 arithmetic . 5. In Stop-and-Wait ARQ, the acknowledgment number always announces in modulo-2 arithm etic the sequence number of the next frame expected. 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont..)

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33 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1. 2 Design ( Figure shows Design of the Stop-and-Wait ARQ Protocol ) 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol (cont…)

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34 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) protocol ( cont,d …) Algorithm : Sender-site algorithm for Stop-and-Wait ARQ 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont..)

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35 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) protocol (cont,d…) Algorithm : Sender-site algorithm for Stop-and-Wait ARQ ( continued)

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36 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) protocol ( cont,d …) Algorithm : Receiver-site algorithm for Stop-and-Wait ARQ Protocol 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont…)

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37 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) protocol ( cont,d …) Example 1. Figure 1 shows an example of Stop-and-Wait ARQ . Event : Frame 0 is sent and acknowledged. Frame 1 is lost and resent after the time-out. The resent frame 1 is acknowledged and the timer stops. Frame 0 is sent and acknowledged, but the acknowledgment is lost. The sender has no idea if the frame or the acknowledgment is lost. so after the time-out, it resends frame0, which is acknowledged. 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont…)

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38 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) protocol ( cont,d …) Figure : Flow diagram for Example 1 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont…)

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39 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) protocol ( cont,d …) Efficiency of Stop-and-Wait ARQ Example 1 Assume that, in a Stop-and-Wait ARQ system, the bandwidth of the line is 1 Mbps, and 1 bit takes 20 ms to make a round trip. What is the bandwidth-delay product? If the system data frames are 1000 bits in length, what is the utilization percentage of the link? Solution The bandwidth-delay product (capacity) is= B.W * Delay per bit Analysis: The system can send 20,000 bits during the time it takes for the data to go from the sender to the receiver and then back again. However, the system sends only 1000 bits. Then link utilization = data size/ bandwidth-delay product (channel capacity) = 1000/20,000, or 5 percent. Note: For this reason, for a link with a high bandwidth or long delay, the use of Stop-and-Wait ARQ wastes the capacity of the link. 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont…)

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40 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1.3 Efficiency of Stop-and-Wait ARQ (cont’d…) Example 2 What is the utilization percentage of the link in Example 1 if we have a protocol that can send up to 15 frames before stopping and worrying about the acknowledgments? Solution The bandwidth-delay product is still 20,000 bits. The system can send up to 15 frames or 15,000(1000 bits/frame) bits during a round trip. Percentage of utilization is 15,000/20,000, or 75 percent . Of course, if there are damaged frames, the utilization percentage is much less because frames have to be resent. Remedy for increasing the efficiency is Pipelining Pipelining : several frames can be sent before we receive news about the previous frames. Pipelining improves the efficiency of the transmission if the number of bits in transition is large with respect to the bandwidth-delay product 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont…)

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41 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 1.3 Efficiency of Stop-and-Wait ARQ (cont’d…) 1.Stop-and-Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ) protocol(cont…) Advantages of stop and wait ARQ It can be used for noisy channels It has both error and flow control mechanism It has timer implementation Disadvantages of stop and wait ARQ Efficiency is very less. Only 1 frame is sent at a time Timer should be set for each individual frame No pipelining sender window size is 1( disadvantage over Go back N ARQ) receiver window size is 1( disadvantage over selective repeat ARQ)

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42 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Improve Stop-and-Wait by not waiting. To improve the efficiency of transmission multiple frames must be in transition while waiting for acknowledgment. Keep channel busy by continuing to send frames. Several frames are send before receiving acknowledgments. keep a copy of these frames until the acknowledgments arrive. Use m-bit sequence numbering. Sequence numbers are modulo 2 m ,where m is the size of the sequence number field in bits. For example, if m is 4, the only sequence numbers are 0 through 15 inclusive. However, we can repeat the sequence. So the sequence numbers are 0, 1,2,3,4,5,6, 7,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,0, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, 11, … 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)***

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43 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Concept Introduce a window of size n Can inject n packets into net before hearing an ACK Sliding window Sliding window is an abstract concept that defines the range of sequence numbers that is the concern of the sender and receiver. The sender and receiver need to deal with only pa rt of the possible sequence numbers. Label each packet with a sequence number A window is a collection of adjacent sequence numbers The range which is the concern of the sender is called the send sliding window The range that is the concern of the receiver is called the receive sliding window. 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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44 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Figure 3: Send window for Go-Back-N ARQ Cont’d……

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45 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 The send window is an imaginary box covering the sequence numbers of the data frames which can be in transit. The window at any time divides the possible sequence numbers into four regions . First Region: It defines the sequence numbers belonging to frames that are already acknowledged Second Region: It defines the range of sequence numbers belonging to the frames that are sent and have an unknown status. call these “ outstanding frames .” Third Region: It defines the range of sequence numbers for frames that can be sent; but not yet been received from the network layer. Fourth Region : It defines sequence numbers that cannot be used until the window slides The send window is an abstract concept defining an imaginary box of size 2 m − 1 with three variables: Sf , Sn , and Ssize . Cont’d……

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46 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) The send window can slide one or more slots when a valid acknowledgment arrives Figure 4 : Receive window for Go-Back-N ARQ The receive window is an abstract concept defining an imaginary box of size 1 with one single variable Rn . The window slides when a correct frame has arrived; sliding occurs one slot at a time Cont’d…..

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47 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Timers Although there can be a timer for each frame that is sent, in this protocol use only one. The reason is that the timer for the first outstanding frame always expires first; send all outstanding frames when this timer expires. Acknowledgment The receiver sends a positive acknowledgment if a frame has arrived safe and sound and in order. If a frame is damaged or is received out of order, the receiver is silent and will discard all subsequent frames until it receives the one it is expecting. The silence of the receiver causes the timer of the unacknowledged frame at the sender site to expire. This, in turn, causes the sender to go back and resend all frames, beginning with the one with the expired timer. The receiver does not have to acknowledge each frame received. It can send one cumulative acknowledgment for several frames. Cont’d….)

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48 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Resending a Frame When the timer expires, the sender resends all outstanding frames. For example, suppose the sender has already sent frame 6, but the timer for frame 3 expires. This means that frame 3 has not been acknowledged; the sender goes back and sends frames 3, 4,5, and 6 again. That is why the protocol is called Go-Back-N ARQ. 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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49 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Figure 5 : Design of Go-Back-N ARQ 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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50 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Send Window Size In Go-Back-N ARQ, the size of the send window must be less than 2 m ; the size of the receiver window is always 1. (Assume if all ACK lost.) Figure 6 Window size for Go-Back-N ARQ

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51 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Algorithms ( Algorithm.7 Go-Back-N sender algorithm) (continued) 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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52 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Algorithms ( Algorithm.7 Go-Back-N sender algorithm) (continued) 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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53 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Algorithms : Go-Back-N receiver algorithm 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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54 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Example 1 Figure 1 shows an example of Go-Back-N. This is an example of a case where the forward channel is reliable, but the reverse is not. No data frames are lost, but some ACKs are delayed and one is lost. The example also shows how cumulative acknowledgments can help if acknowledgments are delayed or lost. After initialization, there are seven sender events. Request events are triggered by data from the network layer; arrival events are triggered by acknowledgments from the physical layer. There is no time-out event here because all outstanding frames are acknowledged before the timer expires. Note that although ACK 2 is lost, ACK 3 serves as both ACK 2 and ACK 3. Cont’d....

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55 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Example 1 ( Figure 1 Flow diagram for Example 1) Cont’d…..

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56 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Example 2 Figure 5 shows what happens when a frame is lost. Frames 0, 1, 2, and 3 are sent. However, frame 1 is lost. The receiver receives frames 2 and 3, but they are discarded because they are received out of order. The sender receives no acknowledgment about frames 1, 2, or 3. Its timer finally expires. The sender sends all outstanding frames (1, 2, and 3) because it does not know what is wrong. Note that the resending of frames 1, 2, and 3 is the response to one single event. When the sender is responding to this event, it cannot accept the triggering of other events. This means that when ACK 2 arrives, the sender is still busy with sending frame 3. The physical layer must wait until this event is completed and the data link layer goes back to its sleeping state. We have shown a vertical line to indicate the delay. It is the same story with ACK 3; but when ACK 3 arrives, the sender is busy responding to ACK 2. It happens again when ACK 4 arrives. Note that before the second timer expires, all outstanding frames have been sent and the timer is stopped. 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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57 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) (cont’d….) Example 2 ( Figure 5 Flow diagram for Example 2) Stop-and-Wait ARQ is a special case of Go-Back-NARQ in which the size of the send window is 1. 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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58 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request Advantages: The sender can send many frames at a time. Timer can be set for a group of frames. Only one ACK can acknowledge one or more frames. Efficiency is more. Waiting time is pretty low. We can alter the size of the sender window Disadvantages: This protocol is very inefficient for a noisy link. Buffer requirement: Transmitter needs to store the last N packets Scheme is inefficient when round-trip delay large and data transmission rate is high Retransmission of many error-free packets following an erroneous packet When RTT is large: for a high number of NACK, a lot of BW is wasted If NACK is lost , a long time is wasted until re-transmission of all packets (until another NACK is sent). 3.2 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)(cont..)

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59 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Go-Back-N ARQ inefficient because multiple frames are resent when errors or losses occur For noisy links, there is another mechanism that does not resend N frames when just one frame is damaged; only the damaged frame is resent. This mechanism is called “ Selective Repeat ARQ .” Selective Repeat retransmits only an individual frame. Timeout causes individual corresponding frame to be resent. NAK causes retransmission of oldest un- Acked frame. It is more efficient for noisy links, but the processing at the receiver is more complex. 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request***

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60 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) Type Of Windows Figure 3.3.2 Receive window for Selective Repeat ARQ Figure 3.3.1 Send window for Selective Repeat ARQ

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61 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) Windows Description This Protocol also uses two windows: a send window and a receive window . However, there are differences between the windows in this protocol and the ones in Go-Back-N. First, the size of the send window is much smaller. Second, the receive window is the same size as the send window. The smaller window size means less efficiency in filling the pipe, but the fact that there are fewer duplicate frames can compensate for this. The protocol uses the same variables as we discussed for Go-Back-N. This Protocol allows as many frames as the size of the receive window to arrive out of order and be kept until there is a set of in-order frames to be delivered to the network layer. Those slots inside the window that are colored define frames that have arrived out of order and are waiting for their neighbors to arrive before delivery to the network layer.

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62 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Figure 3.3.3 Design of Selective Repeat ARQ 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…)

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63 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Figure 3.3.4 Selective Repeat ARQ, window size 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) window size In Selective Repeat ARQ, the size of the sender and receiver window must be at most one half of 2 m

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64 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) Algorithms: Sender-site Selective Repeat algorithm continued)

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65 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) Algorithms: Sender-site Selective Repeat algorithm ( continued) continued)

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66 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) Algorithms: Sender-site Selective Repeat algorithm ( continued)

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67 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) Algorithm : Receiver-site Selective Repeat algorithm (continued

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68 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 3.3 Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont…) Algorithm : Receiver-site Selective Repeat algorithm (continued)

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69 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Example 1: Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request In this example frame 1 is lost. It show how Selective Repeat behaves in this case. Figure 3.4.1shows the situation. One main difference is the number of timers . Here, each frame sent or resent needs a timer, which means that the timers need to be numbered (0, 1, 2, and 3). The timer for frame 0 starts at the first request, but stops when the ACK for this frame arrives. The timer for frame 1 starts at the second request, restarts when a NAK arrives, and finally stops when the last ACK arrives. The other two timers start when the corresponding frames are sent and stop at the last arrival event. At the receiver site we need to distinguish between the acceptance of a frame and its delivery to the network layer. At the second arrival, frame 2 arrives and is stored and marked, but it cannot be delivered because frame 1 is missing. At the next arrival, frame 3 arrives and is marked and stored, but still none of the frames can be delivered. Only at the last arrival, when finally a copy of frame 1 arrives, can frames 1, 2, and 3 be delivered to the network layer.

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70 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Example for Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request (cont’d….) There are two conditions for the delivery of frames to the network layer: First, a set of consecutive frames must have arrived. Second, the set starts from the beginning of the window. Another important point is that a NAK is sent after the second arrival, but not after the third, although both situations look the same. The reason is that the protocol does not want to crowd the network with unnecessary NAKs and unnecessary resent frames. The second NAK would still be NAK1 to inform the sender to resend frame 1 again; this has already been done. The first NAK sent is remembered (using the nakSent variable) and is not sent again until the frame slides. A NAK is sent once for each window position and defines the first slot in the window.The next point is about the ACKs. Notice that only two ACKs are sent here. The first one acknowledges only the first frame; the second one acknowledges three frames. In Selective Repeat, ACKs are sent when data are delivered to the network layer. If the data belonging to n frames are delivered in one shot, only one ACK is sent for all of them

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71 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Figure 5 Flow diagram for Example 1

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72 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 5.Piggybacking The three protocols discussed in the previous section are all unidirectional: data frames flow in only one direction although control information such as ACK and NAK frames can travel in the other direction. In real life, data frames are normally flowing in both directions: from node A to node B and from node B to node A. This means that the control information also needs to flow in both directions. A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. When a frame is carrying data from A to B, it can also carry control information about arrived (or lost) frames from B; when a frame is carrying data from B to A, it can also carry control information about the arrived (or lost) frames from A. The design for a Go-Back-N ARQ using piggybacking shown in Figure 5.1 In this each node now has two windows: one send window and one receive window. Both also need to use a timer.

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73 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 5.Piggybacking (cont..) Both are involved in three types of events: request, arrival, and time-out. However, the arrival event here is complicated; when a frame arrives, the site needs to handle control information as well as the frame itself. Both of these concerns must be taken care of in one event, the arrival event. The request event uses only the send window at each site; the arrival event needs to use both windows. An important point about piggybacking is that both sites must use the same algorithm. This algorithm is complicated because it needs to combine two arrival events into one.

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74 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Figure 5.1 : Design of piggybacking in Go-Back-N ARQ

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75 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 COMPARISON CHART PROTOCOL:- GO-BACK-N STOP AND WAIT SELECTIVE REPEAT Bandwidth utilization Medium Low High Maximum sender Size Window 2^m-1 N.A 2^(m-1) Maximum receiver Size Window 1 N.A 2^(m-1) Pipelining Implemented Not Implemented Implemented Out of order Frames Discarded Discarded Accepted Cumulative ACK Applicable N.A Applicable NAK N.A N.A Applicable

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76 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 6 . HDLC ( H igh -L evel D ata L ink C ontrol ) **** INTRODUCTION : Old and still heavily used protocol. It is a classical bit-oriented protocol for communication over point-to-point and multipoint links. It implements the ARQ mechanisms. This protocol based on some principles. All are bit oriented. All uses bit stuffing for data transferency. HDLC is Mother of many LAN and WAN DLC protocols.

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77 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Configurations and Transfer Modes Of HDLC HDLC provides two common transfer modes that can be used in different configurations: - Normal response mode (NRM) - Asynchronous balanced mode (ABM). Normal response mode (NRM) Used with unbalanced configuration Unbalanced: one primary station, one or more secondary stations Primary initiates data transfer; secondary can only reply The NRM is used for both point-to-point and multiple-point links Primary station : sends data, controls the link with commands Secondary station : receives data, responds to control messages Combined station : can issue both commands and responses Cont’d…..

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78 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Normal response mode (NRM) - Figure : Normal response mode 6 . HDLC ( H igh -L evel D ata L ink C ontrol ) (cont..)

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79 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Asynchronous balanced mode (ABM): Used with balanced configurations. Balanced: two combined stations. Either side may send data at any time. Cont’d……

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80 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 HDLC Frames **** To provide the flexibility necessary to support all the options possible in the modes and configurations, HDLC defines three types of frames: (1) Information frames (I-frames) (2) Supervisory frames (S-frames) (3) Unnumbered frames (V-frames). Each type of frame serves as an envelope for the transmission of a different type of message. I-frames are used to transport user data and control information relating to user data (piggybacking). S-frames are used only to transport control information. V-frames are reserved for system management. Information carried by V-frames is intended for managing the link itself.

HDLC overall frame format :

HDLC overall frame format 81 data CRC Address Control 1 variable 2 or 4 variable 1 or 2 octets 01111110 FS frame separator (FS): bit stuffing used for all fields between separators ITU-T versions of the CRC are used Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Cont’d…

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82 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 HDLC Frames Description *** Each frame in HDLC may contain up to six fields, as shown in Figure below a beginning Flag Field. Address Field. Control Field. Information Field. Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field. Ending Flag Field . In multiple-frame transmissions, the ending flag of one frame can serve as the beginning flag of the next frame.

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83 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 HDLC Fields Description (cont..) Flag field : The flag field of an HDLC frame is an 8-bit sequence with the bit pattern 01111110 that identifies both the beginning and the end of a frame and serves as a synchronization pattern for the receiver. fig: HDLC Flag Field (Figure for reference only)

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84 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 HDLC Fields Description (continue) 2.Address field : The second field of an HDLC frame contains the address of the secondary station. If a primary station created the frame, it contains a to address. If a secondary creates the frame, it contains a from address. An address field can be 1 byte or several bytes long, depending on the needs of the network. One byte can identify up to 128 stations. Larger networks require multiple-byte address fields. If the address field is only 1 byte, the last bit is always a 1. If the address is more than 1 byte, all bytes but the last one will end with 0; only the last will end with 1. Ending each intermediate byte with 0 indicates to the receiver that there are more address bytes to come.

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85 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Contd’d ….. 2.Address field…. (Fig for reference only)

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86 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Cont’d….. 2.Address field ……. (for reference only) address F bits 1 7 F bit : - if 1, this is the final octet of the address - if 0, another address octet follows If the link is strictly point-to-point, the value of the field will be 10000000, as the address is not relevant An address of 11111111 represents “all”

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87 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Continue……. 3.Control field The control field is a 1- or 2-byte segment of the frame used for flow and error control. The interpretation of bits in this field depends on the frame type. 4. Information field The information field contains the user's data from the network layer or management information. Its length can vary from one network to another. 5. FCS field The frame check sequence (FCS) is the HDLC error detection field. It can contain either a 2- or 4-byte ITU-T CRC.

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88 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Cont’d…. Control Field for different frame types The control field determines the type of frame and defines its functionality. The format is specific for the type of frame, as shown in Figure below Figure : Control field format for the different frame types

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89 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Cont’d…. Control Field for different frame types Fig for reference only)

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90 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Contd …. 1. Control Field for I-Frames I-frames are designed to carry user data from the network layer. They can include flow and error control information (piggybacking). The subfields in the control field are used to define following functions. The first bit defines the type. First bit of the control field = 0 N(S) Sequence Number Of The Sent Frame 3 Bits Used. Sequence number between 0 and 7. Extension format, control field is 2 bytes N(R) Receive Sequence Number The last 3 bits used It correspond to the acknowledgment number when piggybacking is used.

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91 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Contd …. 1. Control Field for I-Frames (cont..) The P/F bit The single bit between N(S) and N(R) is called the P/F bit. Poll/Final is a single bit with two names. It is called Poll when set by the primary station to obtain a response from a secondary station Final when set by the secondary station to indicate a response or the end of transmission. In all other cases, the bit is clear.

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92 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 2. Control Field for S-Frames Supervisory frames are used for flow and error control whenever piggybacking is either impossible or inappropriate (e.g., when the station either has no data of its own to send or needs to send a command or response other than an acknowledgment). S-frames do not have information fields. If the first 2 bits of the control field is 10, this means the frame is an S-frame. The last 3 bits, called N(R), corresponds to the acknowledgment number (ACK) or negative acknowledgment number (NAK) depending on the type of S-frame. . Cont’d…

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93 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 HDLC Frame format The 2 bits called code is used to define the type of S-frame itself. With 2 bits, we can have four types of S-frames, as described below: 1.Receive ready (RR). If the value of the code subfield is 00, it is an RR S-frame. This kind of frame acknowledges the receipt of a safe and sound frame or group of frames. In this case, the value N(R) field defines the acknowledgment number . 2. Control Field for S-Frames (cont…) Fig: reference only

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94 2. Control Field for S-Frames (cont…) Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 2. Receive not ready (RNR). If the value of the code subfield is 10, it is an RNR S-frame. This kind of frame is an RR frame with additional functions. It acknowledges the receipt of a frame or group of frames, and it announces that the receiver is busy and cannot receive more frames. It acts as a kind of congestion control mechanism by asking the sender to slow down. The value of N(R) is the acknowledgment number. 3. Reject (REJ). If the value of the code subfield is 01, it is a REJ S-frame. This is a NAK frame, but not like the one used for Selective Repeat ARQ. It is a NAK that can be used in Go-Back-N ARQ to improve the efficiency of the process by informing the sender, before the sender time expires, that the last frame is lost or damaged. The value of NCR) is the negative Acknowledgment number.

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95 2. Control Field for S-Frames (cont…) Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 4.Selective reject (SREJ). If the value of the code subfield is 11, it is an SREJ S-frame. This is a NAK frame used in Selective Repeat ARQ. Note that the HDLC Protocol uses the term selective reject instead of selective repeat. The value of N(R) is the negative acknowledgment number .

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96 HDLC Format Use of P/F Field (For reference only) Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327

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97 Use of P/F Field( For reference only) Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 HDLC Format

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98 Use of P/F Field (for reference only) Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 HDLC Format

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99 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Use of P/F Field( For reference only) HDLC Format

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100 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Use of P/F Field( For reference only) HDLC Format

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101 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . 3.Control Field for V-Frames Unnumbered frames are used to exchange session management and control information between connected devices. Unlike S-frames, U-frames contain an information field, but one used for system management information, not user data. As with S-frames, however, much of the information carried by U-frames is contained in codes included in the control field. U-frame codes are divided into two sections: a 2-bit prefix before the P/F bit and a 3-bit suffix after the P/F bit. Together, these two segments (5 bits) can be used to create up to 32 different types of U-frames. Some of the more common types are shown in Table next

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102 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Table 6 U-frame control command and response

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103 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Example 11.9 Figure shown below explain how U-frames can be used for connection establishment and connection release. Node A asks for a connection with a set asynchronous balanced mode (SABM) frame; node B gives a positive response with an unnumbered acknowledgment (UA) frame. After these two exchanges, data can be transferred between the two nodes (not shown in the figure). After data transfer, node A sends a DISC (disconnect) frame to release the connection; it is confirmed by node B responding with a UA (unnumbered acknowledgment). Example of connection and disconnection

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104 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Example 11.10 Figure 11.30 shows an exchange using piggybacking. Node A begins the exchange of information with an I-frame numbered 0 followed by another I-frame numbered 1. Node B piggybacks its acknowledgment of both frames onto an I-frame of its own. Node B’s first I-frame is also numbered 0 [N(S) field] and contains a 2 in its N(R) field, acknowledging the receipt of A’s frames 1 and 0 and indicating that it expects frame 2 to arrive next. Node B transmits its second and third I-frames (numbered 1 and 2) before accepting further frames from node A. Its N(R) information, therefore, has not changed: B frames 1 and 2 indicate that node B is still expecting A’s frame 2 to arrive next. Node A has sent all its data. Therefore, it cannot piggyback an acknowledgment onto an I-frame and sends an S-frame instead. The RR code indicates that A is still ready to receive. The number 3 in the N(R) field tells B that frames 0, 1, and 2 have all been accepted and that A is now expecting frame number 3.

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105 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Figure 11.30 Example of piggybacking without error

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106 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Example 11.11 Figure 11.31 shows an exchange in which a frame is lost. Node B sends three data frames (0, 1, and 2), but frame 1 is lost. When node A receives frame 2, it discards it and sends a REJ frame for frame 1. Note that the protocol being used is Go-Back-N with the special use of an REJ frame as a NAK frame. The NAK frame does two things here: It confirms the receipt of frame 0 and declares that frame 1 and any following frames must be resent. Node B, after receiving the REJ frame, resends frames 1 and 2. Node A acknowledges the receipt by sending an RR frame (ACK) with acknowledgment number 3.

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107 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Figure 11.31 Example of piggybacking with error

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108 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Summary of Data Link Layer Data link control deals with the design and procedures for communication between two adjacent nodes: node-to-node communication. Framing in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages going from other sources to other destinations. Frames can be of fixed or variable size. In fixed-size framing, there is no need for defining the boundaries of frames; in variable-size framing, we need a delimiter(flag) to define the boundary of two frames. Variable-size framing uses two categories of protocols: byte-oriented (or character oriented) and bit- oriented. In a byte-oriented protocol, the data section of a frame is a sequence of bytes; in a bit- oriented protocol, the data section of a frame is a sequence of bits.

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109 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . Summary of Data Link Layer In byte-oriented (or character-oriented) protocols, we use byte stuffing; a special byte added to the data section of the frame when there is a character with the same pattern as the flag. In bit-oriented protocols, we use bit stuffing; an extra 0 is added to the data section of the frame when there is a sequence of bits with the same pattern as the flag. Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment. Error control refers to methods of error detection and correction . For the noiseless channel, we discussed two protocols: the Simplest Protocol and the Stop- and-Wait Protocol. The first protocol has neither flow nor error control; the second has n error control.

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110 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . SUMMARY of Data Link Layer (cont’d..) In the Simplest Protocol, the sender sends its frames one after another with no regards to the receiver. In the Stop-and-Wait Protocol, the sender sends one frame, stops until it receives confirmation from the receiver, and then sends the next frame. For the noisy channel, three protocols: Stop-and-Wait ARQ, G0 Back-N, and Selective Repeat ARQ. The Stop-and-Wait ARQ Protocol, adds a simple error control mechanism to the Stop-and- Wait Protocol. In the Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol, we can send several frames before receiving acks , improving the efficiency of transmission. In the Selective Repeat ARQ protocol we avoid unnecessary transmission by sending only frames that are corrupted.

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111 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . SUMMARY of Data Link Layer (cont’d…) - Both Go-Back-N and Selective-Repeat Protocols use a sliding window. In 00 Back- N ARQ, if m is the number of bits for the sequence number, then the size of the send window must be less than 2 m ; the size of the receiver window is always 1. In Selective Repeat ARQ, the size of the sender and receiver window must be at most one-half of 2 m . - A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. When a frame is carrying data from A to B, it can also carry control information about frames from B; when a frame is carrying data from B to A, it can also carry control information about frames from A. - High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented protocol for communication over point-to-point and multipoint links. However, the most common protocols for point-to-point access is the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is a byte-oriented protocol.

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112 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 . THE END OF UNIT- 2 Data Link Layer

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113 Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 Acknowledgement : My Sincere Thanks To The Author Prof.BEHROUZ A FOROUZAN. Because The Above Presentation Materials Are Heavily Borrowed From His Textbook “Data Communication & Networking” 4 th Edition, publisher Tata McGraw Hill By Prof.Suresha V

Any questions?:

114 Any questions? Thank you Suresha V. Professor, Dept. of E&C, KVG College Of Engineering. Sullia, D.K - 574 327 reach me at : [email protected] Mercedes Horse

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